Walther-Peer Fellgiebel was a German author and a key member of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients. Fellgiebel served in World War II reaching the rank of a Major, he was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's father was the General Erich Fellgiebel. Fellgiebel joined the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients in 1954 and as of 1961 served on the board of directors, he became head of the order commission of the AKCR in 1970, a position he held until 1985. From this work evolved the book Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes, 1939–1945. For many years this book was considered a reference work on this topic. Fellgiebel himself indicated that the book was not official; the deteriorating situation of Nazi Germany during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process. In some of these instances the AKCR accepted and listed holders of the Knight's Cross with questionable evidence.
Author Veit Scherzer analyzed the German Federal Archives and found discrepancies in 193 instances of the original 7,322 listings by Fellgiebel. Fellgiebel's work was translated into English in 2003 as Elite of the Third Reich: the Recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, 1939-45. Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 7 September 1943 as Oberleutnant as chief of the 2./leichte Heeres Artillerie-Abteilung 935 Officer's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Verdienstkreuz 1. Klasse Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes, 1939–1945: Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile. Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer: Elite of the Third Reich: the Recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, 1939-45, West Midlands, England: Helion. ISBN 9781874622468
Paul Klatt was a German general who commanded the 3rd Mountain Division during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves of Nazi Germany. Klatt surrendered to the Red Army in the course of the Soviet 1945 Prague Offensive. Convicted as a criminal in the Soviet Union, he was held until 1955, when he was repatriated to Germany. Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross & 2nd Class & 1st Class German Cross in Gold on 14 April 1942 as Oberst in Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 138 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knight's Cross on 4 January 1943 as Oberst and commander of Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 138 686th Oak Leaves on 26 December 1944 as Generalleutnant and commander of 3. Gebirgs-Division
Mittenwald is a German municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria. Mittenwald is located 16 kilometres to the south-east of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, it is situated in the Valley of the River Isar, by the northern foothills of the Alps, on the route between the old banking and commercial centre of Augsburg, to the north, Innsbruck to the south-east, beyond, the Brenner Pass and the route to Lombardy, another region with a rich commercial past and present. Mittenwald, along with Garmisch-Partenkirchen to the west, was acquired by the Prince-Bishopric of Freising in the late 14th century and the "crowned Aethiopian" head, part of Mittenwald's coat of arms recalls that 400-year association that ended when the Prince-Bishopric was secularized in 1802-03 and its territory annexed to Bavaria. Mittenwald's location as an important transit centre on a low transalpine route has been a defining feature of the area for at least two thousand years: during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries traffic was boosted by large treasure trains sent from Spain to pay troops in the Netherlands, the more conventional sea route having been rendered unreliable by the discreet but effective sympathy with which the English Protestant establishment favoured the Spanish king's rebellious Dutch subjects.
Wyk auf Föhr, Germany Mittenwald is famous for the manufacture of violins and cellos which began in the mid-17th century by the Klotz family of violin makers, has been a popular stop with tourists and student luthiers since the 1930s. The most significant landmark in the village is the pink colored Roman Catholic church of Saints Peter and Paul, typical of the region; the church and many of the surrounding buildings, both businesses and private residences, are decorated with elaborate paintings on the exterior walls. Near the Luttenseekaserne there is a monument honoring the participants of the Slutsk Defence Action. Traudl Maurer from Mittenwald is long-distance runner. Official website Virtual tour of Mittenwald Museum of violin manufacturing
The Sniper's Badge was a World War II German military decoration awarded to snipers. It was instituted on 20 August 1944, it was only eligible to personnel serving in the German Army and the Waffen-SS. By order of the High Command, it was made available to snipers of the other armed services; the sniper's badge had three grades: Third class for 20 enemy kills Second class for 40 enemy kills First class for 60 enemy killsThe enemy kills were counted from 1 September 1944. Close quarter kills; every enemy kill reported to the unit. The sniper's badge was made of greenish-gray cloth and oval shaped, it depicts a black eagle's head turned to its left with white plumage, ochre yellow-colored eyes and closed beak. The eagle's body is covered by a left mounted acorn; the edges of the ribbon are sewn and the three stages are distinguished by a circumferentially sewn cord in silver or gold. The badge was worn on the right sleeve of the uniform. Matthäus Hetzenauer Bruno Sutkus Angolia, John. For Führer and Fatherland: Military Awards of the Third Reich.
R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0912138149. Jörg Nimmergut: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945. Band 4. Württemberg II-Deutsches Reich. Zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 2001, ISBN 3-00-001396-2. Brian L. Davis: Uniformen und Abzeichen des deutschen Heeres 1933–1945. Motorbuchverlag
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
The Kaiser Mountains are a mountain range in the Northern Limestone Alps and Eastern Alps. Its main ridges – are the Zahmer Kaiser and south of it the Wilder Kaiser; the mountains are situated in the Austrian province of Tyrol between the town of Kufstein and the town of St. Johann in Tirol; the Kaiser Mountains offer some of the loveliest scenery in all the Northern Limestone Alps. The Kaiser Mountains are divided into the Wilder Kaiser or Wild Kaiser chain of mountains, formed predominantly of bare limestone rock, the Zahmer Kaiser, whose southern side is covered by mountain pine; these two mountain ridges are linked by the 1,580-metre-high Stripsenjoch pass, but are separated in the west by the valley of Kaisertal and in the east by the Kaiserbach valley. In total the Kaiser extends for about 20 km in an east-west direction and about 14 km from north to south, giving a total area of some 280 square kilometres; the Zahmer Kaiser only just breaks through the 2,000 metre barrier. The highest elevation in the Wilder Kaiser is the Ellmauer Halt in the borough of Kufstein at 2,344 metres.
There are around forty other summits, including many well-known climbing peaks such as the Karlspitzen, Fleischbank, Goinger Halt and Maukspitze. As early as the 1920s individual nature lovers, including the "Emperor Pope", Franz Nieboer, called for greater protection of the unique natural region of the Kaiser; the primary aim of this protection was to prevent over development of the Kaiser Mountains by cable cars and roads. In those days such ideas were unsuccessful. In 1961, following a referendum, it was decided to establish a nature reserve, opened on 19 April 1963; the reserve, which covered all the peaks of the Wilder and Zahmer Kaiser, has an area of 102 square kilometres and lies within the territories of the municipalities of Kufstein, St. Johann in Tirol, Ellmau, Kirchdorf in Tirol and Walchsee; the height of the nature reserve's terrain ranges from 480 m up to 2344 m at the summit of the Ellmauer Halt. The only man-made lift in the protected area is the chair lift to the Brentenjoch saddle.
Other lift projects were not realized because of the nature reserve. For a long time, the construction of a road into the Kaisertal valley was hotly contested as it was the only inhabited valley in Austria without road access; the Kaisertal road, which now runs from Ebbs through the Anna Tunnel into the Kaisertal, was opened on 31 May 2008. It was built by the parish of Ebbs as a private road for use only by a narrow group of beneficiaries: residents, farmers and organisations with safety functions; the flora and fauna of the nature reserve is rich. In the Kaiser Mountains there are about 940 different flowering plants, 38 different species of fern and over 400 different mosses; the colonies of fungi and lichen are rich, with 100 and 236 different species being represented. The forest region comprises mixed forest with beech and spruce. In the submontane area there are ash and sycamore maple, and, in sunny areas, alder. Hay meadows, poor grassland and pastures are typical of the alpine meadows.
In the subalpine region we find the typical dwarf shrub types such as mountain pine and alpenrose, the rare dwarf alpenrose. Alpine polsterrasen are found all the way up to the summit areas. There are various wetlands stocked with typical plants; as a product of ice age processes the Kaiser is home to a number of rare endemic invertebrates, such as Allobobophora smaragdina, a door snail, a number of spiders and butterflies. Typical vertebrates are the alpine and fire salamanders, smooth snake, edible dormouse, hazel dormouse and bank vole. In higher regions there are chamois, snow vole and mountain hare. Typical birds are wood warbler, the red-breasted flycatcher, alpine chough, crag martin, alpine willow tit, lesser redpoll, alpine accentor, alpine wallcreeper and black grouse - capercaillie and rock ptarmigan. Raptors occurring in the Kaiser are the northern goshawk, Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, tawny owl, pygmy owl and Tengmalm's owl; the Kaiser is part of the Northern Limestone Alps and consists of Wetterstein limestone and dolomite.
The Wetterstein limestone has a maximum thickness of about 1000 m, which corresponds to the maximum height of the rock faces of the Kaiser. The younger dolomites are found in the valley hollows. Extensive moraine fields are a remnant of the Würm glaciation; the Kaiser Mountains are drained in the west by the Sparchenbach, which flows through the Kaisertal and empties into the Inn. Between Fleischbank and the Goinger Halt is a small cirque glacier that will disappear soon as average temperatures rise. In the far west of the mountain range is Lake Hinterstein, used as a bathing lake; the first dated evidence of human settlement in the Kaiser Mountains goes back 4000 to 5000 years. These are discoveries of the remains of Stone Age hunters in the Tischofer Cave. Other discoveries have revealed the presence of Bronze Age
The Gewehr 43 or Karabiner 43 is a 7.92×57mm Mauser caliber semi-automatic rifle developed by Germany during World War II. The design was based on that of the earlier G41, but incorporating an improved short-stroke piston gas system similar to that of the Soviet Tokarev SVT-40, it incorporated innovative mass-production techniques. Germany's quest for a semi-automatic infantry rifle resulted in two designs – the G41 and G41, from Mauser and Walther arms respectively; the Mauser design was introduced in 1941 and at least 12,755 were made, but it proved unreliable in combat. The Walther design still suffered from reliability problems; the problems with both designs stemmed from a demand made by the Army that the rifles will not use holes drilled into the barrel, known as ports, to run the automatic loading mechanism. Meeting this requirement meant the designs had to use uncommon mechanisms that were unreliable and prone to fouling; the German invasion of the Soviet Union led to small numbers of the SVT-40 being captured and returned to Germany for examination.
These used a simple gas mechanism powered from a port cut into the barrel about 1/3 of the way back from the end, replaced the conventional stripper reloads with a modern box magazine. It was superior to the G41's, simpler as well. In 1943, Walther combined a similar gas system with aspects of the G41 providing improved performance, it was accepted and entered into service as the Gewehr 43, renamed Karabiner 43 in April 1944, with production amounting to just over 400,000 between 1943 and 1945. In 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union as part of Operation Barbarossa. Just prior to the opening of hostilities the Soviet Red Army had started re-arming its infantry, complementing its older bolt-action rifles with the new semi-automatic SVT-38s and SVT-40s; this was a shock to the Germans, who ramped up their own semi-automatic rifle development efforts significantly. The SVT series used a simpler gas-operated mechanism, soon emulated by Walther in its successor to the G41, producing the Gewehr 43.
The simpler, sturdier design and mechanism of the G43 made it lighter, easier to produce, more reliable and much tougher than the Gewehr 41. The addition of a 10-round stamped-steel detachable box magazine was an improvement over the integral box magazine of the G41; the Gewehr 43 was intended, like the G41, to be loaded using 5-round stripper clips without removing the magazine. Soldiers armed with the weapon carried one standard stripper clip pouch and a Gewehr 43 pouch with two spare magazines; the G43 utilises the same flapper-locked mechanism as its predecessor. The Gewehr 43 was put into production in October 1943, followed in 1944 by the Karabiner 43, identical to the G43 in every way except for the letter stamped on the side; the name change from Gewehr to Karabiner was due to the fact the rifle was two centimetres shorter than the standard Karabiner 98k and therefore the term Gewehr was somewhat unfitting. The Wehrmacht intended to equip each grenadier company in the army with 19 G43s, including 10 with scopes, for issue as the company commander saw fit.
This issue was never achieved. The iron sight line had a hooded pointed-post-type front sight, a tangent-type rear sight with a V-shaped rear notch; these standard sight lines consisted of somewhat coarse aiming elements, making it suitable for rough field handling, aiming at distant area fire targets and low-light usage, but less suitable for precise aiming at distant or small point targets. It is graduated for 7.92×57mm Mauser s. S. Patrone cartridges loaded with 12.8 g s. S. ball bullets from 100 to 1,200 m in 100 m increments. Gewehr 43s were made by Berlin-Lübecker Maschinenfabrik in Lübeck and the Wilhelm Gustloff-Werke. Walther used its satellite production facilities at Neuengamme concentration camp in addition to its main production facilities at Zella-Mehlis to make the rifles, Wilhelm Gustloff-Werke used some slave workers to augment its depleted staff from Buchenwald concentration camp; the total production by the end of the war is estimated to have been 402,713 of both models, including at least 53,435 sniper rifles: these G43/K43s were used as designated marksman/sniper weapons, fitted with the Zielfernrohr 43 telescopic sight with 4× magnification.
The weapon was designed for use with the Schiessbecher rifle grenade launcher and the Schalldämpfer suppressor, however these accessories were deemed unsuccessful in tests and were dropped before the rifle made it to serial production. The Gewehr 43 stayed in service with the Czechoslovak People's Army for several years after the war; the East German border troops and police Volkspolizei or VoPo were issued reworked G43 rifles, which are recognizable by a sunburst proof mark near the serial number and the serial number engraved by electropencil on removable components. There were many small variations introduced on the G/K43 throughout its production cycle; the important consideration is that no changes were made to the rifle design to coincide with the nomenclature change from Gewehr to Karabiner, with the exception of the letter s