Lynne Perrie, was an English actress and television personality, best known as Mrs Casper in Ken Loach's 1969 film Kes, Mrs Petty in the television series Queenie's Castle, as Ivy Tilsley in Coronation Street. Perrie was the second of four children, her younger brother was actor Duggie Brown. Perrie attended Rotherham Girls High School after passing her 11-Plus. After leaving school, she trained as a dispenser at Boots, she abandoned her studies to concentrate on her singing career. By the age of 14, she had started singing in working men's clubs under the stage name of'Dizzy' with a local dance band for six shillings on a Saturday night. In 1956, Perrie entered show-business professionally as a singer and comedian, after performing at the Rotherham Trade Centre and receiving a further twenty-seven bookings, she decided to give up her factory work, go into cabaret full-time. Throughout the 1960s, Perrie was billed and referred to as'Little Miss Dynamite', due to her vibrant personality and performance.
In her capacity as a singer, she appeared throughout the British Isles working in variety and concerts, including eight at London's Royal Albert Hall. In 1964, she supported the Beatles for fifteen concerts, during a six-week tour at coastal resorts on Sundays. Other stars she shared the same bill as included the Rolling Stones, Sacha Distel, Rod Stewart and the Faces, Engelbert Humperdinck and Shirley Bassey; as her popularity in England grew, Perrie began performing in other countries. She toured South Africa seven times and visited Germany, Paris and the United States. In her book, Secrets of the Street, Perrie recalled how she had made headlines during her first tour of South Africa, she wrote, " a concert down the impressive Cango Caves. A recording of the concert was released over there. I made history as the first female to perform so far underground.". From 1963 to 1968, Perrie made several television appearances as a guest artist, notably on the popular ITV Stars and Garters variety show, with Kathy Kirby, The Good Old Days, the BBC's long-running light entertainment programme.
Despite concentrating on acting, Perrie still continued to perform her variety act in the clubs when she joined Coronation Street full-time. In her book, she revealed that she sang on the first night of Peter Stringfellow's Hippodrome'Gay Evening' in London, adding: "I always had a loyal gay following – and the lesbians loved me too!"By this time, she was often asked to work as a compere. Terry Dobson, a member of the pop band Black Lace, recalled a time in 1977 in his book: "Lynne Perrie was in and out of her dressing room, a change of costume between every act, not that much time, two songs, some six or so minutes and she was on the stage again, bring off the act introducing the next... brilliant, professional. As well as on the stage, Perrie continued to sing on television, notably on a UK charity telethon in 1990, where she performed an original song called "Ships that Pass in the Night". Perrie made her acting debut as Mrs. Casper in the 1969 film Kes. Although she had no formal acting training, she had a natural quality which she brought to the screen and her performance in the award-winning film received positive reviews from the critics.
As as 2011, one critic wrote: "Lynne Perrie is outstanding as Mrs Casper, infusing her steely exterior with real vulnerability and pathos". The success of Kes led to Perrie's television career, she appeared in early episodes of several popular television shows, including children's serials Follyfoot and The Intruder, long-running courtroom drama series Crown Court, sitcom The Cuckoo Waltz. Perrie's first regular television role was in the popular Yorkshire TV comedy series Queenie's Castle, written by Keith Waterhouse and Willis Hall; the sitcom starred Diana Dors, with Perrie in second female lead playing her arch-enemy Mrs Petty, the busy-bodying residents' association secretary with conservative values. Queenie's Castle was first broadcast on bonfire night in 1970 and ran for three series over two years, with the final episode being broadcast in September 1972. Eighteen episodes were made, with Perrie appearing in nine of them. Perrie's role in Kes led to her getting the part of Ivy Tilsley in the soap opera Coronation Street in 1971.
The show's casting director, Paul Bernard cast her without audition. She first appeared as a minor character, but the producers were sufficiently impressed with her performance to offer her a more substantial role, she became a recurring character from 1972, was promoted to the main cast when the character moved into Coronation Street with her family - husband Bert and son Brian. The character became infamous for her interfering and acid tongue, earning her the tabloid nickname "Poison Ivy". Perrie's notable storylines included the deaths of both Bert and Brian, conflicts with daughter-in-law Gail and her new husband Martin Platt, the breakdown of her second marriage to Don Brennan. In early 1996, Ivy Brennan was brought back to Coronation Street as a ghost. Several residents claimed to have seen the spirit of Ivy around various areas of the street; the storyline culminated with Ivy's widower, getting a priest to perform a fake exorcism. In 2006, another storyline with Ivy was created, in which David Platt discovered Ivy's diary and read sections that criticising and belittled his parents aloud
An acrobatic flip is a sequence of body movements in which a person leaps into the air and rotates one or more times while airborne. Acrobatic flips are performed in acro dance, free running, cheerleading, goal celebrations and various other activities; this is in contrast to freestyle BMX flips. Acrobatic flips can be started from a stationary, standing position and they are commonly executed following another rotational move, such as a roundoff or handspring, so as to take advantage of the angular momentum developed in the preceding move. In general, the hands do not touch the floor during execution of a flip and performers strive to land on the feet in an upright position. Many variations of flips exist, with usage depending on the particular type of activity. In gymnastics, for example, flips conform to a small number of specific, rigorously defined forms and movements. In activities such as free running and tricking, there are endless variations of flips, though many of these are variations of the fundamental gymnastics flips.
As a result, gymnastics nomenclature is applied to flips found in other disciplines. In many cases, flips are categorized according to the direction of body rotation. For example, the body rotates in the forward direction in a front flip and in the opposite direction in a back flip. Gymnastics flips are performed in both men's and women's gymnastics, on various apparatus including the balance beam and floor. In all cases, gymnastics flips require the hips to pass over the head. Four body forms are employed in gymnastics flips: Aerial – Unbent knees, with legs in a forward or side split and aligned on the rotational plane, resulting in a front aerial or side aerial, respectively. Tuck – Legs together, with knees bent and drawn to the chest and hands clutching the knees or otherwise held close to the body. By "tucking" together in this manner, the body is able to reach maximum angular velocity and thus minimize the time required for the body to complete its revolution; when initiated from a stationary, standing position, a tuck is classified as a "standing" tuck.
Layout – Body extended with legs together, unbent hips and knees, arms held against the sides. Compared to the back tuck, this flip requires both higher angular momentum and greater height above the floor in order to ensure sufficient time to complete the rotation before landing. A layout may include axial body rotation in addition to the fundamental rotation about the waist. Twists are further categorized by the number of axial rotations completed. For example, a layout with 180 degree twist is a half twist, 360 degrees for a full twist, multiples of 360 degrees for double full and triple full twists, so on. Pike – Bent hips, with knees straight and legs together. Many gymnastics flips are descriptively named, based on the direction of rotation and the body position, assumed during execution. For example, a front flip performed with a tucked body form is called a front tuck; when initiated from a stationary, standing position, a front tuck is called a standing front tuck. These modifications are applicable to many types of flips: Gainer.
A back flip that ends with the performer forward of the starting point due to forward momentum. Loser. A front flip. Switch. A flip, launched from and lands on the same leg. Pitch tuck. An assisted back tuck, executed by partners. One partner forms a "saddle" with his hands; the second partner steps onto the saddle and the first partner thrusts the saddle upward. The second partner, propelled upward with back rotation, executes a back tuck. Cowboy tuck. A tuck with knees and feet separated. X-in or X-out, in which legs and arms are split normal to the rotational plane so as to form an "X". Layout or Straight, where the performer's legs are kept together and straight and whipped over the head A unlimited number of flip variants has been spawned within various activities, many having proprietary nomenclature. List of gymnastics flips Handspring Somersault Wallflip
Gethin Clifford Jones is a Welsh television presenter. An active rugby union player while at Manchester Metropolitan University and, for a time, after graduation, Jones began his television career on Welsh language channel S4C as a presenter of children's programmes such as Popty, Mas Draw and the flagship children's entertainment show Uned 5. In 2005, he became the 31st presenter of BBC children's programme Blue Peter. Jones was born on 12 February 1978 in Cardiff, the son of Sylvia, a violin teacher, Goronwy Jones, headteacher of Baden Powell Primary School, he has Mererid. One of his maternal great-grandfathers was a Polish-Jewish immigrant. With Welsh as his first language, he attended Ysgol Gynradd Coed-y-Gof and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Glantaf for his primary and secondary school education, respectively. Jones has Grade 8 violin and Grade 6 piano qualifications, took part in school musicals and school and county orchestras, he took Biology and Economics at A-Levels. Jones had dual interests throughout school.
His mother wanted him to develop his musical talents. While studying Economics and Geography at Manchester Metropolitan University where he gained a 2:2, he was captain of the university's rugby first team and played in the Lancashire under-21 team. At the age of 21 in his final year, Jones was offered trials by Sale RFC. However, after his father turned down a request for financial assistance and he experienced difficulties trying to play whilst supporting himself as a gym trainer, Jones found that his on-field capabilities suffered, he set aside his plans for a professional rugby career and returned to Wales. Prior to his television career, Jones worked as a bank clerk, a telephone hotline officer and as a research assistant and spent three months as a builder laying house foundations, he subsequently joined Welsh channel S4C as a presenter of children's programmes such as Popty, Mas Draw, the flagship children's entertainment show Uned 5. In 2004, as part of a challenge on the show, he learned how to fly a plane and gained his pilot's licence.
In 2003, Jones was voted Bachelor of the Year by the readers of Company magazine. On 26 April 2005, Jones became a presenter of Blue Peter, he auditioned on the same day as co-presenter Zöe Salmon. During his time, Jones presented the show with Salmon, Konnie Huq, Matt Baker, Liz Barker and Andy Akinwolere; as a presenter, he took on the action/adventure role filled by John Noakes and Peter Duncan in the past. Learning to race like a jockey, fighting as a samurai warrior in Japan. In 2006, Jones became the second civilian to finish the Royal Marine Commando 30-mile Yomp – he finished in a time of eight hours and 20 minutes, he played the violin at the Proms with the BBC Philharmonic. On 12 February 2008, on his 30th birthday and his Blue Peter co-presenters climbed the highest peaks in each constituent country of the United Kingdom, starting with Slieve Donard in Northern Ireland, followed by Snowdon in North Wales; the following day, having travelled overnight by coach to the Lake District, they climbed Scafell Pike.
They were to be transported to Scotland by helicopter to climb Ben Nevis, but were unable to do so because of problems with the helicopter, forcing them to land in Oban. They succeeded in climbing the mountain the next day; this challenge was in aid of Sport Relief 2008. Jones announced on 8 April 2008 on Blue Peter that after three and half years with the show, he would be leaving at the end of the current series in June, his spokeswoman said he had always planned to leave when he turned 30. Jones said, "I've had a career on Blue Peter that you wouldn't dream about and for that I feel privileged and fortunate.... I've loved it, lived it... and now I feel the time is right to leave it." Jones has been a presenter for a number of major live telecasts, including Mardi Gras in Cardiff in front of 40,000 people, Y Briodas Fawr, Jones Jones Jones at Cardiff's Wales Millennium Centre where the world record was broken for the biggest gathering of people with the same surname. He co-presented the 2006, 2007 and 2008 New Year's Eve programme New Year Live on BBC One with various other presenters.
On 16 February 2008, Jones began presenting a new 15-minute programme entitled E24 on BBC News with James Dagwell. Between 4 and 11 May 2008, Jones was the narrator and presenter of the 2008 BBC Young Musician of the Year; the biennial music competition was held at the Millennium Centre in Cardiff, broadcast on BBC Two and BBC Four. Jones made his radio debut on BBC Radio 5 Live on 5 July 2008, presenting a three-hour Saturday morning show focusing on sport and entertainment. Jones appeared in The National Lottery: Big 7, a live programme broadcast on BBC One on 30 August 2008 where the winners of the National Lottery Awards 2008 were announced. Jones was one of the players for the Rest of the World for Soccer Aid on 7 September 2008 on ITV. England won four goals to three. Jones was again chosen to play for the Rest of the World in the Soccer Aid match on 7 June 2010; the team won 7 goals to 6. On 13 September 2008, Jones presented the Proms in the Park from Singleton Park in Swansea on the BBC as part of the Last Night of the Proms programme and was one of the concerts available for viewers with interactive television.
For six weeks from 28 September, Jones presented a prog
BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution, it was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997. The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising, it is the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen as an Acting Controller from May 2013; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
The BBC Television Service began regular broadcasts on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of the Alexandra Palace in London. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning, with one of the last programmes to be shown before the suspension of the service being a Mickey Mouse cartoon. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, "Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?". The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later; the BBC held a statutory monopoly on television broadcasting in the United Kingdom until the first Independent Television station began to broadcast on 22 September 1955, when ITV started broadcasting. The competition forced the channel to change its identity and priorities following a large reduction in its audience; the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. The station, renamed BBC TV in 1960, became BBC1 when BBC2 was launched on 20 April 1964 transmitting an incompatible 625-line image on UHF; the only way to receive all channels was to use a complex "dual-standard" 405- and 625-line, VHF and UHF, with both a VHF and a UHF aerial. Old 405-line-only sets became obsolete in 1985, when transmission in the standard ended, although standards converters have become available for enthusiasts who collect and restore such TVs. BBC1 was based at the purpose-built BBC Television Centre at White City, London between 1960 and 2013. Television News continued to use Alexandra Palace as its base—by early 1968 it had converted one of its studios to colour—before moving to new purpose-built facilities at Television Centre on 20 September 1969. In the weeks leading up to 15 November 1969, BBC1 unofficially transmitted the occasional programme in its new colour system, to test it.
At midnight on 15 November with ITV and two years after BBC2, BBC1 began 625-line PAL colour programming on UHF with a broadcast of a concert by Petula Clark. Colour transmissions could be received on monochrome 625-line sets until the end of analogue broadcasting. In terms of audience share, the most successful period for BBC1 was under Bryan Cowgill between 1973 and 1977, when the channel achieved an average audience share of 45%; this period is still regarded by many as a golden age of the BBC's output, with the BBC achieving a high standard across its entire range of series, plays, light entertainment and documentaries. On 30 December 1980, the BBC announced their intention to introduce a new breakfast television service to compete with TV-am; the BBC stated it would start broadcasting before TV-am, but made clear their hands were tied until November 1981 when the new licence fee income became available, to help finance extending broadcast hours, with the hope of starting in 1982. On 17 January 1983, the first edition of Breakfast Time was shown on BBC1, becoming the first UK wide breakfast television service and continued to lead in the ratings until 1984.
In 1984, Bill Cotton become managing director of Television at the BBC, set about overhauling BBC1, slated for poor home grown shows, its heavy reliance on US imports, with Dallas and The Thorn Birds being BBC1's highest rated programmes and ratings being over 20% behind ITV. Cotton recruited Michael Grade to become Controller of BBC1, the first time the Corporation had recruited someone outside of the BBC, replacing Alan Hart, criticised for his lack of knowledge in general entertainment, as he was head of BBC Sport prior to 1981; the first major overhaul was to axe the unpopular Sixty Minutes current affairs programme: this was a replacement for the news and magazine show Nationwide. Its replacement was the BBC Six O'Clock News, a straight new programme in a bid to shore up its failing early evening slot, it was believed the BBC were planning to cut short the evening news and move more light entertainment programming in from the 18:20 slot, but this was dismissed. The Miss Great Britain contest was dropped, being described as verging on the too offensive after the January 1985 contest, with Worlds Strongest Man and International Superstar being axed.
BBC1 was relaunched on 18 February 1985 with a new look, new programming including Wogan, EastEnders and a revised schedule to help streamline and maintain viewers thr
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east. Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford; some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire.
The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London. Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse; the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border.
Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries; the name Buckinghamshire means The district of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner; the county has been so named since about the 12th century. The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks; the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work.
Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; the expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham; the county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse; the county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England.
The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney; the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes; the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, Coombe Hill near Wendover at 260 metres. Quarrying has taken clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves; as can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.
The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach 350,000 by 2031. Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes. Today Bucking
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider. Most modern hang gliders are made of an aluminium alloy or composite frame covered with synthetic sailcloth to form a wing; the pilot is in a harness suspended from the airframe, controls the aircraft by shifting body weight in opposition to a control frame. Early hang gliders had a low lift-to-drag ratio, so pilots were restricted to gliding down small hills. By the 1980s this ratio improved, since pilots can soar for hours, gain thousands of feet of altitude in thermal updrafts, perform aerobatics, glide cross-country for hundreds of kilometers; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and national airspace governing organisations control some regulatory aspects of hang gliding. Obtaining the safety benefits of being instructed is recommended. By the end of the sixth century A. D. the Chinese had managed to build kites large and aerodynamic enough to sustain the weight of an average-sized person.
It was only a matter of time before someone decided to remove the kite strings and see what happened. Most early glider designs did not ensure safe flight. Starting in the 1880s technical and scientific advancements were made that led to the first practical gliders, such as those developed in the United States by John Joseph Montgomery. Otto Lilienthal built controllable gliders in the 1890s, his rigorously documented work influenced designers, making Lilienthal one of the most influential early aviation pioneers. His aircraft is similar to a modern hang glider. Hang gliding saw a stiffened flexible wing hang glider in 1904, when Jan Lavezzari flew a double lateen sail hang glider off Berck Beach, France. In 1910 in Breslau, the triangle control frame with hang glider pilot hung behind the triangle in a hang glider, was evident in a gliding club's activity; the biplane hang glider was widely publicized in public magazines with plans for building. In April 1909, a how-to article by Carl S. Bates proved to be a seminal hang glider article that affected builders of contemporary times, as several builders would have their first hang glider made by following the plan in his article.
Volmer Jensen with a biplane hang glider in 1940 called VJ-11 allowed safe three-axis control of a foot-launched hang glider. On November 23, 1948, Francis Rogallo and Gertrude Rogallo applied for a kite patent for a flexible kited wing with approved claims for its stiffenings and gliding uses; the various stiffening formats and the wing's simplicity of design and ease of construction, along with its capability of slow flight and its gentle landing characteristics, did not go unnoticed by hang glider enthusiasts. In 1960–1962 Barry Hill Palmer adapted the flexible wing concept to make foot-launched hang gliders with four different control arrangements. In 1963 Mike Burns adapted the flexible wing to build a towable kite-hang glider. In 1963, John W. Dickenson adapted the flexible wing airfoil concept to make another water-ski kite glider. Since the Rogallo wing has been the most used airfoil of hang gliders. There are two types of sail materials used in hang glider sails: woven polyester fabrics, composite laminated fabrics made of some combinations.
Woven polyester sailcloth is a tight weave of small diameter polyester fibers, stabilized by the hot-press impregnation of a polyester resin. The resin impregnation is required to provide resistance to stretch; this resistance is important in maintaining the aerodynamic shape of the sail. Woven polyester provides the best combination of light weight and durability in a sail with the best overall handling qualities. Laminated sail materials using polyester film achieve superior performance by using a lower stretch material, better at maintaining sail shape but is still light in weight; the disadvantages of polyester film fabrics is that the reduced elasticity under load results in stiffer and less responsive handling, polyester laminated fabrics are not as durable or long lasting as the woven fabrics. In most hang gliders, the pilot is ensconced in a harness suspended from the airframe, exercises control by shifting body weight in opposition to a stationary control frame known as triangle control frame, control bar or base bar.
This bar is pulled to allow for greater speed. Either end of the control bar is attached to an upright pipe, where both extend and are connected to the main body of the glider; this creates the shape of a triangle or'A-frame'. In many of these configurations additional wheels or other equipment can be suspended from the bottom bar or rod ends. Images showing a triangle control frame on Otto Lilienthal's 1892 hang glider shows that the technology of such frames has existed since the early design of gliders, but he did not mention it in his patents. A control frame for body weight shift was shown in Octave Chanute's designs, it was a major part of the now commo
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is a cathedral city; the largest settlement is Darlington followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south; the county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham; the county has a mixture of mining and heavy railway heritage, with the latter noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington and Stockton It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination. Many counties are named after their principal town, the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use.
The ceremonial county is named Durham, but the county has long been known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage. Its unusual naming is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine, outside the usual structure of county administration in England; the situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham; the former postal county was named "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. County Durham: the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities, it has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley and Sacriston areas Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Willington and the villages along Weardale The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the short-lived county of Cleveland, abolished. The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees, north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996; the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The county is parished. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012; the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are part of the North East England region. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance; the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area. Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, are based at Sniperly Farm in Durham City and respond to search and rescue incidents in the county. Around AD 547, an Angle named Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia after spotting the defensive potential of a large rock at Bamburgh, upon which many a fortification was thenceforth built. Ida was able to forge and consolidate the kingdom. In AD 604, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith forcibly merged Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria. In time, the realm was expanded through warfare