The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
William of Gellone
William of Gellone, the medieval William of Orange, was the second Duke of Toulouse from 790 until 811. In 804, he founded the abbey of Gellone, he was canonized a saint in 1066 by Pope Alexander II. In the tenth or eleventh century, a Latin hagiography, the Vita sancti Willelmi, was composed based on oral traditions. By the twelfth century, William's legend had grown, he is the hero of an entire cycle of chansons de geste, the earliest of, the Chanson de Guillaume of about 1140. In the chansons, he is nicknamed Fièrebrace on account of his strength and the marquis au court nez on account of an injury suffered in battle with a giant. William was born in northern France in the mid-8th century, he was the son of Thierry IV, Count of Autun. As a kinsman and trusted comes, he spent his youth in the court of Charlemagne. In 788, Count of Toulouse, was captured by the Basque Adalric, made to swear an oath of allegiance to the Duke of Gascony, Lupus II. Upon his release Charlemagne replaced him with his Frankish cousin William.
William in turn subdued the Gascons. In 793, Hisham I, the successor of Abd ar-Rahman I, proclaimed a holy war against the Christians to the north, he amassed an army of 100,000 men, half of which attacked the Kingdom of Asturias while the other half invaded Languedoc, penetrating as far as Narbonne. William defeated them, he met the Muslim forces again near the river Orbieu at Villedaigne but was defeated, though his obstinate resistance exhausted the Muslim forces so much that they retreated to Spain. In 801, William commanded along with Louis King of Aquitaine a large expedition of Franks, Provençals, Aquitanians and Goths that captured Barcelona from the Moors. In 804, he founded the abbey in Gellone near Lodève in the diocese of Maguelonne, he granted property to Gellone and placed the monastery under the general control of Benedict of Aniane, whose monastery was nearby. Among his gifts to the abbey he founded was a piece of the True Cross, a present from his cousin Charlemagne. Charlemagne had received the relic from the Patriarch of Jerusalem according to the Vita of William.
In 806, William retired to Gellone as a monk and died there on 28 May 812. When he died, it was said the bells at Orange rang on their own accord. William mentioned both his family and monastery in his will: His will of 28 January 804, names his living wives Gunegunde and Guitburgi, his deceased parents and Aldana van Martel, two brothers and Adalelmo, two sisters and Bertana, four sons, Guitcario and Helmbruc, not his daughter Waldrada, or daughter Rotlinde, one nephew, Bertrano, his wife Guitburgi is said to have been the widow of the Moorish wali of Orange taken by William in his battles against the Umayyad army of Hisham I in and around the county of Narbona about 793-796. His son Barnardo is said to have been by Guitburgi, her name before her baptism was Orable. It is not clear if she married William or was held in concubinage, although he calls her his wife in his will. Gellone remained under the control of the abbots of Aniane, it became a subject of contention. So many pilgrims were attracted to Gellone that his corpse was exhumed from the modest site in the narthex and given a more prominent place under the choir, to the intense dissatisfaction of the Abbey of Aniane.
A number of forged documents and assertions were produced on each side that leave details of actual history doubtful. The Abbey was a major stop for pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela, its late 12th century Romanesque cloister, systematically dismantled during the French revolution, found its way to The Cloisters in New York. The Sacramentary of Gellone, dating to the late 8th century, is a famous manuscript. William's faithful service to Charlemagne is portrayed as an example of feudal loyalty. William's career battling Saracens is sung in epic poems in the 12th and 13th century cycle called La Geste de Garin de Monglane, some two dozen chansons de geste that center around William, the great-grandson of the legendary Garin. One section of the cycle, however, is devoted to the feats of his father, there named Aymeri de Narbonne, who has received Narbonne as his seigniory after his return from Spain with Charlemagne. Details of the "Aymeri" of the poem are conflated with a historic figure, the viscount of Narbonne from 1108 to 1134.
In the chanson he is awarded Ermengart, daughter of Didier, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards. Among his seven sons and five daughters is William; the defeat of the Moors at Orange was given legendary treatment in the 12th century epic La Prise d'Orange. There, he was made Count of Toulouse in the stead of the disgraced Chorso King of Aquitaine in 778, he is difficult to separate from the legends and poems that gave him feats of arms and titles: Guillaume Fièrebras, Guillaum au Court-Nez, Guillaum de Narbonne, Guillaume d'Orange. His wife is said to have been a converted Saracen, Orable christened Guibourc. "L'Abbaye de Saint-Guilhem-le-Desert" Metropolitan Museum:The Saint-Guilhem Cloister This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Guillaume d'Orange". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 692. "The saint who married a Muslim princess", Catholic Herald, January 4, 2008 "Die altfranzösi
Roland was a Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France. The historical Roland was military governor of the Breton March, responsible for defending Francia's frontier against the Bretons, his only historical attestation is in Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni, which notes he was part of the Frankish rearguard killed by rebellious Basques in Iberia at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. The story of Roland's death at Roncevaux Pass was embellished in medieval and Renaissance literature; the first and most famous of these epic treatments was the Old French Chanson de Roland of the 11th century. Two masterpieces of Italian Renaissance poetry, the Orlando Innamorato and Orlando Furioso, are further detached from history than the earlier Chansons to the Morgante by Luigi Pulci. Roland is poetically associated with his sword Durendal, his horse Veillantif, his oliphant horn; the only historical mention of the actual Roland is in the Vita Karoli Magni by Charlemagne's courtier and biographer Einhard.
Einhard refers to him as Hruodlandus Brittannici limitis praefectus, indicating that he presided over the Breton March, Francia's border territory against the Bretons. The passage, which appears in Chapter 9, mentions that Hroudlandus was among those killed in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass: While he was vigorously pursuing the Saxon war without a break, after he had placed garrisons at selected points along the border, marched into Spain with as large a force as he could mount, his army passed through the Pyrenees and received the surrender of all the towns and fortified places he encountered. He was returning with his army safe and intact, but high in the Pyrenees on that return trip he experienced the Basques; that place is so covered with thick forest that it is the perfect spot for an ambush. Army was forced by the narrow terrain to proceed in a long line and, high on the mountain, that the Basques set their ambush; the Basques had the advantage in this skirmish because of the lightness of their weapons and the nature of the terrain, whereas the Franks were disadvantaged by the heaviness of their arms and the unevenness of the land.
Eggihard, the overseer of the king's table, the count of the palace, Roland, the lord of the Breton March, along with many others died in that skirmish. But this deed could not be avenged at that time, because the enemy had so dispersed after the attack that there was no indication as to where they could be found. Roland was evidently the first official appointed to direct Frankish policy in Breton affairs, as local Franks under the Merovingian dynasty had not pursued any specific relationship with the Bretons, their frontier castle districts such as Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine, south of Mont Saint-Michel, are now divided between Normandy and Brittany. The distinctive culture of this region preserves the present-day Gallo language and legends of local heroes such as Roland. Roland's successor in Brittania Nova was Guy of Nantes, who like Roland, was unable to exert Frankish expansion over Brittany and sustained a Breton presence in the Carolingian Empire. According to legend, Roland was laid to rest in the basilica at Blaye, near Bordeaux, on the site of the citadel.
Roland was a iconic figure in medieval Europe and its minstrel culture. Many tales made him a nephew of Charlemagne and turned his life into an epic tale of the noble Christian killed by Islamic forces, which forms part of the medieval Matter of France; the tale of Roland's death is retold in the 11th-century poem The Song of Roland, where he is equipped with the olifant and an unbreakable sword, enchanted by various Christian relics, named Durendal. The Song contains a romanticized account of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and Roland's death, setting the tone for fantastical depiction of Charlemagne's court, it was adapted and modified throughout the Middle Ages, including an influential Latin prose version Historia Caroli Magni, which includes Roland's battle with a Saracen giant named Ferracutus, only vulnerable at his navel. The story was adapted in the anonymous Franco-Venetian epic L'Entrée d'Espagne and in the 14th-century Italian epic La Spagna, attributed to the Florentine Sostegno di Zanobi and composed between 1350 and 1360.
Other texts give further legendary accounts of Roland's life. His friendship with Olivier and his engagement with Olivier's sister Aude are told in Girart de Vienne by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube. Roland's youth and the acquisition of his horse Veillantif and sword are described in Aspremont. Roland appears in Quatre Fils Aymon, where he is contrasted with Renaud de Montauban against whom he fights. In Norway, the tales of Roland are part of the 13th-century Karlamagnús saga. In the Divine Comedy Dante sees Roland, named Orlando as it is usual in Italian literature, in the Heaven of Mars together with others who fought for the faith. Roland appears in Entrée d'Espagne, a 14th-century Franco-Venetian chanson de geste and La Spagna, a 14th-century Italian epic. From the 15th century onwards, he appears as a central character in a sequence of Italian verse romances as "Orlando", including Morgante by Luigi
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
15th century in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century. See also: 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1403 – A guild of stationers is founded in the City of London. As the Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers, it continues to be a Livery Company in the 21st century. 1403–08 – The Yongle Encyclopedia is written in China. C. 1408–11 – An Leabhar Breac is compiled by Murchadh Ó Cuindlis at Duniry in Ireland. C. 1410 – John, Duke of Berry, commissions the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, illustrated by the Limbourg brothers between c. 1412 and 1416. 1424 – The first French royal library is transferred by the English regent of France, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, to England. 1425 – At about this date the first Guildhall Library is established in the City of London under the will of Richard Whittington. 1434 – Japanese Noh actor and playwright Zeami Motokiyo is exiled to Sado Island by the Shōgun.
1443 – King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul as the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is first described in the Hunminjeongeum published on 9 October 1446 1444: 15 June – Cosimo de' Medici founds the Laurentian Library in Florence. 1448 – Pope Nicholas V founds the Vatican Library in Rome. 1450 – Johannes Gutenberg has set up his movable type printing press as a commercial operation in Mainz by this date and a German poem has been printed. 1451 1 August – A manuscript of Dante's Divine Comedy is sold in London. Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel in Warwickshire, presumed author of the chivalric tales of Le Morte d'Arthur, is imprisoned for most of the following decade on multiple charges including violent robbery and rape. 1452 – Completion of the Malatestiana Library in Cesena, the first European public library, in the sense of belonging to the commune and open to all citizens. 1453 – Pageant of Coriolan staged in the piazza of Milan Cathedral. 1455 23 February – Johannes Gutenberg completes printing of the Gutenberg Bible in Mainz, the first major book printed with movable type in the West, using a textualis blackletter typeface.
5 June – French poet François Villon is implicated in a murder. 1457 14 August – The Mainz Psalter, the second major book printed with movable type in the West, the first to be wholly finished mechanically and the first to carry a printed date, is printed by Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer for the Elector of Mainz. The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in Persia is known to be in existence. 1460 – From about this date, Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, begins to form the Bibliotheca Corviniana, Europe's largest secular library. 1462: 8 November – First known sentence written in the Albanian language, a Formula e pagëzimit by Archbishop Pal Engjëlli. 1461 – Albrecht Pfister is pioneering movable type book printing in the German language and the addition of woodcut illustrations in Bamberg, producing a collection of Ulrich Boner's fables, Der Edelstein, the first book printed with illustrations. Soon after this he prints the first known Biblia pauperum. 1463: 5 January – François Villon is reprieved from hanging in Paris but never heard of again.
1468 31 May – The Byzantine scholar Cardinal Basilios Bessarion donates his library to the Republic of Venice, the foundation of the Biblioteca Marciana. The printers Johann and Wendelin of Speyer settle in Venice. 1470 Johann Heynlin prints the first book in Paris, the Epistolae Gasparini of Gasparinus de Bergamo, a guide to writing Latin prose. Nicolas Jenson's edition of Eusebius, published in Venice, is the first book to use a roman type based on the principles of typography rather than manuscript. Sermo ad populo predicabilis, a sermon printed in Cologne, is the first book to incorporate printed page numbers. 1473 First book printed in Hungary, Chronica Hungarorum, the "Buda Chronicle". First known printing in Poland, Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474, a wall calendar. 1474 – First book printed in Spain, Obres e trobes en lahors de la Verge María, the anthology of a religious poetry contest held this year in Valencia. 1475 February – Pope Sixtus IV appoints the humanist Bartolomeo Platina as Prefect of the newly-re-established Vatican Library in Rome after Platina has presented him with the manuscript of his Lives of the Popes.
Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye is the first book to be printed in English, by William Caxton in Bruges. Rashi's commentary on the Torah is the first dated book to be printed in Hebrew, in Reggio di Calabria. 1476 30 January – Constantine Lascaris's Erotemata is the first book to be printed in Greek. William Caxton sets up the first printing press in England, at Westminster. First performance of one of Terence's plays since Andria in Florence. 1477: 18 November – Caxton prints Earl Rivers' translation of Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, the first book printed in England on a printing press. 1478 – In England William Caxton publishes the first printed copy of the Canterbury Tales. The Ranworth Antiphoner is presented to Ranworth. 17 December – First book printed in Oxford. 1479 The St Albans Press, the third printing press in England, is set up in the Abbey Gateway, St. Albans. Robert Ricart begins writing The Maire of Bristowe is Kalendar in England. 1480s – Scottish makar Robert Henryson writes The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian.
1485 – The play
12th century in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 12th century. The 12th century in Western Europe saw an increase in the production of Latin texts and a proliferation of literate clerics from the multiplying cathedral schools. At the same time, vernacular literatures ranging from Provençal to Icelandic embodied in lyric and romance the values and worldview of an self-conscious and prosperous courtly aristocracy; these two trends contributed to a sweeping revival of letters with a lasting influence on the development of literature in the following centuries. 1104: September 3 St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral and the St. Cuthbert Gospel of St. John removed from his tomb. 1170: Poet and historian Lu You travels on the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary. Before 1173: Copenhagen Psalter produced in northern England c. 1193: The university and its libraries at Nalanda in India are sacked and burned by Turkic invader Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji.
Early 12th century Gesta Francorum Íslendingabók Liber Eliensis by monks of Ely Abbey By 1106 Lebor na hUidre by monks of Clonmacnoise 1108 Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent c. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by'Gallus Anonymus' c. 1113 Primary Chronicle 1122–54 Peterborough Chronicle c. 1125–50 Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis by Albert of Aix c. 1135–39 Estoire des Engleis by Geoffrey Gaimar c. 1136 Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth From 1137 Vita Ludovici regis by Abbot Suger and Historia gloriosi regis Ludovici by Suger and others Concludes 1140 Chronicon ex chronicis by John of Worcester c. 1140 Chronicon Roskildense 1145 Samguk Sagi by Kim Bu-sik and others Concludes 1146 Chronica de duabus civitatibus by Otto of Freising c. 1149–50 Visio Tnugdali transcribed by Brother Marcus c. 1150–55 Roman de Brut by Wace Concludes 1152 Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Book 1 by Otto of Freising 1154 Henry of Huntingdon: Historia Anglorum c. 1162–84 The Gesta comitum Barcinonensium c. 1170 Chronicon Lethrense 1170–84 Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum by William of Tyre c.1168–69 Chronica Slavorum by Helmold of Bosau By 1177 Unum ex quatuor by Clement of Llanthony c.
1178–1208 Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus c. 1181–82 Witherlogh by Sven Aggesen c. 1183 De bello Troiano by Joseph of Exeter c. 1186–87 Historia brevis regum Dacie by Sven Aggesen 1188 Topographia Hibernica by Gerald of Wales 1190s Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja c. 1190–1215 Brut by Layamon 1192 Chronicon de rebus gestis Ricardi Primi by Richard of Devizes c. 1193–98 De instructione principis by Gerald of Wales Early 12th century Rhinelandic Rhyming Bible c. 1120 Theologia'Summi Boni' by Peter Abelard c. 1121 Sic et Non by Peter Abelard c. 1141–42 Historia Ecclesiastica by Orderic Vitalis 1150 Skara Missal c. 1150 Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail The Four Books of Sentences by Peter Lombard De tribus in paenitentia consideranda and Unum ex quatuor by Clement of Llanthony Mid-12th century Unum ex quatuor by Clement of Llanthony c. 1152–64 Liber viarum Dei by Elisabeth of Schönau c. 1160 De institutione inclusarum by Aelred of Rievaulx Policraticus by John of Salisbury 1163? Makhzan al-Asrar by Nizami Ganjavi c.
1175–1200 Poema Morale c. 1190 Senchakushū by Hōnen 1196 Revelation of St Nicholas to a monk of Evesham 11th or 12th century Betha Meic Creiche Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib 12th century De Reis van Sinte Brandaen Ramavataram by Kambar By 1111 Deliverance From Error by Al-Ghazali c. 1111–1115 Vita Mathildis by Donizone c. 1124 Vita Anselmi by Eadmer 1148 Alexiad by Anna Komnene c. 1160–70 Het Leven van Sint Servaes by Heinrich von Veldeke 1180–86 Vita Wulfrici anchoretae Haselbergiae by John of Ford c. 1199 De rebus a se gestis by Gerald of Wales Táin Bó Cúailnge Ramavataram by Kambar Earliest texts of the Tristan and Iseult legend c. 1150–1190 Le Roman de Tristan by Béroul c. 1155–1173 Tristan by Thomas of Britain c. 1160 Roman d'Enéas c. 1165 Letter of Prester John c. 1180 Chanson d'Antioche c. 1180–1210 Nibelungenlied Late 12th century Acallam na Senórach Aiol and Mirabel Karel ende Elegast The Tale of Igor's Campaign Chanson de Jérusalem Digenis Acritas Metrical Dindshenchas c. 12th century Historia Caroli Magni The Knight in the Panther's Skin by Shota Rustaveli Mabinogion c. 1100 Culhwch and Olwen c.
1155–60 Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure c. 1170 Érec et Énide by Chrétien de Troyes c. 1175–1200? Roman de toute chevalerie by Thomas de Kent c. 1176 Cligès by Chrétien de Troyes 1177–80 Khosrow and Shirin by Nizami Ganjavi c. 1177–81 by Chrétien de Troyes Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion c. 1180s Ipomedon by Hue de Rotelande Protheselaus by Hue de Rotelande Der arme Heinrich by Hartmann von Aue c. 11
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental