Intaglio is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint. Collagraphs may be printed as intaglio plates, in etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin ground or an acid-resistant wax material. Using an etching needle, or a tool, the image is engraved into the ground. The plate is dipped into acid. The acid bites into the surface of the plate where it was exposed, biting is a printmaking term to describe the acids etching, or incising, of the image. After the plate is bitten, the plate is removed from the acid bath. To print an intaglio plate, ink is applied to the surface by wiping and/or dabbing the plate to push the ink into the recessed lines, the plate is rubbed with tarlatan cloth to remove most of the excess ink.
The final smooth wipe is often done with newspaper or old public phone book pages, a damp piece of paper is placed on top of the plate, so that when going through the press the damp paper will be able to be squeezed into the plates ink-filled grooves. The paper and plate are covered by a thick blanket to ensure even pressure when going through the rolling press. The rolling press applies very high pressure through the blanket to push the paper into the grooves on the plate, the blanket is lifted, revealing the paper and printed image. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique and Netherlandish engraving began slightly after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were German inventions of the century, probably by the Housebook Master. In the nineteenth century, Viennese printer Karel Klíč introduced a combined intaglio, photogravure retained the smooth continuous tones of photography but was printed using a chemically-etched copper plate.
This permitted a photographic image to be printed on regular paper, at one time intaglio printing was used for all mass-printed materials including banknotes, stock certificates and magazines, fabrics and sheet music. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for paper or plastic currency, passports, photogravure, an intaglio photo-printmaking process Rotogravure Line engraving Viscosity printing History of printing Intaglio and other printmaking definitions
Regensberg Castle is a hill castle which was built about the mid-13th century AD by the House of Regensberg in the Swiss municipality of Regensberg in the Canton of Zürich. The small town of Regensberg was founded as a fortified settlement, The so-called Oberburg is the location of the castle. The Oberburg or Oberstadt fortifications include the 57 m deep water well, the so-called Unterstadt was built outside of the town walls. Regensberg was designed as a castle town and built by modern contemporary criteria. The so-called upper castle comprises a rectangular plaza as main square which is surrounded two rows of houses, and into the limestone a 57 m deep well was carved. The lower castle or lower town was built in the 14th century nestled at the castles hill outside of the town wall. Therefore, it was not involved in the modernization of the castle in 1689. The round tower is the remnant of the mid-12th-century castle and is largely in its original state of construction. Atypical for the north-eastern Switzerland, it was built as a five-storey keep made of limestone, with a wall thickness of 3 m.
Originally, the tower had an entrance and a 11 m high spire roof which was destroyed by lightning in 1766. The tower received its present completion battlements and a new bridge connected it with the palace. In 1894 the current single-storey entrance was built and thereafter the tower became a popular tourist destination as a belvedere, a thorough renovation of the tower was done in 2009, and in its interior was established a small exhibition on the history of the castle and town. Situated in the north of the tower, the palas largely survived the devastating fire of 1540. In 1583 and 1585 it was replaced by Vogt Vogel by a three-story building, the area was surrounded by the economic structures – wash house, gardens, chapel – and separated with a wall and a gate leading into the Oberstadt area. In the west new buildings were erected, and the Unteres Haus building was converted into an accommodation building, prior the castles gate and the stable barn were broken. Either Lütold V von Regensberg or his son Ulrich has established the town of -Regensberg.
Ulrich secured among others the fortified town of Regensberg, Ulrich died around 1280, and his son Lütold VIII had to sell Regensberg to Habsburg-Austria in 1302. The Habsburgs mortgaged the castle and town several times, and in 1407 the so-called Herrschaft Regensberg was acquired by the city of Zürich, from 1417 the castle became the seat of the bailiff of the bailiwick of Regensberg of Zürich
Maria Sibylla Merian
Merian received her artistic training from her stepfather, Jacob Marrel, a student of the still life painter Georg Flegel. She remained in Frankfurt until 1670, relocating subsequently to Nuremberg, the village of Wieuwerd in the Dutch Republic, where she stayed in a Labadist community till 1691. Merian published her first book of illustrations, titled Neues Blumenbuch. Her trip, designed as a scientific expedition makes Merian perhaps the first person to plan a journey rooted solely in science, after two years there, malaria forced her to return to Europe. She proceeded to publish her work, Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, in 1705. She was a leading entomologist of her time and she discovered many new facts about life through her studies. Maria Sibylla Merians father, the Swiss engraver and publisher Matthäus Merian the Elder, married her mother, his wife, Johanna Sybilla Heyne. Maria was born within the year in 1647, making her his 9th child. Her father died in 1650, and in 1651 her mother remarried the flower-, Marrel encouraged Merian to draw and paint.
