Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg
Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg was a priest, considered one of the greatest of the popular preachers of the 15th century. He was connected with the humanists of Strasbourg, whose leader was the well-known Jacob of Wimpheling, called "the educator of Germany". Like Wimpheling, Geiler was a secular priest, they looked, for salvation and preservation only in the restoration of Christian morals in Church and State through the faithful maintenance of the doctrines of the Church. He was born at Schaffhausen, but from 1448 passed his childhood and youth at Kaysersberg in Upper Alsace, his grandfather, who brought him up, lived there. The father was killed by a hunting-accident. In 1460, when he was fifteen years old, Johann entered the University of Freiburg. Two years he received the baccalaureate, after two more years was made Master of Arts, he now gave lectures on various writings of Aristotle in the next semester. After graduation, he lectured there for some time on the Sententiae of Peter Lombard, the commentaries of Alexander of Hales, several of the works of Aristotle.
He filled the office of dean of the philosophical faculty for a brief period A living interest in theological subjects, awakened by the study of John Gerson, led him to the University of Basel in May 1471 founded at that time. He obtained the doctorate in 1475. At Basle he became acquainted with Sebastian Brant. While at Basle, Geiler preached his first sermons in the cathedral; the magistracy and citizens of that city obtained his appointment to the Freiburg University, of which he was elected rector the next year. For a time he preached in the cathedral of Würzburg. Peter Schott, senator of Strasbourg, an important and influential citizen who had charge of the property of the cathedral urged Geiler to settle in Strasbourg. At that time preachers were supplied to Strasbourg by the mendicant orders but this led to a frequent change of preachers and friction between them and the cathedral clergy; this led the cathedral chapter, the bishop and the city authorities to prefer having a secular priest as a permanent preacher.
Such as post was set up in 1478 and Geiler accepted the invitation to fill it, continuing to preach and work in Strasbourg with few interruptions up until shortly before his death. The beautiful pulpit erected for him in 1481 in the nave of the cathedral, when the chapel of Saint Lawrence had proved too small, still bears witness to the popularity he enjoyed as a preacher in the immediate sphere of his labors, the testimonies of Sebastian Brant, Beatus Rhenanus, Johann Reuchlin, Philipp Melanchthon and others show how great had been the influence of his personal character, he not only preached, as required, every Sunday and feast day in the cathedral, daily during fasts, but on special occasions, in the monasteries of the city and outside of the city. His sermons, incisive, abounding in quaint illustrations and based on texts by no means confined to the Bible, taken down as he spoke them, circulated, by his friends, told perceptibly on the German thought as well as on the German speech of his time.
It is an indicator of Strasbourg's thriving printing industry that most of Geiler's sermons were printed and distributed. He visited Friedrich von Hohenzollern, Bishop of Augsburg, friendly to him, he made pious pilgrimages. At Einsiedeln in Switzerland he met the Blessed Nikolaus of Flüe, then well known. A kidney trouble developed, to relieve which he was obliged to annually visit the hot springs of Baden; the next day, in the presence of an immense multitude of people, he was buried at the foot of the pulpit, built for him. Among the many volumes published under his name only two appear to have had the benefit of his revision, Der Seelen Paradies von waren und volkumen Tugenden, that entitled Das irrig Schaf. Of the rest the best-known is a series of lectures on his friend Sebastian Brant's work, Das Narrenschiff or the Navicula or Speculum fatuorum, of which an edition was published at Strasbourg in 1511 under the following title: Navicula sive speculum fatuorum praestantissimi sacrarumliterarum doctoris Joannis Geiler Keysersbergii.
The numerous volumes of Geiler's sermons and writings which have been published do not give a complete picture of the characteristic qualities of the preacher. An orator, Geiler sought, without regard to other considerations, was to produce the most powerful effect on his hearers, he prepared himself with great care for the pulpit, writing out his sermons beforehand, as his contemporary Beatus Rhenanus reports. Only a small part of the sermons that have been issued under his name are directly his. At a early date his addresses were taken down by others and published; the best critic of Geiler's works, E. Martin of Strasbourg, attempted, in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, to give a summary of Geiler's genuine writings.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. In the context of the Reformation, Martin Luther was the first reformer, followed by people like Andreas Karlstadt and Philip Melanchthon at Wittenberg, who promptly joined the new movement. In 1519, Huldrych Zwingli became the first reformer to express a form of the Reformed tradition. Listed are the most influential reformers only, they are listed by movement. For a full and detailed list of all known reformers, see List of Protestant Reformers. Throughout the Middle Ages, there were a number of Christian sects and movements that sought a return to the purity of the Apostolic church and whose teachings foreshadowed Protestant ideas; some of the main groups were: Paulicians. Some of those whose doctrines influenced Protestant movements were: Arnold of Brescia other early Arnoldist reformers Peter Waldo other early Waldensian reformers John Wycliffe other early Lollard reformers John Hus Jerome of Prague Petr Chelčický other early Hussite reformers Girolamo Savonarola Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného other early independent reformers There were a number of key reformers within the Magisterial Reformation, including: Martin Luther Philipp Melanchthon Justus Jonas Martin Chemnitz Georg Spalatin Joachim Westphal Andreas Osiander Johannes Brenz Johannes Bugenhagen Hans Tausen Mikael Agricola Primož Trubar Jiří Třanovský Huldrych Zwingli Martin Bucer John Calvin Heinrich Bullinger Theodore Beza William Farel John Knox Andreas Karlstadt a Radical Reformer Wolfgang Capito Johannes Oecolampadius Peter Martyr Vermigli Leo Jud Thomas Cranmer Thomas Cromwell Matthew Parker William Tyndale Jacobus Arminius Ferenc Dávid Important reformers of the Radical Reformation included: Thomas Müntzer Zwickau prophets John of Leiden Sebastian Franck Menno Simons Kaspar Schwenkfeld There were a number of people who cooperated with the Radical Reformers, but separated from them to form a "Second Front", principally in objection to sacralism.
Among these were: Johannes Bünderlin Hans Denck Christian Entfelder Conrad Grebel Balthasar Hubmaier Felix Manz Roman Catholics who worked against the Protestant Reformation included: Girolamo Aleandro Augustine Alveld Thomas Cajetan Johann Cochlaeus Johann Eck Jerome Emser Pope Leo X John Tetzel Thomas More Ignatius Loyola Francis de Sales List of Protestant Reformers George, Timothy. Theology of the Reformers. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1988. N. B.: Comparative studies of the various leaders of the Magisterial and Radical movements of the 16th century Protestant Reformation
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. A pastor gives advice and counsel to people from the community or congregation, it is derived from the Latin word pastor, meaning shepherd. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to "Pr" or "Ptr" or "Ps"; the word "pastor" derives from the Latin noun pastor which means "shepherd" and is derived from the verb pascere – "to lead to pasture, set to grazing, cause to eat". The term "pastor" relates to the role of elder within the New Testament, but is not synonymous with the biblical understanding of minister. Many Protestant churches call their ministers "pastors". Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Biblical metaphor of shepherding; the Hebrew Bible uses the Hebrew word רעה, used as a noun as in "shepherd," and as a verb as in "to tend a flock." It occurs 173 times in 144 Old Testament verses and relates to the literal feeding of sheep, as in Genesis 29:7. In Jeremiah 23:4, both meanings are used, "And I will set up shepherds over them which shall feed them: and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall they be lacking, saith the LORD.".
English-language translations of the New Testament render the Greek noun ποιμήν as "shepherd" and the Greek verb ποιμαίνω as "feed". The two words occur a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the "Good Shepherd" in John 10:11; the same words in the familiar Christmas story refer to literal shepherds. In five New Testament passages though, the words relate to members of the church: John 21:16 - Jesus told Peter: "Feed My sheep" Acts 20:17 - the Apostle Paul summons the elders of the church in Ephesus to give a last discourse to them. 1 Corinthians 9:7 - Paul says, of himself and the apostles: "who feedeth a flock, eateth not of the milk of the flock?" Ephesians 4:11 - Paul wrote "And he gave some, apostles. Around 400 AD, Saint Augustine, a prominent African Catholic bishop, described a pastor's job: Disturbers are to be rebuked, the low-spirited to be encouraged, the infirm to be supported, objectors confuted, the treacherous guarded against, the unskilled taught, the lazy aroused, the contentious restrained, the haughty repressed, litigants pacified, the poor relieved, the oppressed liberated, the good approved, the evil borne with, all are to be loved.
In the United States, the term pastor is used by Catholics for what in other English-speaking countries is called a parish priest. The Latin term used in the Code of Canon Law is parochus; the parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him. He exercises the pastoral care of the community entrusted to him under the authority of the diocesan bishop, whose ministry of Christ he is called to share, so that for this community he may carry out the offices of teaching and ruling with the cooperation of other priests or deacons and with the assistance of lay members of Christ's faithful, in accordance with the law. In some Lutheran churches, ordained presbyters are called priests, while in others, such as the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, the term pastor is used more frequently. Ordained presbyters are called priests in the Church of England, as in all other ecclesiastical provinces of the Anglican Communion. United Methodists ordain to the office of deacon and elder, each of whom can use the title of pastor depending.
United Methodists use the title of pastor for non-ordained clergy who are licensed and appointed to serve a congregation as their pastor or associate pastor referred to as licensed local pastors. These pastors may be lay people, seminary students, or seminary graduates in the ordination process, cannot exercise any functions of clergy outside the charge where they are appointed; the use of the term pastor to refer to the common Protestant title of modern times dates to the days of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli. Both men, other Reformers, seem to have revived the term to replace the Roman Catholic priest in the minds of their followers; the pastor was considered to have a role separate from the board of presbyters. Some groups today view the pastor and elder as synonymous terms or offices; the term "pastor", in the majority of Baptist churches, is one of two offices within the church, deacon being the other, is considered synonymous with "elder" or "bishop". In larger churches with many staff members, "Senior Pastor" refers to the person who brings the sermons the majority of the time, with other persons having titles relating to their duties.
Other religions have started to use terms such as "Buddhist pastor". Bercot, David W.. Will The Real Heretics Please Stand Up. Scroll Publishing. ISBN 0-924722-00-2. Dowly, Tim; the History of Christianity. Lion Publishing. ISBN 0-7459-1625-2. CS1 m
Kaysersberg is a former commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in Northeastern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune Kaysersberg-Vignoble; the inhabitants are called Kaysersbergeois. The name is German for Emperor's Mountain; the high fortress that dominates the city serves as a reminder of both its strategic importance and its warlike past. Together with the rest of Alsace-Lorraine, Kaysersberg was annexed by Germany during a period of 48 years, between the Franco-Prussian War and the First World War. Kaysersberg is one of the finest wine-growing areas in Alsace; the first vines were brought here in the 16th century from Hungary, wine production is still an important aspect of the town's economy today. Wine produced from the pinot gris variety is a local specialty. Kaysersberg lies northwest of Colmar, on the eastern slopes of the Vosges mountains. Kaysersberg was the birthplace of Albert Schweitzer, musician and physician and Matthew Zell, Protestant reformer. Communes of the Haut-Rhin département INSEE Town website
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding