Michel Gondry is a French film director and producer. He is noted for his inventive visual style and distinctive manipulation of mise en scène, he won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay as one of the writers of the 2004 film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. His other films include the surrealistic science fantasy comedy The Science of Sleep, the comedy Be Kind Rewind, the superhero action comedy The Green Hornet, the drama The We and the I, the romantic science fantasy tragedy Mood Indigo, he is well known for his music video collaborations with Donald Fagen, Radiohead, Björk, The Chemical Brothers and The White Stripes. Gondry was born in Versailles, he is the grandson of inventor Constant Martin. Gondry's vision and career began with his emphasis on emotion. Much of his inspiration, came from the film Le voyage en ballon, he stated: "When I watch this movie, I dream I'm flying and I do stories where people are flying. I think it's directly influencing."His career as a filmmaker began with creating music videos for the French rock band Oui Oui, in which he served as a drummer.
The style of his videos for Oui Oui caught the attention of music artist Björk, who asked him to direct the video for her song "Human Behaviour". The collaboration proved long-lasting, with Gondry directing a total of eight music videos for Björk. Other artists who have collaborated with Gondry on more than one occasion include Daft Punk, The White Stripes, The Chemical Brothers, The Vines, Steriogram and Beck. Gondry's video for Lucas Secon's "Lucas with the Lid Off" was nominated in the Best Music Video category at the 37th Grammy Awards. Gondry has created numerous television commercials, he pioneered the "bullet time" technique adapted in The Matrix in the 1996 "Smarienberg" commercial for Smirnoff vodka, as well as directing a trio of inventive holiday-themed advertisements for clothing retailer Gap. Gondry, along with directors Spike Jonze and David Fincher, is representative of the influx of music video directors into feature film. Gondry made his feature film debut in 2001 with Human Nature.
His second film, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, was released in 2004 and received favorable reviews, becoming one of the most critically acclaimed films of the year. Eternal Sunshine utilizes many of the image manipulation techniques that Gondry had experimented with in his music videos. Gondry won an Academy Award alongside Kaufman and Pierre Bismuth for the screenplay of Eternal Sunshine; the style of Gondry's music videos relies on videography and camera tricks which play with frames of reference. Gondry directed the musical documentary Dave Chappelle's Block Party which followed comedian Dave Chappelle as he attempted to hold a large, free concert in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn, his following film, The Science of Sleep, hit theaters in September 2006. This film stars Mexican actor Gael García Bernal, marked a return to the fantastical, surreal techniques he employed in Eternal Sunshine. According to the Guinness World Records 2004, Gondry's Levi's 501 Jeans "Drugstore" spot holds the record for "Most awards won by a TV commercial".
The commercial was never aired in North America because of the suggestive content involving purchasing latex condoms. He declined. In September 2006, Gondry made his debut as an installation artist at Deitch Projects in New York City's SoHo gallery district; the show, called "The Science of Sleep: An Exhibition of Sculpture and Pathological Creepy Little Gifts" featured props from his film, The Science of Sleep, as well as film clips and a selection of gifts that the artist had given to women he was interested in, many of them former or current collaborators, Karen Baird, Kishu Chand, Dorothy Barrick and Lauri Faggioni. A leitmotif of the film is a'Disastrology' calendar, his brother Olivier "Twist" Gondry is a television commercial and music video director creating videos for bands such as The Stills, Hot Hot Heat, Daft Punk and The Vines. Michel's son Paul Gondry is an artist and film director as well. Gondry was an Artist in Residence at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005 and 2006.
Directing the music video for the Paul McCartney song "Dance Tonight", in which Gondry makes a cameo appearance. Gondry directed "Unnatural Love", the fifth episode in season two of HBO's Flight of the Conchords. Interior Design one third of the 2008 anthology film Tokyo! was next for Gondry. Interior Design was based on the comic book "Cecil and Jordan in New York" by Gabrielle Bell but was adapted from New York City to Tokyo for the film. In 2009, The Thorn in the Heart, another feature documentary, was released, it is about Michel's aunt Suzette and her son Jean-Yves. In 2011, Gondry directed The Green Hornet, a superhero film by Sony starring Seth Rogen, Jay Chou and Christoph Waltz. In 2011, he was the head of the jury for the short film competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, his film The We and the I was selected to be screened in the Directors' Fortnight section at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. On 3 January 2013, Gondry released his latest animated short Haircut Mouse on his official Vimeo channel.
In February 2013, Gondry released a hand-drawn animated documentary on fam
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Creative Commons is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses, known as Creative Commons licenses, free of charge to the public; these licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses are based upon it, they replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002; the first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, Ben Adida. In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons; as of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses; as of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos. Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors.
Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works. Creative Commons has been described as being at the forefront of the copyleft movement, which seeks to support the building of a richer public domain by providing an alternative to the automatic "all rights reserved" copyright, has been dubbed "some rights reserved". David Berry and Giles Moss have credited Creative Commons with generating interest in the issue of intellectual property and contributing to the re-thinking of the role of the "commons" in the "information age". Beyond that, Creative Commons has provided "institutional and legal support for individuals and groups wishing to experiment and communicate with culture more freely."Creative Commons attempts to counter what Lawrence Lessig, founder of Creative Commons, considers to be a dominant and restrictive permission culture. Lessig describes this as "a culture in which creators get to create only with the permission of the powerful, or of creators from the past."
Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions. Until April 2018 Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world. In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation; the network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter. Creative Commons Japan is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Japan. In 2003, the International University GLOCOM hold a meeting for the CC Japan preparing. In March 2004, CC Japan was initiated by that University, that, the second CC created among the world. In March 2006, the CC Japan be in motion. In the same year of March, the CC founder Lawrence Lessig came to Japan to be one of the main holder of the open ceremony.
Within same year of May to June, different international events hold in Japan which include iSummit 06 and the first to third round CCJP held. In 2007 of February, ICC x ClipLife 15 sec CM open. In June, iSummit 07 held on. After that month, the fourth CCJP held on. In the 25/7/2007, Tokyo approve Nobuhiro Nakayamato become the NGO chairman of CCJP. In 2008, Taipie ACIA join CCJP; the main theme music which chose by CCJP announced. In 2009, INTO INFINITY shown in Sapporo. I-phone held the shows with Audio Visual Mixer for INTO INFINITY. 2012, the 10 anniversary ceremony held on Japan. 2015, the renew version of CCJP overt. Creative Commons Japan Zero overt. Creative Commons Korea is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon, a Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law; the major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences.
In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since CC Korea has been promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country. Creative Commons Korea Creative Commons Asia Conference 2010
National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia known as Castle of Light is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture of Latvia. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918; the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvia's information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education; the National Library was founded on 29 August 1919, one year after independence, as the State Library. Its first chief librarian and bibliographer was Jānis Misiņš who made his immense private collection the basis of the new library. Within a year, until 1920, the stocks had grown to 250,000 volumes. Starting in the same year, all publishers were obliged to hand in a deposit copy of their works. Since 1927, the Library has published the National Bibliography of Latvia.
There were significant additions in 1939 and 1940, when the State Library took over many of the libraries and collections of the Baltic Germans, most of whom resettled to the Reich. Among these was a large part of the collection of the Society for History and Archaeology of Russia's Baltic Provinces, est. 1834, the primary historical society of the Baltic Germans. In 1940, holdings encompassed 1.7 million volumes, so that they had to be stored in two different locations in the Old Town. During the German occupation of Riga, the State Library was renamed Country Library, eliminating reference to a sovereign Latvian state). Under Soviet rule, it was known as State Library of the Latvian SSR. According to Soviet customs, in 1966 it received an honorary name, commemorating Vilis Lācis, a writer and the late prime minister of Soviet Latvia. From 1946, literature deemed'dangerous' from the Soviet perspective was withdrawn from the shelves and could be accessed only with a special permit until 1988.
In 1956, the State Library moved into its new building at Krišjāņa Barona iela. Since the reestablishment of national independence 1991, the institution has been called National Library of Latvia. In 1995, it received as a permanent loan the Baltic Central Library of Otto Bong, a collection pertaining to the history, regional studies and languages of the Baltic countries. In 2006, the National Library joined the European Library online service; the Library's holdings today encompass more than 5 million titles, incl. about 18,000 manuscripts from the 14th century up to modern times. One of the characteristic cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage and long-term access; the NLL is a centre of theoretical research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. The Library carries out the functions of the centre of Latvia Interlibrary Loan, ensures the library and information service to the Parliament of the Republic of Latvia – the Saeima, implements the standardisation of the branch.
Since the outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography. The massive union catalogue Seniespiedumi latviešu valodā received the Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99. In 2005, the Letonikas grāmatu autoru rādītājs was published, providing information about versatile branches of science and representatives of various nations, Latvia being the main focus of their publications; the NLL includes several collections of posters. Digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music and audio recordings. In 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika.lv is the NLL's collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts and search page by page. Latvia has Dance Festivals organized every four years; the historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another digital collection of the National Library of Latvia.
The first discussions about the need for a new National Library had started in 1928, the significance of the project of this century was further confirmed by the high-level international recognition. In 1999 all 170 UNESCO member states during its General Conference adopted a resolution, calling the member states and the international community to ensure all possible support for the implementation of the NLL project; the continuous growth of the Library had made it necessary to transfer parts of the stocks into other buildings. Thus, in 2013, NLL was distributed between five locations in Riga. Furthermore, some stocks were being stored since 1998 in a depot in Silakrogs outside the capital; these inconveniences convinced the Parliament to approve a new building on the left bank of the Daugava. On 15 May 2008, after discussions lasting for many years, the state agency Three New Brothers and the Union of National Construction Companies signed the contract on the construction of the new National Library of Latvia.
On 18 May 2014, the main facility of the Library at Krišjāņa Barona iela was close
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
Adam Spiegel, known professionally as Spike Jonze, is an American filmmaker and actor, whose work includes music videos, commercials and television. Jonze began his career as a teenager photographing BMX riders and skateboarders for Freestylin' Magazine and Transworld Skateboarding, co-founded the youth culture magazine Dirt. Moving into filmmaking, he began shooting street skateboarding films, including the influential Video Days. Jonze co-founded the skateboard company Girl Skateboards in 1993 with riders Rick Howard and Mike Carroll. Jonze's filmmaking style made him an in-demand director of music videos for much of the 1990s, resulting in collaborations with Sonic Youth, Beastie Boys, Fatboy Slim, Daft Punk, Weezer, Björk, Kanye West and Arcade Fire. Jonze began his feature film directing career with Being John Adaptation. Both written by Charlie Kaufman, he was a executive producer of MTV's Jackass reality franchise. Jonze began directing films based on his own screenplays, including Where the Wild Things Are and Her.
He has worked as an actor sporadically throughout his career, co-starring in David O. Russell's war comedy Three Kings and appeared in supporting roles in Bennett Miller's Moneyball and Martin Scorsese's The Wolf of Wall Street, in addition to a recurring role in comedy series The Increasingly Poor Decisions of Todd Margaret and cameo appearances in his own films. Jonze co-founded Directors Label, with filmmakers Chris Cunningham and Michel Gondry, the Palm Pictures company, he is the creative director of Vice Media, Inc. and its multinational television channel Viceland. Jonze was born Adam Spiegel on October 22, 1969 in Rockville, the son of Arthur H. Spiegel III and Sandra L. Granzow, his father was of German Jewish ancestry, is the great-great-grandson of Joseph Spiegel, founder of the Spiegel catalog and grandson of Arthur Spiegel. Arthur H. Spiegel III was the founder of a healthcare consulting firm. Jonze's parents divorced when he was his father remarried. Jonze was raised by his mother in Bethesda, where she worked in public relations, along with his brother Sam "Squeak E. Clean" Spiegel, now a producer and DJ, his sister Julia.
While studying at Walt Whitman High School, Jonze spent much of his time at a Bethesda community store, where owner Mike Henderson gave him the nickname "Spike Jonze" in reference to Spike Jones. A keen BMX rider, Jonze began working at the Rockville BMX store in Rockville, Maryland, at the age of 16. A common destination for touring professional BMX teams, Jonze began photographing BMX demos at Rockville and formed a friendship with Freestylin' Magazine editors Mark Lewman and Andy Jenkins. Impressed with Jonze's photography work, the pair offered him a job as a photographer for the magazine, he subsequently moved to California to pursue career opportunities in photography. Jonze fronted an international BMX club, alongside Lewman and Jenkins; the three created the youth culture magazines Homeboy and Dirt, the latter of, spun off from the female-centered Sassy and was aimed towards young boys. While shooting for various BMX publications in California, Jonze was introduced to a number of professional skateboarders who would share ramps with BMX pros.
Jonze formed a close friendship with Mark Gonzales, co-owner of the newly formed Blind Skateboards at the time, began shooting photos with the young Blind team including Jason Lee, Guy Mariano and Rudy Johnson in the late 1980s. Jonze became a regular contributor to Transworld Skateboarding, was subsequently given a job at World Industries by Steve Rocco, who enlisted him to photograph advertisements and shoot promotional videos for his brands under the World Industries umbrella. Jonze filmed and produced his first skateboarding video, Rubbish Heap, for World Industries in 1989, his following video project was Video Days, a promotional video for Blind Skateboards, released in 1991 and is considered to be influential in the community. The video's subject, presented a copy of Video Days to Kim Gordon during a chance encounter following a Sonic Youth show in early 1992. Impressed with Jonze's videography skills, Gordon tracked down the young filmmaker and approached him to direct a music video featuring skateboarders.
The video, co-directed by Jonze and Tamra Davis, was for their 1992 single "100%", which featured skateboarding footage of Blind Skateboards rider Jason Lee, who would become a successful actor. In 1993, Jonze co-directed the "trippy" music video for The Breeders song "Cannonball" with Gordon. Along with Rick Howard and Mike Carroll, Jonze co-founded the skateboard company Girl Skateboards in 1993; the following year, he directed the video for the Weezer song "Buddy Holly", which featured the band performing the song interspersed with clips from the sitcom Happy Days. The video became immensely popular and was shown on MTV. A 2013 Rolling Stone readers' poll ranked it as the tenth best music video of the 1990s. In 1994, Jonze directed the videos for the Beastie Boys' songs "Sure Shot" and, more famously, "Sabotage"; the latter parodies 1970s cop shows and is presented as the opening credits for a fictional show called Sabotage, featuring the band members appearing as its protagonists. As with "Buddy Holly", the video attracted great popularity a