While he lived mostly in Holland his pupil Abraham Mignon trained her, at the age of thirteen she painted her first images of insects and plants from specimens she had captured. Early on, she had access to books about natural history. Regarding her youth, in the foreword to Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, Merian wrote, at the beginning, I started with silk worms in my home town of Frankfurt. I realized that other caterpillars produced beautiful butterflies or moths, and this led me to collect all the caterpillars I could find in order to see how they changed. In May 1665 Merian married Marrels apprentice, Johann Andreas Graff from Nuremberg, his father was a poet and director of the high school. In January 1668 she had her first child, Johanna Helena, while living there, Merian continued painting, working on parchment and linen, and creating designs for embroidery. She gave drawing lessons to unmarried daughters of wealthy families and this provided her with access to the finest gardens, maintained by the wealthy and elite where she could continue collecting and documenting insects.
In 1678, she gave birth to her second daughter Dorothea Maria, in 1679, she had published her first work on insects which was a two-volume, illustrated book focusing on insect metamorphosis. In 1678 the family had moved to Frankfurt am Main, and she moved in with her mother, after her stepfather died in 1681
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Regensberg is a municipality in the district of Dielsdorf in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. It is located just to the west of Dielsdorf, on a ridge of the Lägern, Regensberg was founded as a hilltop fortified settlement about 1245 by Baron Lüthold of Regensberg. The fortifications include a 21 m high tower dating from the 16th or 17th century. The church, originally dating from the 13th century, was rebuilt in 1506, during the mid 13th Century relations between the Barons of Regensberg and the city of Zürich became strained. At about this time, the barons began to argue with the Habsburgs over who would inherit the lands of the now extinct Kyburg family. In 1267 the disputes led to war between the barons and the combined Zürich and Habsburg forces, the barons lost this war, and rapidly declined in power over the following half century. In 1302 they sold Regensberg to the Habsburgs, the Habsburgs established an Amt Regensberg with a Habsburg appointed Schultheiß leading the town council.
Under the Habsburgs the town expanded into a town and Regensberg castle was the political center of the area now corresponding to the Dielsdorf district. In 1409 the Habsburg duke Frederick IV had to pawn Regensberg to the city of Zürich, however it wasnt until 1417 that Regensberg was fully owned by Zürich. They established an Obervogtei at Regensberg which ruled over 13 surrounding villages, in 1540 the upper castle burned down, but the lower gates and the donjon survived because they were separated from the upper castle by a deep ditch. The upper castle was rebuilt in the following year, during the Reformation in Zürich the St. Martins Abbey on Zürichberg at Fluntern was demolished. Stone blocks and two bells from the abbey were brought by ox-cart to the church at Regensberg to rebuild it, following the collapse of the Swiss Ancien Régime in 1798, Regensburg became part of the district of Bülach. In 1803, with the Act of Mediation, Regensberg became the capital of its own sub-district, in 1831 this expanded to become the district of Regensberg.
In 1871 the capital of the moved to Dielsdorf and Regensberg became an independent municipality in that district. Historic attractions include the half-timbered Rote Rose house dating from 1540, eberhard II was born in Regensberg around 1170 and died in Friesach, Austria on 30 Nov 1246. In 1196, he received the Bishopric of Brixen and, in 1200, eberhard added the counties of Pongau and Lungau to the Archbishopric. Eberhard was excommunicated in 1245 after refusing to publish a decree deposing the emperor, Regensberg has an area of 2.4 km2. Of this area,34. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, the rest of the land, is settled
Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
In the rise of European towns in the 10th and 11th centuries, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirennes view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie, except for the republics of Italy. As in Ancient Rome, patrician status could only be inherited. However, membership in the patriciate could be passed on through the female line, accession to a patriciate through this mechanism was referred to as erweibern. In any case, only patricians could hold, or participate in elections for. Often, as in Venice, non-patricians had almost no political rights, lists were maintained of who had the status, of which the most famous is the Libro dOro of the Venetian Republic. For instance in Scandinavia, the term synonymous with the rich mercantile class. The allegiance of the Principality of Salerno was bought in 887 by investing Prince Guaimar I, in 909 the Prince of Benevento, Landulf I, personally sought and received the title in Constantinople for both himself and his brother, Atenulf II.
Amalfi was ruled by a series of Patricians, the last of whom was elected Duke, in the late Middle Ages and early modern period patricians acquired noble titles, sometimes simply by acquiring domains in the surrounding contado that carried a heritable fief. The Republic of Genoa had a class, much smaller, of nobility. Some cities, such as Naples and Rome, which had never been republics in post-Classical times, had patrician classes, though most holders had noble titles. The Republic of Ragusa was ruled by a strict patriciate that was established in 1332. Subsequently, patrician became a term used for aristocrats and elite bourgeoisie in many countries. Florence, in 1244, came late in the peak period of these transformations. However Florence was to have other upheavals, reducing the power of the class, in the movement leading to the Ordinances of Justice in 1293. Of the major republics, only Venice managed to retain an exclusively patrician government, venetians with a disputed claim to the patriciate were required to present to the avogadori di commun established to adjudicate such claims a genealogy called a prova di nobiltà, a test of nobility.
Beginning in the 11th century, a class which much came to be called Patrizier formed in the German-speaking free imperial cities. Besides wealthy merchant Grand Burghers, they were recruited from the ranks of knights and ministeriales
Musaeum Hermeticum is a compendium of alchemical texts first published in German, in Frankfurt,1625 by Lucas Jennis. Additional material was added for the 1678 Latin edition, which in turn was reprinted in 1749 and it seemed to represent a distinctive school in Alchemy, less committed to the past and less obscure than the works of older and more traditional alchemical masters. Continens tractatus chymicos novem præatantissimos, quorum nomina et seriem versa pagella indicabit, in gratiam filiorum doctrinæ, quibus Germanicum Idioma ignotum, in Latinum conversum ac juris publici factum. The Hermetic Museum and enlarged The Hermetic Museum and enlarged Vol I
Merian is a patrician family of Basel, Switzerland. It consists of two branches who were citizens of Basel from 1498 and from 1549/1553, the family were represented in the Grand Council of Basel-Stadt in 1532 and grew to become distinguished aldermen. Its notable members include the 18th century politician Andreas Merian-Iselin and the 19th century banker Christoph Merian, Matthäus Merians daughter was the naturalist and artist Maria Sibylla Merian. The family name is not limited to Basel, and is found in Alsace, Provence, Lower Austria. The oldest written reference to the family in the dates from the year 1385 with the mention of a Jehannin dit Mariatte de Buratte. This dairy farm had belonged since 1283 to the bishops of Basel, before the dukes of Alsace, the ancestor of the Merians of Basel is Theobald Merian, a Basel episcopal bailiff or steward in Lüttelsdorf in the Swiss canton of Jura. From him are descended the two Basel branches of the family, the elder line stems from his son Theobald Merian, who went in 1480 as a seaman of Lüttelsdorf to Basel and operated a sawmill on the right bank of the Rhine in Kleinbasel.
In 1624 the Swiss-born engraver Matthäus Merian took over the Frankfurt publishing house of his father-in-law Johann Theodor de Bry, after his death in 1650 two of his sons, Matthäus Merian the Younger and Caspar, built up the publishing house under the name Matthäus Merian Seel. In 1687 the publishing house was inherited by a third family member, Johann Matthäus Merian. Johanns elder brother Carl Gustav Merian was elevated to the nobility by the Elector of Mainz, after Johanns death in 1716 the company was led by his niece Charlotte Maria Merian until its dissolution in 1727. The Frankfurt family line died with the painter Carl Matthäus Merian, the family name is remembered today in Frankfurts Merianstrasse and Merianplatz, and in Merian School in Nordend. Hans Bernhard Merian - perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin Christoph Merian - merchant and banker, philipp Merian - merchant and philanthropist, brother of Christoph. Peter Merian - professor of geology, brother of Johann Rudolf, Johann Rudolf Merian - mathematician and politician, brother of Peter.
Christoph Merian - banker and agriculturalist, son of Christophe, Matthäus Merian the Elder - engraver and publisher, great-grandson of Johann Petrus Merian. Matthäus Merian der Jüngere - painter, engraver and bookseller, band 21, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1885, pp. 422–427. J. P. Zwicky von Gauen, Schweizerisches Geschlechterbuch / Almanach Généalogique Suisse, verlag Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-7829-0459-1
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the region of Alsace. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants, Strasbourgs metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est regions inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014, Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Strasbourgs historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.
Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, after the 5h century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means Town of roads, Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres from. The natural courses of the two eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. This section of the Rhine valley is an axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself.
The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris, in spite of its position far inland, Strasbourgs climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, on average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded was −23.4 °C in December 1938. Nonetheless, the disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution