The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the Browns play their home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea, Ohio. The Browns' official colors are brown and white, they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B. McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference; the Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the league's four seasons and winning its championship in each. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers and the original Baltimore Colts; the Browns won a championship in their inaugural NFL season, as well as in the 1954, 1955, 1964 seasons, in a feat unequaled in any of the North American major professional sports, played in their league championship game in each of the Browns' first ten years of existence.
From 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl during that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore. After threats of legal action from the city of Cleveland and fans, a compromise was reached in early 1996 that allowed Modell to establish the Baltimore Ravens as a new franchise while retaining the contracts of all Browns personnel; the Browns' intellectual property, including team name, training facility, history, were kept in trust and the franchise was regarded by the NFL as suspended, with a new team to be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation. The Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success, they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, no playoff wins. The franchise has been noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks, having started 30 players in the position since 1999.
Through the end of the 2018 season, the Browns' win–loss record since returning to the NFL in 1999 is 95–224–1. In 2017, the Browns became only the second team in league history to finish a season 0–16, joining the 2008 Detroit Lions. Through the 2018 season, the Browns hold the longest active playoff drought in the NFL, at 16 seasons; the history of the Cleveland Browns American football team began in 1944 when taxi-cab magnate Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride secured a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. Paul Brown was the team's namesake and first coach; the Browns began play in 1946 in the AAFC. The Browns won each of the league's four championship games before the league dissolved in 1949; the team moved to the more established National Football League, where it continued to dominate. Between 1950 and 1955, Cleveland reached the NFL championship game every year. McBride and his partners sold the team to a group of Cleveland businessmen in 1953 for a then-unheard-of $600,000.
Eight years the team was sold again, this time to a group led by New York advertising executive Art Modell. Modell fired Brown before the 1963 season, but the team continued to win behind running back Jim Brown; the Browns won the championship in 1964 and reached the title game the following season, losing to the Green Bay Packers. When the AFL and NFL merged before the 1970 season, Cleveland became part of the new American Football Conference. While the Browns made it back to the playoffs in 1971 and 1972, they fell into mediocrity through the mid-1970s. A revival of sorts took place in 1979 and 1980, when quarterback Brian Sipe engineered a series of last-minute wins and the Browns came to be called the "Kardiac Kids". Under Sipe, the Browns did not make it past the first round of the playoffs. Quarterback Bernie Kosar, who the Browns drafted in 1985, led the team to three AFC Championship games in the late 1980s but lost each time to the Denver Broncos. In 1995, Modell announced he was relocating the Browns to Baltimore, sowing a mix of outrage and bitterness among Cleveland's dedicated fan base.
Negotiations and legal battles led to an agreement where Modell was allowed to move the team, but Cleveland kept the Browns' name and history. After three years of suspension while Cleveland Stadium was demolished and FirstEnergy Stadium built on its site, the Browns started play again in 1999 under new owner Al Lerner; the Browns struggled throughout the 2000s and 2010s, posting a record of 95–224–1 since their 1999 return. The Browns have only posted two winning seasons and one playoff appearance since returning to the NFL; the team's struggles have been magnified since 2012, when the Lerner family sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. In six seasons under the Haslam ownership, the Browns went through four head coaches and four general managers, none of whom had found success. In 2016 and 2017 under head coach Hue Jackson, the Browns went 1–31, the worst two-year stretch in NFL history, received the number one overall draft pick in both of those years; the Browns are the only National Football League team without a helmet logo.
The logoless helmet serves as the Browns' official logo. The organization has used several promotional logos throughout the years.
Margaret O'Brien (politician)
Margaret O'Brien is a former member of the Michigan Senate and former member of the Michigan House of Representatives. She is a Republican, her district was based in Michigan. O'Brien has a bachelor's degree from Michigan State University. Prior to her election to the state house in 2010 she worked as a social worker with Catholic Family Services. In 2014, O'Brien ran against and defeated Democratic Party nominee Sean McCann and Libertarian Party nominee Lorence Wenke for the 20th district seat in the Michigan Senate. In 2018, she lost to Democratic Party nominee Sean McCann for the 20th district seat in the Michigan Senate. State House bio of O'Brien Vote Smart profile of O'Brien
Tampa Bay Buccaneers
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers are a professional American football franchise based in Tampa, Florida. The Buccaneers compete in the National Football League as a member team of the National Football Conference South division. Along with the Seattle Seahawks, the team joined the NFL in 1976 as an expansion team; the Bucs played their first season in the American Football Conference West division as part of the 1976 expansion plan, whereby each new franchise would play every other franchise over the first two years. After the season, the club switched conferences with the Seahawks and became a member of the NFC Central division. During the 2002 league realignment, the Bucs joined three former NFC West teams to form the NFC South; the club is owned by the Glazer family, plays its home games at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa. The Buccaneers are the first post-merger expansion team to win a division title, win a playoff game, to host and play in a conference championship game, they are the first team since the merger to complete a winning season when starting 10 or more rookies, which happened in the 2010 season.
