Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
Edward Whymper was an English mountaineer, explorer and author best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. Four members of his party were killed during the descent. Whymper made important first ascents on the Mont Blanc massif and in the Pennine Alps, Chimborazo in South America, and his exploration of Greenland contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Whymper wrote several books on mountaineering, including Scrambles Amongst the Alps, Edward Whymper was born in London, England, on 27 April 1840 to the artist and wood engraver Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge. He was the second of eleven children, his brother being the artist. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age, in 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery drawings. In 1861, Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper climbed the Barre des Écrins in 1864 with Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and guides Christian Almer senior and junior.
That year he made the first crossing of the Moming Pass. According to his own words, his failure was on the west ridge of the Dent dHérens in 1863. In 1865, who had failed eight times already and this party of four was joined by Hudson and Croz, and the inexperienced Douglas Hadow. Their attempt by what is now the route, the Hörnli ridge, met with success on 14 July 1865. On the descent, Hadow slipped and fell onto Croz, dislodging him and dragging Douglas and Hudson to their deaths, a controversy ensued as to whether the rope had actually been cut, but a formal investigation could not find any proof. It can be deduced that Taugwalder had no choice but to use a weaker rope as the stronger rope was not long enough to connect Traugwalder to Douglas. The account of Whympers attempts on the Matterhorn occupies the part of his book, Scrambles amongst the Alps. Yes, I shall always see them, Whympers 1865 campaign had been planned to test his route-finding skills in preparation for an expedition to Greenland in 1867.
The exploration in Greenland resulted in an important collection of fossil plants, Whympers report was published in the report of the British Association of 1869. Another expedition in 1872 was devoted to a survey of the coastline, Whymper next organized an expedition to Ecuador, designed primarily to collect data for the study of altitude sickness and the effect of reduced pressure on the human body. His chief guide was Jean-Antoine Carrel, who died from exhaustion on the Matterhorn after bringing his employers into safety through a snowstorm
Claude Nicollier is the first astronaut from Switzerland. He has flown on four Space Shuttle missions and his first spaceflight was in 1992, and his final spaceflight was in 1999. He took part in two servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope, during his final spaceflight he participated in a spacewalk, becoming the first European Space Agency astronaut to do so during a Space Shuttle mission. In 2000 he was assigned to the Astronaut Office Extravehicular Activity Branch, Nicollier retired from ESA in April 2007. He was appointed professor of Spatial Technology at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne on 28 March 2007. He is a board member of Swiss Space Systems. Nicollier was born September 2,1944, after graduating from the Gymnase de Lausanne in Lausanne in 1962, he studied physics at the University of Lausanne and received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1970. Later, in 1988, he graduated as a test pilot from the Empire Test Pilots School in Boscombe Down, in 2004, he started teaching at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and became a full professor in March 2007.
Concurrently with his research activities, he joined the Swiss Air Transport School in Zürich and became an airline pilot in 1974. In July 1978, he was selected by ESA as a member of the first group of European astronauts, under agreement between ESA and NASA, he joined the NASA astronaut candidates selected in May 1980 for astronaut training as a mission specialist. From the Spring of 1996 to the end of 1998, he was Head of the Astronaut Office Robotics Branch, from the year 2000 on, he was assigned to the Astronaut Office EVA Branch, while maintaining a position as Lead ESA astronaut in Houston. Nicollier retired from ESA in April 2007 and he is an honorary member of the Swiss Aero Club, the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects, and the Swiss Astronomy Day Society. Nicollier has spent over 1000 hours in space, including one space walk lasting 8 hours and 10 minutes and he served as mission specialist on four missions with four different space shuttles. His first spaceflight was planned to be STS-51-H, which had scheduled for November 1985.
His first spaceflight was planned to be STS-61-K, which had scheduled for October 1986. Nicolliers first spaceflight was as a Mission Specialist on the 8-day Space Shuttle mission aboard Atlantis, called STS-46, the crew deployed the European Retrievable Carrier EURECA, as well as the Tethered Satellite System-1, which was a joint NASA and Italian Space Agency project. His second spaceflight was as a Mission Specialist on the 10-day mission aboard Endeavour, called STS-61 and it was the first mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, which had been launched three years previously. In 1996 he took part in STS-75, aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, which deployed TSS-1R and his final spaceflight was an 8-day mission aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, called STS-103, in 1999
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission launched on 2 December 1993 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the mission restored the spaceborne observatorys vision, marred by spherical aberration, with the installation of a new main camera and a corrective optics package. This correction occurred more than three and a years after the Hubble was launched aboard STS-31 in April 1990. The flight brought instrument upgrades and new solar arrays to the telescope, with its very heavy workload, the STS-61 mission was one of the most complex in the Shuttles history. It lasted almost 11 days, and crew members made five spacewalks, even the re-positioning of Intelsat VI on STS-49 in May 1992 required only four. The flight plan allowed for two additional EVAs, which could have raised the number to seven. The final two contingency EVAs were not made, in order to complete the mission without too much fatigue, the five extravehicular working sessions were shared between two pairs of different astronauts alternating their shifts.
The internal HST payload package was not affected because it was sealed. On November 18 Endeavour experienced a failure of a transducer on the hydraulic actuator. To replace the actuator would have required a rollback to the Orbiter Processing Facility because access to the actuator was only through the Main Landing Gear wheel well. Since there were 4 delta-P transducers and the Launch Commit Criteria required only 3 of 4, the flight crew arrived at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility on November 27 and the payload bay doors were closed at 3, 20pm on November 28. The first launch attempt on December 1,1993 was scrubbed due to weather constraint violations at the Shuttle Landing Facility, just before the scrub the range was in a no-go situation due to an 800 ft long ship in restricted sea zone. A 24‑hour scrub turn-a-round was put into effect with a launch window extending between 4, 26am to 5, 38am on December 2,1993, Launch occurred.019 seconds from its scheduled time of 4, 26am December 2,1993.
After launch on 2 December 1993, the astronauts carried out a series of checks on the vehicle and went to sleep seven and a half hours after liftoff. Endeavour performed a series of burns that allowed the shuttle to close in on the Hubble Space Telescope at a rate of 60 nautical miles per 95-minute orbit, the crew made a detailed inspection of the payload and checked out both the robot arm and the spacesuits. All of Endeavours systems functioned well as the crew got a full days sleep in preparation for the evenings rendezvous, at the end of Flight Day 2, Endeavour was 190 nautical miles behind HST and closing. HST was sighted by astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman using binoculars, the closing speed remained the same until the next reaction control system firing, at 8,34 pm CST. This height-adjusting burn changed the shuttles velocity by 4.6 feet per second, modified the high point of Endeavours orbit, and fine-tuned its course toward a point 40 miles behind HST
Space Shuttle Endeavour
Space Shuttle Endeavour is a retired orbiter from NASAs Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built. It embarked on its first mission, STS-49, in May 1992 and its 25th and final mission, STS-134, STS-134 was expected to be the final mission of the Space Shuttle program, but with the authorization of STS-135, Atlantis became the last shuttle to fly. The United States Congress authorized the construction of Endeavour in 1987 to replace Challenger, structural spares built during the construction of Discovery and Atlantis were used in its assembly. NASA chose, on cost grounds, to build Endeavour from spares rather than refitting Enterprise or accepting a Rockwell International proposal to build two shuttles for the price of one. The orbiter is named after the British HMS Endeavour, the ship which took Captain James Cook on his first voyage of discovery and this is why the name is spelled in the British English manner, rather than the American English. This has caused confusion, including when NASA itself misspelled a sign on the pad in 2007.
The Space Shuttle carried a piece of the wood from Cook’s ship inside the cockpit. The name honored Endeavour, the Command Module of Apollo 15, Endeavour was named through a national competition involving students in elementary and secondary schools. Entries included an essay about the name, the story behind it and why it was appropriate for a NASA shuttle, Endeavour was the most popular entry, accounting for almost one-third of the state-level winners. The national winners were Senatobia Middle School in Senatobia, Mississippi, in the division and Tallulah Falls School in Tallulah Falls, Georgia. They were honored at ceremonies in Washington, D. C. including a White House ceremony where then-President George H. W. Bush presented awards to each school. Endeavour was delivered by Rockwell International Space Transportation Systems Division in May 1991 and first launched a year later, in May 1992, Rockwell International claimed that it had made no profit on Space Shuttle Endeavour, despite construction costing US$2.2 billion.
On its first mission, it captured and redeployed the stranded INTELSAT VI communications satellite, the first African-American woman astronaut, Mae Jemison, was brought into space on the mission STS-47 on September 12,1992. Endeavour flew the first servicing mission STS-61 for the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993, in 1997 it was withdrawn from service for eight months for a retrofit, including installation of a new airlock. In December 1998, it delivered the Unity Module to the International Space Station, Endeavours last Orbiter Major Modification period began in December 2003 and ended on October 6,2005. Morgan was the backup for Christa McAuliffe who was on the ill-fated mission STS-51-L in 1986, as it was constructed later, Endeavour was built with new hardware designed to improve and expand orbiter capabilities. Most of this equipment was incorporated into the other three orbiters during out-of-service major inspection and modification programs. Endeavour’s upgrades include, A 40-foot diameter drag chute that reduced the orbiters rollout distance by 1,000 to 2,000 feet, the plumbing and electrical connections needed for Extended Duration Orbiter modifications to allow up to a 28-day mission
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia