Frozen yogurt is a frozen dessert made with yogurt and sometimes other dairy products and non-dairy products. It is more tart than ice cream, as well as lower in fat, it is different from conventional soft serve. Unlike yogurt, frozen yogurt is not regulated by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration but is regulated by some U. S. states. Frozen yogurt may not contain live and active bacteria cultures. People have been eating plain yogurt for over four millennia in the Middle East and India. Yogurt was brought to the U. S. in the early 1900s and increased in popularity as a health food item over the next several decades. In the 1930s Dannon began selling prepackaged yogurt for the first time in the U. S. By the 1970s, with the popularity of ice cream surging and production technology was transferred to the production of frozen yogurt. Many consumers, complained about the yogurt taste. Capitalizing on consumer demand for a sweet product that tasted like ice cream but was healthier, TCBY opened its first store in 1981.
Unlike previous pre-packaged versions introduced earlier, TCBY's yogurt was soft-serve dispensed at the point of sale through a machine. TCBY became the largest frozen yogurt franchise in the world at that time; as others saw the success of TCBY, frozen yogurt took off in the 1980s, reaching sales of $25 million in 1986. Brands such as Colombo, Nanci's, Miss Karen's came to prominence around that time in the United States and frozen yogurt was 10% of the frozen dessert market accounting for over $300 million in sales by the mid 1990s. Demand for frozen yogurt slowed in the late 1990s as Americans turned their attention to high-protein, high-fat diets. Low-fat foods such as frozen yogurt fell out of favor as food trends favored higher fat and lower cost ice cream at the turn of the millennium. Trends changed back to frozen yogurt in the mid 2000s with the advent of live probiotic powder-based mixes invented by John Wudel, pioneer of alternative sweeteners in the frozen dessert industry. Dry base mix made frozen yogurt accessible in many countries outside the United States for the first time.
Consumer demand for tart frozen yogurt reached unprecedented levels by 2013 all over the United States and many other countries marking a stark contrast to tart frozen yogurt's initial reception in the 1970s. Frozen yogurt consists of milk solids, some kind of sweetener, milk fat, yogurt culture, natural or artificial flavorings, sometimes natural or artificial coloring. Milk fat comprises about 0.55–6% of the yogurt. Added in quantities inversely proportional to the amount of milk solids, the milk fat lends richness to the yogurt. Milk solids account for 8–14% of the yogurt's volume, providing lactose for sweetness and proteins for smoothness and increased resistance to melting. Cane or beet sugar provides 15–17% of the yogurt's ingredients. In addition to adding sweetness, the sugar increases the volume of solid ingredients in the yogurt, improving body and texture. Animal gelatin and/or vegetable additives stabilize the yogurt, reducing crystallization and increasing the temperature at which the yogurt will melt.
This stabilization ensures that the frozen yogurt maintains a smooth consistency regardless of handling or temperature change. Major companies use assembly lines dedicated to frozen yogurt production; the milk products and stabilizing agent are homogenized. At 32 °C, the yogurt culture is added; the mix remains at this temperature until it is ready for cooling. After that, the mix is cooled at a temperature of 0 to 4 °C. Once it has reached the desired temperature and viscosity, the yogurt is allowed to sit in aging tanks for up to four hours. Sweeteners and colorings are mixed in, the yogurt mixture is cooled at a temperature of −6 to −2 °C. To create extra volume and smooth consistency, air is incorporated into the yogurt as the mixture is agitated; when a sufficient amount of air has been incorporated into the product, the yogurt is frozen to prevent the formation of large ice crystals, stored in a cold place to be shipped. Frozen yogurt can be made in a soft serve freezer in much the same way as soft ice cream.
Frozen yogurt mix is sold in powder form that needs to be mixed with water or liquid form ready to pour into a soft serve machine. A mix with high fat or low fat content can be chosen, the amount of air introduced into the soft serve frozen yogurt is variable; the higher the level of fat, the more air the yogurt can absorb. Frozen yogurt is served in a large variety of styles. Since it is considered healthier, frozen yogurt has sugar-free alternatives. Frozen yogurt shops offer a multitude of toppings, from fruit to nuts, popular cookie brands and candies; some frozen yogurt companies offer a more tart version considered closer to the original recipe. Whereas others focus on making their frozen yogurt taste more like ice cream. In May 2010, Google released Android 2.2, codenamed Froyo. Each major release of Android is named in alphabetical order after sugary treat. List of dairy products List of frozen yogurt companies
The Indian subcontinent known as the Asian subcontinent and Indo subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Sometimes, the geographical term'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with'South Asia', although that last term is used as a political term and is used to include Afghanistan. Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate. According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent".
It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the early twentieth century, it was convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India and the princely states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions; the geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; the geographical region has simply been known as "India". Other related terms are South Asia, and the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.
There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent was first a part of so-called "Greater India", a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Antarctica and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene; this geological region includes Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes; the English term "subcontinent" continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent. Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, the Arakanese in the east.
It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by large mountain barriers. Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent covers about 4.4 million km2, 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area. Overall, it is home to a vast array of peoples; the Indian subcontinent is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, isolated from the rest of Eurasia. Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has been through the valleys of Afghanistan in its northwest, the valleys of Manipur in its east, by maritime routes. More difficult but important interaction has occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans.
These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent in two ways, through Afghanistan on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea. Whether called the Indian subcontinent or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India. In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka and other islands of the Indian Ocean, such as the Maldives; the term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India. The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent with Central Asia to the northwest, the Persian Plateau to the west.
The socio-religious history of Afghanistan are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia and no
The curry tree known as sweet neem or kadi patta, is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae, native to India. Its leaves are used in many dishes in Indian subcontinent. Used in curries, the leaves are called by the name "curry leaves", although they are literally "sweet neem leaves" in most Indian languages, it is a small tree. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 1 -- 2 cm broad; the plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black drupes containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible—with a sweet but medicinal flavour—in general, neither the pulp nor seed is used for culinary purposes; the species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Swedish physician and botanist Johan Andreas Murray who died in 1791; the tree is native to the Indian subcontinent, can be found growing wild throughout the country, in Sri Lanka, east through Thailand. Commercial plantations have been established in India, more Australia.
It grows best in well-drained soils in areas with full sun or partial shade, preferably away from the wind. Growth is more robust when temperatures are at least 65°F; the fresh leaves are valued as seasoning in the cuisines of Southeast Asia. They are most used in southern and west-coast Indian cooking fried along with vegetable oil, mustard seeds and chopped onions in the first stage of the preparation, they are used to make thoran, vada and kadhi. In Cambodia, the leaves are roasted and used as an ingredient in maju kreung. In Java, the leaves are stewed to flavor gulai. Though available dried, the aroma and flavor is inferior; the oil can be used to make scented soaps. The leaves of Murraya koenigii are used as a herb in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine in which they are believed to possess anti-disease properties, but there is no high-quality clinical evidence for such effects. Seeds must be fresh to plant. One can plant the whole fruit, but it is best to remove the pulp before planting in potting mix, kept moist but not wet.
Stem cuttings can be used for propagation. Compounds found in curry tree leaves, stems and seeds contain cinnamaldehyde, numerous carbazole alkaloids, including mahanimbine and mahanine. Media related to Murraya koenigii at Wikimedia Commons
Pakistani cuisine can be characterized by a blend of various regional cooking traditions of the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia as well as elements from its Mughal legacy. The various cuisines are derived from Pakistan's cultural diversity. Cuisine from the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sindh are characterized as "highly seasoned" and "spicy", characteristic of flavors of the Indian subcontinent. Cuisine from the western and northern provinces of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Tribal Areas are characterized as "mild", characteristic of flavors of the Central Asian region. International cuisine and fast food are popular in the cities. Blending local and foreign recipes, such as Pakistani Chinese cuisine, is common in large urban centers. Furthermore, as a result of lifestyle changes, ready made masala mixes are becoming popular. However, given the diversity of the people of Pakistan, cuisines differ from home to home and may be different from the mainstream Pakistani cuisine.
Pakistani national cuisine is the inheritor of Indo-Aryan and Iranic culture and Muslim culinary traditions. The earliest formal civilizations were the Harappan civilizations in Pakistan. At around 3000 BCE, sesame and humped cattle were domesticated in the Indus Valley, spices like turmeric, black pepper and mustard were harvested in the region concurrently. For at least a thousand years and rice formed the basic foodstuff in the Indus Valley; the arrival of Islam within the Indian subcontinent, influenced the local cuisine to a great degree. Since Muslims are forbidden to eat pork or consume alcohol, halal dietary guidelines are observed. Pakistanis focus on other types of meat, such as beef and fish, with vegetables, as well as traditional fruit and dairy; the influence of Central Asian, South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine in Pakistani food is ubiquitous. Pakistani dishes are known for having aromatic and sometimes spicy flavors; some dishes contain liberal amounts of oil, which contribute to a richer, fuller mouthfeel and flavour.
Brown cardamom, green cardamom, cloves, nutmeg and black pepper are the most used spices in the making of a wide variety of dishes throughout Pakistan. Cumin seeds, chili powder and bay leaves are very popular. In the Punjab province, it is further diluted with coriander powder. Garam masala is a popular blend of spices used in many Pakistani dishes. Balochi cuisine is the food and cuisine of the Baloch people from the Balochistan region, comprising the Pakistani Balochistan province, the Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran and Balochistan, Afghanistan. Baloch food has a regional variance in contrast to the many cuisines of Iran. Rice dishes and kebabs feature prominently in Pashtun cuisine. Lamb is eaten more in Pashtun cuisine than any other Pakistani cuisines. Kabuli Palaw, chapli kabab and mutton karahi are the most famous dishes. Historical variations include Peshawari cuisine; the Pashtun and Balochi cuisines are traditionally non-spicy. Kashmiri cuisine is the cuisine of the Kashmir Valley region.
Rice has been so since ancient times. Meat, along with rice, is the most popular food item in Kashmir. Kashmiris consume meat voraciously. Since Punjabi identity is considered geographical and cultural all inhabitants of Punjab follow some variations within the cuisine, but on the other hand show many similarities together; this cuisine falls into the broad category of Punjabi cuisine. Regional cuisine is mutual with some differences in many regions, including the South Punjab regions. Sindhi cuisine refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from Pakistan. Sindhi Cuisine consists of a variety of chicken dishes; the cuisine of Karachi is similar to the Mughlai cuisine, influenced by Hyderabadi cuisine. Pakistanis eat three meals a day, which are breakfast and dinner. During the evening, many families have tea, which goes along with baked/fried snacks from a local bakery. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, the eating patterns change to iftar, it is considered proper to eat only with the right hand as per Islamic tradition.
Many Pakistani families when guests are too many to fit at a table, eat sitting at a cloth known as Dastarkhān, spread out on the floor. In Pakistan, many street eateries serve food on a takht, in a style similar to what is seen in Afghanistan. A takht is a raised platform, where people eat their food sitting cross-legged, after taking their shoes off. Most Pakistanis used to eat on a takht. Pakistanis eat with their hands, scooping up solid food along with sauce with a piece of baked bread or rice. A typical Pakistani breakfast, locally called nāshtā, consists of eggs, a slice of loaf bread or roti, sheermal with tea or lassi, kulcha with chole, fresh seasonal fruits, honey, jam, shami kebab or nuts. Sometimes breakfast includes baked goods like rusks. During holidays and weekends, halwa poori and chickpeas are sometimes eaten. In Punjab, sarson ka saag and maakai ki roti is a local favourite. Punjabi people enjoy khatchauri, a savory pastry filled with cheese. Pakistan is not unlike many other Asian nations, in the sense that meat dishes are eat
Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile branched anaerobic bacteria. They are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract and mouth of mammals, including humans. Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the gastrointestinal tract microbiota in mammals; some bifidobacteria are used as probiotics. Before the 1960s, Bifidobacterium species were collectively referred to as "Lactobacillus bifidus". In 1899, Henri Tissier, a French pediatrician at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, isolated a bacterium characterised by a Y-shaped morphology in the intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants and named it "bifidus". In 1907, Élie Metchnikoff, deputy director at the Pasteur Institute, propounded the theory that lactic acid bacteria are beneficial to human health. Metchnikoff observed that the longevity of Bulgarian peasants was the result of their consumption of fermented milk products. Elie Metchnikoff suggested that “oral administration of cultures of fermentative bacteria would implant the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract”.
The genus Bifidobacterium possesses a unique fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase pathway employed to ferment carbohydrates. Much metabolic research on bifidobacteria has focused on oligosaccharide metabolism, as these carbohydrates are available in their otherwise nutrient-limited habitats. Infant-associated bifidobacterial phylotypes appear to have evolved the ability to ferment milk oligosaccharides, whereas adult-associated species use plant oligosaccharides, consistent with what they encounter in their respective environments; as breast-fed infants harbor bifidobacteria-dominated gut consortia, numerous applications attempt to mimic the bifidogenic properties of milk oligosaccharides. These are broadly classified as plant-derived fructooligosaccharides or dairy-derived galactooligosaccharides, which are differentially metabolized and distinct from milk oligosaccharide catabolism; the sensitivity of members of the genus Bifidobacterium to O2 limits probiotic activity to anaerobic habitats.
Recent research has reported. Low concentrations of O2 and CO2 can have a stimulatory effect on the growth of these Bifidobacterium strains. Based on the growth profiles under different O2 concentrations, the Bifidobacterium species were classified into four classes: O2-hypersensitive, O2-sensitive, O2-tolerant, microaerophilic; the primary factor responsible for aerobic growth inhibition is proposed to be the production of hydrogen peroxide in the growth medium. A H2O2-forming NADH oxidase was purified from O2-sensitive Bifidobacterium bifidum and was identified as a b-type dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; the kinetic parameters suggested that the enzyme could be involved in H2O2 production in aerated environments. Members of the genus Bifidobacterium have genome sizes ranging from 1.73 to 3.25 Mb, corresponding to 1,352 and 2,557 predicted protein-encoding open reading frames, respectively. Functional classification of Bifidobacterium genes, including the pan-genome of this genus, revealed that 13.7% of the identified bifidobacterial genes encode enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Adding bifidobacterium as a probiotic to conventional treatment of ulcerative colitis has been shown to be associated with improved rates of remission and improved maintenance of remission. Some Bifidobacterium strains are used in the food industry. Different species and/or strains of bifidobacteria may exert a range of beneficial health effects, including the regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, the inhibition of pathogens and harmful bacteria that colonize and/or infect the gut mucosa, the modulation of local and systemic immune responses, the repression of procarcinogenic enzymatic activities within the microbiota, the production of vitamins, the bioconversion of a number of dietary compounds into bioactive molecules. Bifidobacteria improve the gut mucosal barrier and lower levels of lipopolysaccharide in the intestine. Occurring Bifidobacterium spp. may discourage the growth of Gram-negative pathogens in infants. Mother's milk contains lower quantities of phosphate. Therefore, when mother's milk is fermented by lactic acid bacteria in the infant's gastrointestinal tract, the pH may be reduced, making it more difficult for Gram-negative bacteria to grow.
The human infant gut is sterile up until birth, where it takes up bacteria from its surrounding environment and its mother/ The microbiota that makes up the infant gut differs from the adult gut. An infant reaches the adult stage of their microbiome at around 3 years of age, when their microbiome diversity increases and the infant switches over to solid foods; when breast-fed, infants are colonized earlier by Bifidobacterium when compared to babies that are formula-fed. Bifidobacterium is the most common bacteria in the infant gut microbiome. There is more variability in genotypes over time in infants, making them less stable compared to the adult Bifidobacterium. Infants and children under 3 years old show low diversity in microbiome bacteria, but more diversity between individuals when compared to adults. Reduction of Bifidobacterium and increase in diversity of the infant gut microbiome occurs with less breast-milk intake and increase of solid food intake. Mammalian milk all contain oligosaccharides showing natural selection.
Human milk oligosaccharides are not digested by enzymes and remain whole through the digestive tract before being broken down in the colon by microbiota. Bifidobacterium species genomes of B. long
Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most wood. Meat and lapsang souchong tea are smoked. In Europe, alder is the traditional smoking wood, but oak is more used now, beech to a lesser extent. In North America, mesquite, pecan, alder and fruit-tree woods, such as apple and plum, are used for smoking. Other biomass besides wood can be employed, sometimes with the addition of flavoring ingredients. Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice and tea, heated at the base of a wok; some North American ham and bacon makers smoke their products over burning corncobs. Peat is burned to smoke the barley malt used to make whisky and some beers. In New Zealand, sawdust from the native manuka is used for hot smoking fish. In Iceland, dried sheep dung is used to cold-smoke fish, lamb and whale. Farms in the Western world included a small building termed the "smokehouse," where meats could be smoked and stored; this was well-separated from other buildings both because of the fire danger and because of the smoke emanations.
Smoking can be done in four ways: cold smoking, warm smoking, hot smoking, through the employment of "liquid smoke". However, these methods of imparting smoke only affect the food surface, are unable to preserve food, smoking is paired with other microbial hurdles, such as chilling and packaging, to extend food shelf-life; the smoking of food dates back to the paleolithic era. As caves or simple huts lacked chimneys, these dwellings would have become smoky, it is supposed that early men would hang meat up to dry and out of the way of pests, thus accidentally becoming aware that meat, stored in smoky areas acquired a different flavor, was better preserved than meat that dried out. This process was combined with pre-curing the food in salt or salty brine, resulting in a remarkably effective preservation process, adapted and developed by numerous cultures around the world; until the modern era, smoking was of a more "heavy duty" nature as the main goal was to preserve the food. Large quantities of salt were used in the curing process and smoking times were quite long, sometimes involving days of exposure.
The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products over long distances and the need for the time and material intensive heavy salting and smoking declined. Smoking became more of a way to flavor. In 1939 a device called; the kiln allowed for uniform mass-smoking and is considered the prototype for all modern large-scale commercial smokers. Although refinements in technique and advancements in technology have made smoking much easier, the basic steps involved remain the same today as they were hundreds if not thousands of years ago. Cold smoking differs from hot smoking in that the food remains raw, rather than cooked, throughout the smoking process. Smokehouse temperatures for cold smoking are done between 20 to 30 °C. In this temperature range, foods take on a smoked flavor, but remain moist. Cold smoking does not cook foods, as such, meats should be cured before cold smoking. Cold smoking can be used as a flavor enhancer for items such as cheese or nuts, along with meats such as chicken breasts, pork chops, salmon and steak.
The item is hung in a dry environment first to develop a pellicle it can be cold smoked up to several days to ensure it absorbs the smokey flavour. Some cold smoked foods are baked, steamed, roasted, or sautéed before eating. Cold smoking meats is not something that should be attempted at home, according to the US National Center for Home Food Preservation:"Most food scientists cannot recommend cold-smoking methods because of the inherent risks." Cold smoking meats should only be attempted by personnel certified in HACCP, or Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points, to ensure that it is safely prepared. Warm smoking exposes foods to temperatures of 25–40 °C. Hot smoking exposes the foods to smoke and heat in a controlled environment such as a smoker oven or smokehouse. Hot smoking requires the use of a smoker which generates heat either from a charcoal base, heated element within the smoker or from a stove-top or oven, food is hot smoked by cooking and flavoured with wood smoke simultaneously.
Like cold smoking, the item may be hung first to develop a pellicle, it is smoked from 1 hour to as long as 24 hours. Although foods that have been hot smoked are reheated or further cooked, they are safe to eat without further cooking. Hams and ham hocks are cooked once they are properly smoked, they can be eaten as is without any further preparation. Hot smoking occurs within the range of 52 to 80 °C; when food is smoked within this temperature range, foods are cooked and flavorful. If the smoker is allowed to get hotter than 85 °C, the foods will shrink excessively, buckle, or split. Smoking at high temperatures reduces yield, as both moisture and fat are cooked away. Liquid smoke, a product derived from smoke compounds in water, is applied to foods through spraying or dipping. Smoke-roasting refers to any process that has the attributes of both smoking; this smoking method is sometimes referred to as pit-roasting. It may be done in a sm
Dahi is a traditional yogurt or fermented milk product, originating from the Indian subcontinent prepared from cow's milk, sometimes buffalo milk, or goat milk. It is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent; the word curd is used in Indian English to refer to homemade yogurt, while the term yogurt refers to the pasteurized commercial variety known as heat treated fermented milk. Dahi is made by bacterial fermentation of milk. In this process lactose in milk is converted into lactic acid by several probiotic microorganisms; the species involved in the fermentation depends on the temperature and humidity of the environment, may include Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Streptococcus cremoris, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Dahi starter is made with dried red chillies in hot milk. Milk is boiled and allowed to cool for a while; when lukewarm, dried chili peppers or their stems are added. The reason for this tradition is that dried chillies are rich in a type of lactobacilli, the bacteria that helps in fermentation of milk to form dahi.
The bowl is kept undisturbed in a warm place for 5 to 10 hours. After the starter is made, or saved from previous batch of dahi, milk is cooled. In a separate bowl dahi is mixed with its whey, mixed together with the milk, it is left to sit undisturbed for 5 to 10 hours. This practice can be applied for making dahi/yogurt from milk substitutes, such as soy milk. Buffalo curd is a traditional type of yogurt prepared from water buffalo milk, it is popular throughout the Indian subcontinent. Buffalo milk is traditionally better than cow milk due to its higher fat content making a thicker yogurt mass. Clay pots are used as packaging material for Buffalo curd. Buffalo curd is obtained by bacterial fermentation of buffalo milk. In this process lactose in buffalo milk is converted into lactic acid using several micro-organisms; the species involved in the fermentation include Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Streptococcus cremoris, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Buffalo curd has a higher nutritional value of protein, lactose and vitamins. Quality of the curd depends on the starter culture. Fermentation develops the characteristic flavor and colour of the product. Buffalo curd can be made in both industrial forms. Traditionally buffalo milk is filtered and boiled, the scum is removed and it is cooled to room temperature. A few spoonfuls of a previous batch of curd are added and it is mixed well and poured into clay pots; these are sealed by allowing it to stand for 12 hours. Curd is an important part of everyday diet in the Indian subcontinent, both in slow cooked food and fast food. Slow food Borhani- Bangladeshi drink Dahi chawal – curd rice Dahi kadhi – curd curry Doi maach – Bengali dish, fish in curd curry Coconut chutney – side dish for Idli/Dosa/Uttapam, south Indian cuisine Raita – side dish for Biryani Dahi baigan/Kathrikai thayir kothsu – Eggplant with curd, south Indian cuisine Perugu Pachadi – curd-based dip, Andhra dish Thepla – served with plain curd, Gujrati dishFast food Dahi vada / Dahi bhalla – Vada soaked in Curd Lassi – curd mixed with water and sweetner sugar or molasses.
Chaas - curd mixed with water and Sea salt, black salt or Himalayan salt. It is known as Buttermilk. Papri chaat Dahi puri – variation of Panipuri, using curd instead of tamarind water Dahi bhelpuri – variation of Bhelpuri, with curd on top Aloo tikki – plain curd is a side dish for Aloo tikki Aloo paratha – plain curd is a side dish for Aloo paratha Mishti doi – curd, fermented after adding sweetner to milk cane Jaggery or date palm jaggery. Dadiah Dhau How to make curd or dahi How to make curd Curd and treacle Curd pots