In 1976 and 1977, the Buccaneers lost their first 26 games. They would not win their first game in franchise history until Week 13, of 14, in 1977. After a brief winning era in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the team suffered through 14 consecutive losing seasons. For a 10-year period, they were consistent playoff contenders and won Super Bowl XXXVII at the end of the 2002 season, but have not yet returned to the Super Bowl; as of the end of 2018 NFL season, the Buccaneers have played 43 seasons and compiled an overall record of 266–424–1, with a regular-season record of 255–404–1 and a playoff record of 6–9. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg, Clearwater and Sarasota. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises, such as the Buccaneers, Rays and the former Storm and Mutiny, denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa.
The Tampa Bay expansion franchise was awarded to Tom McCloskey, a construction company owner from Philadelphia. McCloskey soon entered a financial dispute with the NFL, so the league found a replacement in Hugh Culverhouse, a wealthy tax attorney from Jacksonville. Culverhouse's handshake deal to purchase the Los Angeles Rams from the estate of Dan Reeves was thwarted by Robert Irsay's purchase of the team, which he traded to Carroll Rosenbloom in exchange for the Baltimore Colts, a complete trade of teams between two owners. Culverhouse filed antitrust lawsuits in which he accused the NFL of conspiracy for preventing his purchase of the Rams, as part of his settlement with the league, he was given priority when the NFL expanded soon thereafter. A name-the-team contest resulted in the nickname "Buccaneers", a reference to José Gaspar, the mythical Florida pirate, the inspiration for Tampa's Gasparilla Pirate Festival; the team name was opposed by St. Petersburg businessmen on the grounds that it emphasized Tampa at the expense of other Bay Area cities, until NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle himself met with them to encourage their support.
Their uniforms and "Bucco Bruce" winking pirate logo were designed by Tampa Tribune artist Lamar Sparkman using colors drawn from the state's four major college teams at the time: orange from the universities of Miami and Florida, red from Florida State and the University of Tampa. They were one of the few teams to wear white home uniforms, forcing opponents to wear their warmer dark uniforms in Tampa's afternoon heat; the team's first home was Tampa Stadium, built in 1967 to attract an NFL franchise and was expanded in 1974 to seat just over 72,500 fans. John McKay, a college coach who had led the University of Southern California Trojans to four national championships in the 1960s and 1970s, was named the Buccaneers' first head coach in early 1976; the Bucs soon traded for Steve Spurrier, who had won a Heisman Trophy at the University of Florida in 1966, to be their starting quarterback for their expansion season. The Buccaneers joined the NFL as members of the AFC West in 1976; the following year, they were moved to the NFC Central, while the other 1976 expansion team, the Seattle Seahawks, switched conferences with Tampa Bay and joined the AFC West.
This realignment was dictated by the league as part of the 1976 expansion plan, so that both teams could play each other twice and every other NFL franchise once during their first two seasons. Instead of a traditional schedule of playing each division opponent twice, the Buccaneers played every conference team once, plus the Seahawks. Tampa Bay did not win their first game until the 13th week of their second season, starting with a record of 0–26; until the Detroit Lions in 2008, the 1976 Bucs were the only Super Bowl-era team to go winless in a whole season. Their losing streak caused them to become the butt of late-night television comedians' jokes, their first win came on the road against the New Orleans Saints. The Saints' head coach, Hank Stram, was fired after losing to the Buccaneers. Tampa Bay needed one more week to get their second victory, a home win over the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1977 season finale; the Cardinals fired their coach, Don Coryell, shortly
Michigan High School Athletic Association
The Michigan High School Athletic Association is a service organization for high school sports in Michigan and is headquartered in East Lansing. It is a member of the National Federation of State High School Associations. Unlike many other NFHS member organizations, The MHSAA does not charge membership fees for schools, it is independent of and not recognized by any governmental body, local or statewide. Membership is voluntary; as of September 11, 2018, the MHSAA has 750 member high schools, comprising all high school athletics in Michigan and private. Only a small number of private schools and a few nontraditional public schools in Michigan forgo MHSAA membership. MHSAA member schools may compete against non-member school in interscholastic athletic competition; the MHSAA supports 28 sports. Boys: Baseball, Bowling, Cross Country, Golf, Ice Hockey, Alpine Skiing, Swimming & Diving, Track & Field, Wrestling Girls: Basketball, Competitive Cheer, Cross Country, Gymnastics, Alpine Skiing, Softball, Swimming & Diving, Track & Field, Volleyball Technically, all "boys" teams are "boys & girls" teams, while "girls" teams are "girls only," although having girls play on "boys & girls" teams is as uncommon as in the many other states using a similar arrangement..
Traditional classifications used are labeled B, C and D from largest to smallest. Each grouping consists of 25% of all member schools sorted by student population, including a variety of correction factors. Total 4-year coed enrollment cutoffs for the 2018–19 school year are as follows: Class A: 885 and above Class B: 398-884 Class C: 194-397 Class D: 193 and belowThe traditional classifications have the same number of schools in each of them, but not the same number of teams in a given sport's tournament. In order to prevent distorted tournament structures, for all sports the MHSAA uses "nearly equal divisions," where only those schools sponsoring a team in the given sport are broken into as many sized groupings as the Association feels is appropriate given the number of schools sponsoring the sport; the MHSAA's tournament structures are similar to those used in many other States. Assignments are made on a sport-to-sport and year-to-year basis, meaning that as no two sports have identical classification methods and sponsorship levels, a given school will have at least minor variations in its overall tournament path from sport to sport.
Unlike in some states and district placement has no bearing on regular season scheduling. Except in football, all schools in good standing fielding teams in a particular sport are allowed to enter that sport's postseason tournament which crowns a champion; some sport championship tournaments are divided into separate Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula tournaments. Schools pay no entry fees to participate in MHSAA tournaments, which are paid for out of ticket sales and broadcast rights fees. For football, postseason inclusion is determined by wins and a computer point value, calculated for each team based upon its record and strength of schedule, with the top 256 teams qualifying; these 256 teams are ordered by enrollment and divided into 8 divisions of 32 teams each. This is nearly unique amongst high school football competition in the U. S. in that many teams do not know which classification they will compete for a state title in until after the regular season has ended. Participation in Michigan is limited to eligible 9th through 12th graders.
Schools with a four-year high school enrollment of 99 or less may draw upon the 8th grade for varsity competition in all sports except football, ice hockey and wrestling, while schools with a four-year high school enrollment of 49 or less may draw upon the 7th grade. The MHSAA is considered a leader among state high school offices and is known for pro-actively implementing solutions to problems faced by all state offices and for committing substantial resources to technological improvements. Through a special arrangement with ArbiterSports, MHSAA will be the first state office to provide its member schools with a single technology platform. Michigan maintained its standing nationally in high school sports participation statistics for the 2017–18 school year, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations; the total for the 2017–18 year was 296,625, with 127,098 girls and 169,527 boys taking part. Each year, the MHSAA recognizes 32 student-athletes throughout the state of Michigan with its Scholar-Athlete Award.
Recipients receive a $1,000 scholarship
Marian and Vivian Brown
Marian B. Brown and Vivian A. Brown were American identical twin actresses who appeared on television talk shows and television commercials, they became celebrity icons in San Francisco, known as the San Francisco Twins, renowned for their appearance in media with signature identically bright snappy outfits and hats atop meticulously coiffed hair. They were voted second as San Francisco's "Best Local Character" in 2000, they would eat dinner at one of the front tables at Uncle Vito's restaurant, just below the crest of Nob Hill, San Francisco. Marian B. Brown and twin sister Vivian A. Brown were born in Kalamazoo, just eight minutes apart. Vivian was the elder, they grew up in Mattawan, where they attended Mattawan High School and in 1945 graduated as co-valedictorians, giving the valedictory speech together. They went on to earn matching degrees in business education from Western Michigan University at Kalamazoo. At the age of 43, the Browns left Michigan for San Francisco in 1970 with the intent of escaping hot summers and the long cold winter months.
After they arrived in San Francisco, Vivian became Marian worked at a bank. Whilst in Kalamazoo, they were seen in the Kalamazoo mall and always dressed identically. Both Marian and Vivian were weighing 98 pounds each, they were always seen together. They dressed alike, walked in lockstep and ate at the same speed lifting their forks in unison, they never broke suit. After a slip and fall in the summer of 2012, Vivian ended up in the California Pacific Medical Center and her condition deteriorated. In 2012, the sisters faced financial problems, after Vivian required costly medical care after her fall. San Franciscans and charities united to help keep the sisters together. Vivian died aged 85 at the Rhoda Goldman Plaza Assisted Living Centre in the Western Addition of San Francisco. Marian died on November 20, 2014, aged 87 For more than 40 years, the Brown twins were an entertainment fixture of the San Francisco social scene, they appeared in public in identical outfits. They gained wide exposure in a 1988 television advertisement for Reebok, which led to appearances in talk shows and modeling in advertisements.
They appeared on television with Tom Snyder and Vicki Lawrence. They were featured in over 25 television advertisements over the years. Corporate advertisements in which they appeared included IBM, San Francisco Chronicle, Pay Less, Virgin Atlantic, Joe Boxer, Macy's, AT&T, Dell Computers, Apple Inc; the Brown Twins appear in an establishing shot in the film 9 to 5, ostensibly set in Los Angeles
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Michigan House of Representatives
The Michigan House of Representatives is the lower house of the Michigan Legislature. There are 110 members, each of whom is elected from constituencies having 77,000 to 91,000 residents, based on population figures from the 2010 U. S. Census, its composition and duties are established in Article IV of the Michigan Constitution. Members are elected in even-numbered years and take office at 12 p.m. on January 1 following the November general election. Concurrently with the Michigan Senate, the House first convenes on the second Wednesday in January, according to the state constitution; each member is limited to serving three terms of two years. The House meets in the north wing of the Michigan Capitol in Lansing. Members of the Michigan House of Representatives are referred to as representatives; because this mirrors the terminology used to describe members of Congress and news media, abiding by the Associated Press guidelines for journalists refer to members as state representatives to avoid confusion with their federal counterparts.
As elected officials, members of the Michigan House of Representatives receive the courtesy title of the Honorable for life. Speaker of the House: Lee Chatfield of Levering Speaker pro tempore: Jason Wentworth of Clare Majority Floor Leader: Triston Cole of Mancelona Minority Leader: Christine Greig of Farmington Hills Minority Floor Leader: Yousef Rabhi of Ann Arbor The 74th and current Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House and the leader of the majority party; the current Speaker is a third-term Republican from Levering. The Speaker calls the House to order at the hour to which the House last adjourned, preserves order and decorum in the chamber, recognizes Members to speak, puts all questions; the Speaker is the chief administrator of the House and is technically the employer of all legislative staff. There is a Speaker pro tempore and two associate Speakers pro tempore who preside in the absence of the Speaker; the full duties of the Speaker are described in Chapter II of the Rules of the House.
The Clerk of the House of Representatives is elected by Members of the House at the beginning of each two-year term. The 33rd and current clerk is Gary L. Randall. Randall served as clerk from 1999 to 2006; the assistant clerk is Richard J. Brown, who served as clerk from 2007 to 2010. Both Randall and Brown are former Members of the House. Under the rules of the House, the clerk is the parliamentarian of the House, presides in the absence of the Speaker or any Speaker pro tempore, takes roll at the beginning of each session day and announces whether or not a quorum is present, prepares the official calendar and journal of the House, is responsible for the care and preservation of all bills introduced in the House, for bills sent from the Senate until they are returned to the Senate; the sergeant at arms of the House of Representatives is the chief police officer of the House, appointed by the Speaker. The current chief sergeant at arms is Jr.. The chief sergeant and the assistant sergeants are empowered as law enforcement officers by statute.
The sergeants at arms have authority to serve subpoenas and warrants issued by the House or any duly authorized officer or committee, see that all visitors are seated and at no time are standing on the floor or balconies of the House, ensure that reasonable decorum is maintained in the lobby in front of the entrance to the chamber to ensure access for Members and to ensure equal treatment for all citizens. Article IV of the Michigan Constitution authorizes each house of the Legislature to "establish the committees necessary for the conduct of its business." The House does much of its work in committees, including the review of bills, executive oversight, the budget and appropriations process. Members of committees and their chairmen are appointed by the Speaker. Bills are referred to a committee by the Speaker, the chairman of a committee sets its agenda, including whether or not a bill will be reported to the full House; the Committee on Appropriations divides its work among subcommittees ordinarily structured by state department or major budget area.
There are four statutory standing committees: Joint Committee on Administrative Rules. Unlike the Senate, the House does not utilize the committee of the whole; the House Fiscal Agency is a nonpartisan agency within the House of Representatives which provides nonpartisan expertise to members of the House Appropriations Committee, as well as all other Members of the House. Fiscal analysts review the governor's budget recommendation and prepare budget bills, supplemental appropriations, certain transfer requests, provide fiscal impact statements on legislative proposals, monitor state and national situations that may have budgetary implications and analyze fiscal issues, prepare reports and documents to assist legislative deliberations, prepare special reports at the request of Representatives; the economist analyzes legislation related to tax and lottery issues, respond to Representatives' inquiries regarding state tax revenue, revenue sharing, other economic issues, monitors state revenue, tracks state, national economic conditions, prepares reports on revenue and other economic issues.
Legislative analysts prepare concise, nonpartisan analyses of bills. Summaries, completed prior to committee deliberations, describe how a bill would change current law, including any fiscal impact. Analyses are prepared for bills reported to the full House from committee and include, with the summary informat