Ryan Murphy (writer)
Ryan Patrick Murphy is an American screenwriter and producer. Murphy is best known for creating/co-creating/producing a number of successful television series, including the FX medical drama Nip/Tuck, the Fox musical comedy-drama Glee, the FX anthology series American Horror Story, American Crime Story, Feud, the Fox procedural drama 9-1-1, he is known for directing the 2010 film adaptation of Elizabeth Gilbert's best-selling memoir Eat, Pray and the 2014 HBO film adaptation of Larry Kramer's The Normal Heart, which earned a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie. Murphy was born on November 9, 1965, in Indianapolis, where he was raised in an Irish Catholic family, he attended Catholic school from first through eighth grade, graduated from Warren Central High School in Indianapolis. He has described his mother J. Andy Murphy as a "beauty queen who left it all to stay at home and take care of her two sons", she worked in communications for over 20 years before retiring. His father worked in the newspaper industry as a circulation director before he retired after 30 years.
After coming out as gay, Murphy saw his first therapist, who found nothing wrong with him other than being "too precocious for his own good". During a 2012 interview on Inside the Actors Studio, Murphy claimed that he secretly dated "a lot of football players" in high school, he performed with a choir as a child, which would inform his work on Glee. Murphy attended Indiana University Bloomington. Murphy started as a journalist working for The Miami Herald, Los Angeles Times, New York Daily News, Knoxville News Sentinel and Entertainment Weekly, he began scriptwriting in the late 1990s, when Steven Spielberg purchased his script Why Can't I Be Audrey Hepburn?. Murphy started his career in television with the teen comedy series Popular, which he co-created with Gina Matthews; the series premiered on The WB on September 29, 1999 and ran for two seasons, ending in 2001. He created the FX drama series Nip/Tuck, which premiered on July 18, 2003. In 2004, Murphy earned his first Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series.
Murphy took the show's signature line, "Tell me what you don't like about yourself," from a plastic surgeon he met when he was a journalist researching an undercover story on plastic surgery in Beverly Hills. The series ended after six seasons in 2010. On May 19, 2009, Murphy's musical comedy-drama series, premiered on Fox, he co-created the series with Ian Brennan. In its early seasons, the show was critically lauded. Murphy won his first Primetime Emmy Award for directing the pilot episode; the series concluded in 2015 following its sixth season. Murphy was one of four executive producers on the reality television series The Glee Project, which premiered on Oxygen on June 12, 2011; the show featured a group of contestants vying for the prize of a seven-episode arc on Glee, with someone being eliminated each week, until the winner is chosen in the final episode. The show was renewed for a second season. Murphy and Glee co-executive producer Ali Adler created the half-hour comedy The New Normal, which premiered on NBC on September 10, 2012.
The series was based on Murphy's own experiences of having a child via surrogate, with the main characters and David, named for Ryan and his husband. The series was cancelled after one season. Murphy and Falchuk created the anthology series American Horror Story, which premiered on FX on October 5, 2011; some of the same cast have played different characters in different settings each subsequent season. In October 2014, FX greenlit a companion anthology series, American Crime Story, which Murphy and Falchuk executive produce; the series premiered on February 2, 2016. Murphy and Brennan next co-created the comedy-horror series Scream Queens, which premiered on Fox on September 22, 2015; the series was cancelled after two seasons. Murphy's next project, the drama anthology series Feud, premiered on FX in 2017; the first season focused on the rivalry between Bette Davis and Joan Crawford on the set of their 1962 film What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?. With newcomer Steven Canals, a research assistant for Dustin Lance Black before his Master of Fine Arts at UCLA, Murphy and Falchuk launched a new series set in the Ball community in mid-1980s New York City.
Murphy had wanted to adapt Paris is Burning as a series and Canals had been writing a script while at graduate school centered on a young African American teen made homeless for being gay, who moved to New York with dreams of going to dance school and who became adopted by a House mother. Joining Canals and Falchuk in the writing room were Our Lady J and Janet Mock, who Murphy encouraged to direct an episode, making her the first trans woman of colour to do so, as well as the first trans woman of colour in a TV series writing room; the series premiered on FX on June 2018, attracting critical acclaim. The first season boasted the largest cast of transgender actors for a scripted network series with over 50 transgender characters, all played by trans actors. On July 12, 2018, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a second season, set to premiere sometime in 2019. In May 2018, ahead of the premiere, Murphy announced that he would be donating all his profits from Pose to charitable organizations working with LGBTQ+ people, tweeting a different non-profit including Sylvia Rivera Law Project, Transgender Legal Defense & Education Fund, Callen-Lorde Community Health Center telling Variety that: “The thing that struck me in talking to so many of them, was
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Nip/Tuck (season 3)
The third season of Nip/Tuck premiered on September 20, 2005 and concluded on December 20, 2005. It consisted of 15 episodes. Dylan Walsh as Dr. Sean McNamara Julian McMahon as Dr. Christian Troy John Hensley as Matt McNamara Roma Maffia as Liz Cruz Bruno Campos as Dr. Quentin Costa Kelly Carlson as Kimber Henry Jessalyn Gilsig as Gina Russo Joely Richardson as Julia McNamara
A mime or mime artist is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art. Miming involves acting out a story through body motions, without the use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would be referred to as a mummer. Miming is distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a character in a film or sketch without sound. Jacques Copeau influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors, his pupil Étienne Decroux was influenced by this, started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime, developed corporeal mime into a sculptural form, taking it outside the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods; the performance of mime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth-century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that have come to be known in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface.
The first recorded mime was Telestēs in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus. Tragic mime was developed by Puladēs of Kilikia. Mime was an aspect of Roman theatre from its earliest times, paralleling the Atellan farce in its improvisation, it began to replace the Atellanae as interludes or postscripts on the main theatre stages. Under the Empire mime became the predominant Roman drama, if with mixed fortunes under different emperors. Trajan banished mime artists. Nero himself acted as a mime; the mime was distinguished from other dramas by its absence of masks, by the presence of female as well as male performers. Stock characters included the lead, the stooge or stupidus, the gigolo, or cultus adulter. While most of this article has treated mime as a constellation of related and linked Western theatre genres and performance techniques, analogous performances are evident in the theatrical traditions of other civilizations. Classical Indian musical theatre, although erroneously labeled a "dance," is a group of theatrical forms in which the performer presents a narrative via stylized gesture, an array of hand positions, mime illusions to play different characters and landscapes.
Recitation and percussive footwork sometimes accompany the performance. The Natya Shastra, an ancient treatise on theatre by Bharata Muni, mentions silent performance, or mukabhinaya. In Kathakali, stories from Indian epics are told with facial expressions, hand signals and body motions. Performances are accompanied by songs narrating the story while the actors act out the scene, followed by actor detailing without background support of narrative song; the Japanese Noh tradition has influenced many contemporary mime and theatre practitioners including Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoq because of its use of mask work and physical performance style. Butoh, though referred to as a dance form, has been adopted by various theatre practitioners as well. Prior to the work of Étienne Decroux there was no major treatise on the art of mime, so any recreation of mime as performed prior to the twentieth century is conjecture, based on interpretation of diverse sources. However, the twentieth century brought a new medium into widespread usage: the motion picture.
The restrictions of early motion picture technology meant that stories had to be told with minimal dialogue, restricted to intertitles. This demanded a stylized form of physical acting derived from the stage. Thus, mime played an important role in films prior to advent of talkies; the mimetic style of film acting was used to great effect in German Expressionist film. Silent film comedians like Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, Buster Keaton learned the craft of mime in the theatre, but through film, they would have a profound influence on mimes working in live theatre decades after their deaths. Indeed, Chaplin may be the best-documented mime in history; the famous French comedian and director Jacques Tati achieved his initial popularity working as a mime, indeed his films had only minimal dialogue, relying instead on many subtle expertly choreographed visual gags. Tati, like Chaplin before him, would mime out the movements of every single character in his films and ask his actors to repeat them.
Mime has been performed with Marcel Marceau and his character "Bip" being the most famous. Mime is a popular art form in street theatre and busking. Traditionally, these sorts of performances involve the actor/actress wearing tight black and white clothing with white facial makeup. However, contemporary mimes perform without whiteface. While traditional mimes have been silent, contemporary mimes, while refraining from speaking, sometimes employ vocal sounds when they perform. Mime acts are comical, but some can be serious. On the stage, Mime Artist Nithor Mahbub from Bangladesh introduced the first practice of teaching through humor with group Mimo Drama troupe Mime Art. Canadian author Michael Jacot's first novel, The Last Butterfl
In the United States, the Miranda warning is a type of notification customarily given by police to criminal suspects in police custody advising them of their right to silence. These rights are referred to as Miranda rights; the purpose of such notification is to preserve the admissibility of their statements made during custodial interrogation in criminal proceedings. The language used in a Miranda warning varies between jurisdictions, but the warning is deemed adequate as long as the defendant's rights are properly disclosed such that any waiver of those rights by the defendant is knowing and intelligent. For example, the warning may be phrased. Anything you say can be used against you in court. You have the right to talk to a lawyer for advice. You have the right to have a lawyer with you during questioning. If you can not afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you before any questioning. If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you have the right to stop answering at any time.
The Miranda warning is part of a preventive criminal procedure rule that law enforcement are required to administer to protect an individual, in custody and subject to direct questioning or its functional equivalent from a violation of his or her Fifth Amendment right against compelled self-incrimination. In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court held that the admission of an elicited incriminating statement by a suspect not informed of these rights violates the Fifth Amendment and the Sixth Amendment right to counsel, through the incorporation of these rights into state law. Thus, if law enforcement officials decline to offer a Miranda warning to an individual in their custody, they may interrogate that person and act upon the knowledge gained, but may not use that person's statements as evidence against them in a criminal trial; the concept of "Miranda rights" was enshrined in U. S. law following the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona Supreme Court decision, which found that the Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights of Ernesto Arturo Miranda had been violated during his arrest and trial for armed robbery and rape of a mentally handicapped young woman.
The circumstances triggering the Miranda safeguards, i.e. Miranda rights, are "custody" and "interrogation". Custody means formal arrest or the deprivation of freedom to an extent associated with formal arrest. Interrogation means explicit questioning or actions that are reasonably to elicit an incriminating response; the Supreme Court did not specify the exact wording to use. However, the Court did create a set of guidelines; the ruling states:... The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be informed that he/she has the right to remain silent, that anything the person says will be used against that person in court. In Berkemer v. McCarty, the Supreme Court decided that a person subjected to custodial interrogation is entitled to the benefit of the procedural safeguards enunciated in Miranda, regardless of the nature or severity of the offense of which they are suspected or for which they were arrested; as a result, American English developed the verb Mirandize, meaning "read the Miranda rights to" a suspect.
Notably, the Miranda rights do not have to be read in any particular order, they do not have to match the language of the Miranda case as long as they are adequately and conveyed. In Berghuis v. Thompkins, the Supreme Court held that unless a suspect expressly states that they are invoking this right, subsequent voluntary statements made to an officer can be used against them in court, police can continue to interact with the alleged criminal; every U. S. jurisdiction has its own regulations regarding what must be said to a person arrested or placed in a custodial situation. The typical warning states: You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Anything you say may be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. If you can not afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning. If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney.
Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present? The courts have since ruled that the warning must be "meaningful", so it is required that the suspect be asked if they understand their rights. Sometimes, firm answers of "yes" are required; some departments and jurisdictions require that an officer ask "do you understand?" after every sentence in the warning. An arrestee's silence is not a waiver, but on June 1, 2010, the Supreme Court ruled 5–4 that police are allowed to i
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and attack minorities, or in some cases to create a fascist political state, it is a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries and international networks. It borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, xenophobia, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, anti-communism and initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. In some European and Latin American countries, laws prohibit the expression of pro-Nazi, anti-Semitic, or homophobic views. Many Nazi-related symbols are banned in European countries in an effort to curtail neo-Nazism; the term neo-Nazism describes any post-World War II militant, social or political movements seeking to revive the ideology of Nazism in whole or in part.
The term neo-Nazism can refer to the ideology of these movements, which may borrow elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, anti-communism, ableism, homophobia, anti-Romanyism, antisemitism, up to initiating the Fourth Reich. Holocaust denial is a common feature, as is the incorporation of Nazi symbols and admiration of Adolf Hitler. Neo-Nazism is considered a particular form of right-wing extremism. Neo-Nazi writers have posited a spiritual, esoteric doctrine of race, which moves beyond the Darwinian-inspired materialist scientific racism popular in the Anglosphere during the 20th century. Figures influential in the development of neo-Nazi racism, such as Miguel Serrano and Julius Evola, claim that the Hyperborean ancestors of the Aryans were in the distant past, far higher beings than their current state, having suffered from "involution" due to mixing with the "Telluric" peoples. Within this theory, if the "Aryans" are to return to the Golden Age of the distant past, they need to awaken the memory of the blood.
An extraterrestrial origin of the Hyperboreans is claimed. These theories draw influence from Tantrism, building on the work of the Ahnenerbe. Within this racist theory, Jews are held up as the antithesis of nobility and beauty. Neo-Nazism aligns itself with a blood and soil variation of environmentalism, which has themes in common with deep ecology, the organic movement and animal protectionism; this tendency, sometimes called "ecofascism", was represented in the original German National Socialism by Richard Walther Darré, the Reichsminister of Food from 1933 until 1942. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, the political ideology of the ruling party, was in complete disarray; the final leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party was Martin Bormann. He died on 2 May 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, but the Soviet Union did not reveal his death to the rest of the world, his ultimate fate remained a mystery for many years. Conspiracy theories emerged about Hitler himself, that he had secretly survived the war and fled to South America or elsewhere.
The Allied Control Council dissolved the NSDAP on 10 October 1945, marking the end of "Old" National Socialism. A process of denazification began, the Nuremberg trials took place, where many major leaders and ideologues were condemned to death by October 1946, others committed suicide. In both the East and West, surviving ex-party members and military veterans assimilated to the new reality and had no interest in constructing a "neo-Nazism." However, during the 1949 elections a number of National Socialist advocates such as Fritz Rössler had infiltrated the national conservative Deutsche Rechtspartei, which had 5 members elected. Rössler and others left to found the more radical Socialist Reich Party under Otto Ernst Remer. At the onset of the Cold War, the SRP favoured the Soviet Union over the United States. In Austria national independence had been restored, the Verbotsgesetz 1947 explicitly criminalised the NSDAP and any attempt at restoration. West Germany adopted a similar law to target parties.
As a consequence some members of the nascent movement of German neo-Nazism joined the Deutsche Reichspartei of which Hans-Ulrich Rudel was the most prominent figure. Younger members founded the Wiking-Jugend modeled after the Hitler Youth; the Deutsche Reichspartei stood for elections from 1953 until 1961 fetching around 1% of the vote each time. Rudel befriended French-born Savitri Devi, a proponent of Esoteric Nazism. In the 1950s she wrote a number of books, such as Pilgrimage, which concerns prominent Third Reich sites, The Lightning and the Sun, in which she claims that Adolf Hitler was an avatar of the God Vishnu, she was not alone in this reorientation of National Socialism towards its Thulean-roots. In the German Democratic Republic a former member of SA, Wilhelm Adam, founded the National Democratic Party of Germany, it reached out to those attracted by the Nazi Party before 1945 and provide them with a political outlet, so that they would not be tempted to support the far-right again or turn to the anti-communist Western Allies.
Stalin wanted to use them to create a new pro-Soviet and anti-West
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations