Matsuyama is the capital city of Ehime Prefecture on the island of Shikoku in Japan and Shikoku's largest city, with a population of 516,459 as of December 1, 2014. It is located on the northeastern portion of the Dōgo Plain, its name means "pine mountain". The city was founded on December 15, 1889; the city is known for its hot springs, among the oldest in Japan, is home to the Dōgo Onsen Honkan, a Meiji Period wooden public bathhouse dating from 1894. A second favorite tourist spot is Matsuyama Castle. Eight of the eighty-eight temples in the Shikoku Pilgrimage are in Matsuyama. Matsuyama was in medieval times part of the Iyo-Matsuyama Domain, a fiefdom of Iyo Province consisting of a castle town, supporting Matsuyama Castle. There was a nearby village at Dōgo Onsen to the east and a port somewhat farther to the west at Mitsuhama providing a link to the Japanese mainland and Kyūshū. Dōgo Onsen was famous in the Asuka period, as Shōtoku Taishi visited the spa in the year 596, it is mentioned in passing in The Tale of Genji.
The site of the former Yuzuki Castle is nearby. Famous Buddhist temples in Matsuyama include Ishite-ji, Taisan-ji, Jōdo-ji, all dating back to the 8th century, although the oldest surviving buildings are from the early 14th century, as well as Hōgon-ji, Taihō-ji and Enmyō-ji. Famous shrines of the city include Isaniwa Jinja, built in 1667; the haiku poet Masaoka Shiki lived in Matsuyama. His house, now known as the Shiki-do, a museum, the Shiki Memorial Museum, are popular attractions, the centerpieces of the city's claim as a center of the international haiku movement. Other famous haiku poets associated with Matsuyama include Kurita Chodō, whose Kōshin-an was visited by Kobayashi Issa, Shiki's followers, Takahama Kyoshi and Kawahigashi Hekigoto, Taneda Santōka. Santoka's house, known as Isso-an, is a tourist attraction and is periodically open to the public; the Matsuyama Declaration of 1999 proposed the formation of International Haiku Research Center, the first Masaoka Shiki International Haiku Awards were given in 2000.
Recipients have included Cor van den Heuvel and Gary Snyder. The famed novel Botchan by Natsume Sōseki is set in Matsuyama; as a result, there are numerous sites and locales named after the main character, including Botchan Stadium, the Botchan Ressha, Botchan dango. Matsuyama figures in several works by Shiba Ryōtarō, notably his popular novel, Saka no Ue no Kumo. In anticipation of the upcoming NHK Taiga drama adaptation of Saka no Ue no Kumo, a Saka no Ue no Kumo Museum was established in 2007. Matsuyama was the setting of a 1907 novel about the Russo-Japanese War, As the Hague Ordains, by American writer Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore. Matsuyama figures in the novel because the city housed a camp for Russian prisoners during the war. A Russian cemetery commemorates this important episode in Matsuyama history; the Russo-Japanese War is remembered in Matsuyama because of the contributions of two Japanese military leaders, the Akiyama brothers, Akiyama Saneyuki and Akiyama Yoshifuru, who were born in the city.
In the twentieth century, various mergers joined the castle town with neighboring Dōgo, other townships, aided by urban sprawl, creating a seamless modern city that now ranks as the largest in Shikoku. As of the most recent merger, on January 1, 2005, absorbing the city of Hōjō, town of Nakajima, the city had an estimated population of 512,982 and a population density of 1,196 persons per km²; the total area is 428.86 km². Matsuyama is home to several universities including Ehime University and several private colleges, including Matsuyama University and Matsuyama Shinonome College. Matsuyama has several important museums; the Museum of Art, Ehime is the city's main art museum, its collections emphasizing the works of regional artists. The Shiki Memorial Museum is a museum that focuses on the life and work of Masaoka Shiki, with special attention to his contribution to haiku; the Saka no Ue no Kumo Museum features exhibits connected with the famous novel and television series. There is a Juzo Itami museum dedicated to the famous film director.
Famous products of Matsuyama include Botchan dango. In the 17th century, the lord of Matsuyama castle Sadayuki Matsudaira introduced the process of tart-making brought to Japan by the Portuguese, to Matsuyama. At first it was a Castella with jam. According to legend Sadayuki made some changes, such as adding red bean paste. Now there are many makers of tarts in Matsuyama. In addition to tarts, Botchan dango is a famous product of Matsuyama. Botchan dango was named after the famous novel Botchan by Natsume Sōseki, it consists of three bean paste beads of three flavors, matcha and red bean paste. Within the paste is contained mochi. Matsuyama is the site of a number of festivals, including the Dogo Festival, held in the spring, the Matsuyama Festival, held in August, the Fall Festival, held in October, which features battling mikoshi; the city is represented in the J. League of football with its local club, Ehime FC; the Ehime Mandarin Pirates represent the city in the baseball Shikoku Island League Plus.
Matsuyama has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, is heavier from April to July as well as in September. Matsuyama has a well-developed transport network, it is c
Matsumoto Castle is one of Japan's premier historic castles, along with Himeji Castle and Kumamoto Castle. The building is known as the "Crow Castle" due to its black exterior, it was the seat of the Matsumoto domain. It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture and is within easy reach of Tokyo by road or rail; the keep, completed in the late sixteenth century, maintains its original wooden interiors and external stonework. It is listed as a National Treasure of Japan. Matsumoto Castle is a flatland castle because it is not built on a hilltop or amid rivers, but on a plain, its complete defences would have included an extensive system of inter-connecting walls and gatehouses. The castle's origins go back to the Sengoku period. At that time Shimadachi Sadanaga of the Ogasawara clan built a fort on this site in 1504, called Fukashi Castle. In 1550 it came under the rule of the Takeda clan and Tokugawa Ieyasu; when Toyotomi Hideyoshi transferred Ieyasu to the Kantō region, he placed Ishikawa Kazumasa in charge of Matsumoto.
Kazumasa and his son Yasunaga built the tower and other parts of the castle, including the three towers: the keep and the small tower in the northwest, both begun in 1590, the Watari Tower. They were instrumental in laying out the castle town and its infrastructure, it is believed much of the castle was completed by 1593–94. During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established the Matsumoto Domain, of which the Matsudaira and others were the daimyōs. For the next 280 years until the abolition of the feudal system in the Meiji Restoration, the castle was ruled by the 23 lords of Matsumoto representing six different daimyō families. In this period the stronghold was known as Crow Castle because its black walls and roofs looked like spreading wings. In 1872, following the Meiji Restoration, the site, along with many former daimyōs' castles, was sold at auction for redevelopment; when news broke that the keep was going to be demolished, however, an influential figure from Matsumoto, Ichikawa Ryōzō, along with residents from Matsumoto, started a campaign to save the building.
Their efforts were rewarded. In the late Meiji period the keep started to lean to one side. An old picture shows how the keep looked then, it was because of neglect coupled with a structural defect, but many people believed the tower leaned due to the curse of Tada Kasuke. He had been executed for attempting to appeal unfair tax laws. A local high school principal, Kobayashi Unari, decided to renovate the castle and appealed for funds; the castle underwent "the great Meiji renovation" between 1903-1913. It underwent another renovation "the great Shōwa renovation" during the period 1950-1955. In 1952 the keep, Inui-ko-tenshu, Watari-yagura, Tatsumi-tsuke-yagura, Tsukimi-yagura were designated as national treasures. In 1990, the Kuromon-Ninomon and sodebei were reconstructed; the square drum gate was reconstructed in 2002. Matsumoto Castle was damaged in a 5.4 magnitude earthquake on June 30, 2011. The quake caused ten cracks in the inner wall of the main tower. There is a plan for restoring the soto-bori, reclaimed for a residential zone.
The second floor of the main keep features a gun museum, Teppo Gura, with a collection of guns and other weapons. List of National Treasures of Japan Tourism in Japan Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai:Power & Beauty. USA: Kodansha. ISBN 978-1568365121. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. Pp. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Nakagawa, Haruo. Zusetsu Kokuhō Matsumoto-Jō. Issōsha Publishing Media related to Matsumoto Castle at Wikimedia Commons Matsumoto Castle Welcome Guide Matsumoto Castle English Guide Nagano Official Tourism Website - Matsumoto Castle - Interactive 3-D Matsumoto Castle by Professor Jon Amakawa of the Art Institute of Pittsburgh. Photography of Matsumoto Castle from Heso magazine
Bitchū Matsuyama Castle
Bitchū Matsuyama Castle known as Takahashi Castle, is a castle located in Takahashi, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. It is not to be confused with Matsuyama Castle in Ehime Prefecture. Along with being one of only twelve remaining original castles in the country, Bitchū Matsuyama Castle is notable as the castle with the highest elevation above sea level in Japan at 430 meters; the castle was built on a nearby mountain in 1240 AD by Akiba Shigenobu. Takahashi Muneyasu constructed a castle on the modern site on Mount Gagyū in 1331, though the design of this castle differed from the one that stands on the site now; when Mimura Motochika became the feudal lord of the region, Matsuyama castle was enlarged again and the site extended to cover the entire mountain. With assistance from the Mōri clan, Mimura Motochika conquered the whole Bitchu area and defended it against the Amako clan. Motochika entered into secret communications with the Oda, having come to the attention of the Mōri, they forced him from the castle and died in the escape.
In 1600, the castle became part of the Bitchū-Matsuyama Domain where Kobori Masatsugu and his son Masakazu came to the area as officers of the Tokugawa shogunate and repaired the castle as part of the efforts to turn Matsuyama into a castle town. In 1617, Ikeda Nagayoshi was transferred here as the new lord of Bitchū-Matsuyama Domain and was followed by Ikeda Nagatsune, who ruled until 1641; the next feudal lord, Mizunoya Katsutaka, rebuilt the donjon and other gates in addition to building Onegoya house on the southern side of Mount Gagyu where public affairs were administered. The Mizunoya clan ruled here until 1695 where it was transferred again to the Andō clan and the Ishikawa clan in 1711; the tenshu was unusual in that it was only two stories tall, though a larger tenshu along the lines of Himeji Castle's would have been unnecessary as Bitchu Matsuyama Castle was located on a mountain, thus allowing a large field of vision. The lord's palace was constructed at the base of the mountain.
Itakura Katsuyoshi became lord in 1744, eight descendants of his ruled the castle until the Meiji Restoration. After the Edo period had ended, the castle was destroyed, but the rest of it was abandoned and fell into disrepair. In 1929, a citizens' group was established and restoration work was begun on the castle. After this work was completed, the Takahashi City authorities repaired the keep's turret, mud walls. Three parts were saved and still stand today: a short section of wall, the Nijū yagura, the tenshu. In recent years, parts of the castle have been reconstructed to augment the parts that remain, all of which have been named Important Cultural Properties in 1950 by the National Government. In 1957 the government began restoring the castle to its original state and was completed by 1960, it is a popular place to visit because it is the only yamashiro, or mountain castle, to have an original tenshu. The castle is on a mountain and the road up to the summit does not go all the way, so to get to the castle, one must hike up a mountain path.
In December of 2018, a local cat named. Sanjuro, named after local samurai Tani Sanjuro belonged to Megumi Nanba but had run away on July 14, 2018 after torrential rains brought floods and mudslides in the area; the cat was found living in the castle by one of the workers, who started feeding it. The presence of Sanjuro, first made a provisional mascot before being named as "lord", has helped increase the number of visitors to the castle. Mimura Iechika Mimura Motochika Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai:Power & Beauty. USA: Kodansha. ISBN 978-1568365121. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080312053739/http://library.thinkquest.org/C001119/tour/parse.php3?src=bitchu https://web.archive.org/web/20110127042515/http://www.jcastle.info/castle/profile/23-Bitchu-Matsuyama-Castle Samurai-Archives: Mimura Motochika
The Matsuyamajō Ropeway is a Japanese aerial lift line in Matsuyama, operated by the city government. Opened in 1955, the line goes to Matsuyama Castle on Mount Katsuyama; the former cabins were famous for being decorated like Edo period litter vehicles. There is a chairlift line along the tramway. Cable length: 327 m Vertical interval: 62 m List of aerial lifts in Japan
Matsushiro Castle is a Japanese castle located in former Matsushiro town, now part of the city of Nagano, northern Nagano Prefecture, Japan. At the end of the Edo period, Matsushiro Castle was home to the Sanada clan, daimyō of Matsushiro Domain; the site is a registered National Historic Site by the Japanese government. Matsushiro Castle is located in the flatlands of northern Nagano, in between the main stream of the Chikuma River and an old bed of the river, which serves as a broad outer moat on the north side of the castle. Due to its location, the castle (and surrounding castle town was subjected to occasional flooding; the design of the castle is concentric, with the Central Bailey protected by walls, containing the donjon in its northwest corner, replaced by a yagura. The Central Bailey was surrounded by a moat, in turn surrounded by the Second Bailey, which had earthen ramparts except for areas around its gates; the Second Bailey had a wide dry moat on its south and east, the Third Bailey.
The palace structures were located adjacent to the main fortifications in the Hana-no-Maru enclosure. The first castle on this site was built in 1560 by Yamamoto Kansuke, under the direction of Takeda Shingen and was called Kaizu Castle Kōsaka Danjo, Kōsaka Masanobu a Takeda retainer, was its first commander. Takeda Shingen used the castle for the ongoing conflict with Uesugi Kenshin for control of the northern part of Shinano Province; the site is close to the location of the Battle of Kawanakajima, where the Takeda and Uesugi forces clashed. After the fall of the Takeda clan, Oda Nobunaga took control. However, when he was assassinated in the Honnō-ji incident in 1582, Uesugi Kagekatsu recovered northern Shinano. Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the Uesugi were relocated to Aizu. Following Hideyoshi's death and the Battle of Sekigahara, the Tokugawa shogunate ordered Sanada Nobuyuki to relocate here in 1622 from his former domains at Ueda as the daimyō of Matsushiro Domain; the castle's name was changed from Kaizu Castle to Matsushiro Castle by Sanada Yukimichi, the third generation of Sanada daimyō in 1711.
The castle burned down in 1717, but was restored in 1718 through the donation of 10,000 ryō for its reconstruction by the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1742, the castle was damaged by a flood, reconstruction took until 1758; the palace structures were relocated to the Hana-no-Maru enclosure in 1770 and were rebuilt in 1804. The palace was soon rebuilt. A secondary palace outside the castle enclosure was completed in 1864. Following the establishment of the Meiji government and the abolition of the han system, most of the remaining structures of the castle were dismantled in 1871, what was left was burned down in an act of arson in 1873, leaving only the stone foundations. On the current site, several of the gates were authentically reconstructed in 2003 using traditional construction methods, with designs based on documents and photographs of the originals; the ramparts and moats have been repaired. The castle is a registered National Historic Site. Near the castle are a number of Edo period former samurai residences, the former han school and a museum dedicated to the Sanada clan.
Matsushiro Castle was listed as one of the 100 Fine Castles of Japan by the Japan Castle Foundation in 2006. The site can be most accessed by Alpico bus from in front of JR Nagano Station, Zenkoji Exit, bus stop #3. Get off at Matsushiro-eki and walk for 3 minutes. Takada, Toru: Matsushiro-jo in: Miura, Masayuki: Shiro to Jinya. Tokoku-hen. Gakken, 2006. ISBN 978-4-05-604378-5, S. 128th Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 4-7700-2954-3. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 1-84176-429-9. Matsushiro Castle Japan Visitor Information
Edo Castle known as Chiyoda Castle, is a flatland castle, built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is today part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace and is in Chiyoda, Tokyo known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here, it was the residence of the shōgun and location of the shogunate, functioned as the military capital during the Edo period of Japanese history. After the resignation of the shōgun and the Meiji Restoration, it became the Tokyo Imperial Palace; some moats and ramparts of the castle survive to this day. However, the grounds were more extensive during the Edo period, with Tokyo Station and the Marunouchi section of the city lying within the outermost moat, it encompassed Kitanomaru Park, the Nippon Budokan Hall and other landmarks of the surrounding area. The warrior Edo Shigetsugu built his residence in what is now the Honmaru and Ninomaru part of Edo Castle, around the end of the Heian or beginning of the Kamakura period; the Edo clan perished in the 15th century as a result of uprisings in the Kantō region, Ōta Dōkan, a retainer of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi family, built Edo Castle in 1457.
The castle came under the control of the Later Hōjō clan in 1524 after the Siege of Edo. The castle was vacated in 1590 due to the Siege of Odawara. Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo Castle his base after he was offered eight eastern provinces by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, he defeated Toyotomi Hideyori, son of Hideyoshi, at the Siege of Osaka in 1615, emerged as the political leader of Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of Sei-i Taishōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of Tokugawa's administration. Parts of the area were lying under water; the sea reached the present Nishinomaru area of Edo Castle, Hibiya was a beach. The landscape was changed for the construction of the castle. Most construction started in 1593 and was completed in 1636 under Ieyasu's grandson, Tokugawa Iemitsu. By this time, Edo had a population of 150,000; the existing Honmaru and Sannomaru areas were extended with the addition of the Nishinomaru, Nishinomaru-shita and Kitanomaru areas. The perimeter measured 16 km; the shōgun required the daimyōs to supply building materials or finances, a method shogunate used to keep the powers of the daimyōs in check.
Large granite stones were moved from afar, the size and number of the stones depended on the wealth of the daimyōs. The wealthier ones had to contribute more; those who did not supply stones were required to contribute labor for such tasks as digging the large moats and flattening hills. The earth, taken from the moats was used as landfill for sea-reclamation or to level the ground, thus the construction of Edo Castle laid the foundation for parts of the city where merchants were able to settle. At least 10,000 men were involved in the first phase of the construction and more than 300,000 in the middle phase; when construction ended, the castle had 38 gates. The ramparts were 20 meters high and the outer walls were 12 meters high. Moats forming concentric circles were dug for further protection; some moats reached as far as Ichigaya and Yotsuya, parts of the ramparts survive to this day. This area is bordered by either the Kanda River, allowing ships access. Various fires over the centuries damaged or destroyed parts of the castle and the majority of its buildings being made of timber.
On April 21, 1701, in the Great Pine Corridor of Edo Castle, Asano Takumi-no-kami drew his short sword and attempted to kill Kira Kōzuke-no-suke for insulting him. This triggered the events involving the forty-seven rōnin. After the capitulation of the shogunate in 1867, the inhabitants and shōgun had to vacate the premises; the castle compound was renamed Tokyo Castle in October, 1868, renamed Imperial Castle in 1869. In the year Meiji 2, on the 23rd day of the 10th month of the Japanese calendar the emperor moved to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. A fire consumed the old Edo Castle on the night of May 5, 1873; the area around the old donjon, which burned in the 1657 Meireki fire, became the site of the new Imperial Palace Castle, built in 1888. Some Tokugawa-period buildings which were still standing were destroyed to make space for new structures for the imperial government; the imperial palace building itself, was constructed in Nishinomaru Ward, not in the same location as the shōgun's palace in Honmaru Ward.
The site suffered substantial damage during World War II and in the destruction of Tokyo in 1945. Today the site is part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace; the government declared the area an historic site and has undertaken steps to restore and preserve the remaining structures of Edo Castle. The plan of Edo Castle was not only large but elaborate; the grounds citadels. The Honmaru was with the Ninomaru, Sannomaru extending to the east; the different wards were divided by moats and large stone walls, on which various keeps, defense houses and towers were built. To the east, beyond the Sannomaru was an outer moat, enclosing the Otomachi and Daimyō-Kōji districts. Ishigaki stone walls were constructed around the eastern side of the Nishinomaru; each ward could be reached via wooden bridges. The circumference is subject to debate, with estimates ranging from 6 to 10 miles. With the enforcement of the sankin-kōtai system in the 17th century, it became expedient for the daimyōs to set up residenc
Matsumae Castle is a castle located in Matsumae in Hokkaidō, is the northernmost castle in Japan. The only traditional style Edo period castle in Hokkaidō, it was the chief residence of the han of the Matsumae clan. First built in 1606 by Matsumae Yoshihiro under orders from the Tokugawa shogunate requiring his clan to defend the area, by extension the whole of Japan, from the Ainu'barbarians' to the north, it burned down in 1637 but was rebuilt in 1639, it once controlled all passage through Hokkaidō to the rest of Japan. The present castle complex, which dates from 1854, was constructed to deter attacks by foreign naval forces. Only the 30-metre-high tenshu and a gatehouse survived destruction following the Meiji Restoration, which began in 1868. However, the tenshu burned down in 1949 and a concrete replica was built in 1960. All of the castle site is today a public park. Goryōkaku – a star fort constructed in the Bakumatsu era Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co.