WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Antwerp)
The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp is an art academy located in Antwerp, Belgium. It is one of the oldest of its kind in Europe and it was founded in 1663 by David Teniers the Younger, painter to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and Don Juan of Austria. It houses the world-renowned Antwerp Fashion Academy, the Royal Academy developed into an internationally acclaimed institute for Fine Arts and Design. From the nineteenth century on, the academy attracted young artists from abroad, German, Polish artists looking for a solid classical training found their way to Antwerp. Under the direction of Gustave Wappers and his registrar Hendrik Conscience, the academys significant art collection was exhibited in its own gallery space. By 1890, this gallery would develop into the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, in 1880, a promising young artist Henry Van de Velde enrolled at the Antwerp Academy. He would become one of the pioneering 20th century architects and designers, in 1885 and 1886, Vincent van Gogh was to spend a short time at the Antwerp academy, prior to his departure to France.
In 1885, King Leopold II commissioned the establishment of the National Higher Institute for Fine Arts Antwerp as a unique post graduate program, in 1946, the Architecture program became an independent institute, The National Higher Institute of Architecture. Another key moment in the history of the academy would be 1963, a unique new course ‘Fashion Design’ started. This course was successful from the beginning, but became world leading in the early eighties. “The Antwerp Six” with Dirk Bikkembergs, Walter Van Beirendonck, Marina Yee, Dries Van Noten, Dirk Van Saene, stylistically extremely diverse, these young friends had a huge impact on the contemporary fashion scene. The fashion program attracted more and more talents from all over the globe, with over 130 students its by far the largest program in the visual arts and design department. In 1995, the Flemish higher educational system faced a radical metamorphosis, the Antwerp Academy and the Henry Van de Velde Institute were included as faculties in a bigger college structure, The University College of Antwerp.
However, the Higher Institute of Fine Arts was kept independent, the Academy nowadays offers three distinctive programs, Visual Arts and Design, Conservation studies and a one-year dedicated teachers training. A body of 540 students work in the four buildings located in the heart of the city. As of September 2013, the programs are offered by the Artesis Plantijn Hogeschool Antwerpen, shortly after the founding of Antwerp Academy, three large paintings were executed for its meeting hall. Antwerp, Nurse of Painters, by Theodoor Boeyermans, promotes the citys recent artistic past, portraits of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck watch over students as they practise the arts. At the centre is the allegorical Antverpia pictorum nutrix, chronos accompanies other young students who present their artwork
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
Willem Jacob Herreyns
Willem Jacob Herreyns was a Flemish painter of history subjects and portraits. He is regarded as one of the last painters in the tradition of the Flemish Baroque, Willem Herreyns was a scion of a family of artists. His father Jacob III Herreyns was a painter and decorator and his uncle Guillaume was a sculptor. He got his training from these relatives. Subsequently he studied at the Academy of Antwerp where the prominent history, the young painter won in 1764 the first prize for painting from life at the Academy. He completed his studies in the same year, a year he became one of the six director-teachers of the Academy as the replacement of Andries Cornelis Lens who had been a pupil of Balthasar Beschey. In 1767 Herreyns left the Academy and travelled, upon his return to Belgium in 1771 he went to live in Mechelen where he got married. He was appointed as a director of the drawing school. He taught a few subjects in Mechelen and worked on many commissions. He was offered a position by the Academy of Brussels but despite the salary offered he decided to remain in Mechelen.
After invading the Austrian Netherlands in 1792, the French abolished the school system and as a result. Following the creation of schools by the French, Herreyns returned to Antwerp in 1795 to become a teacher of drawing at the central school of the department of Deux-Nèthes. In 1797 he saved 328 paintings from the churches and monasteries that had been ordered closed by the French occupiers, many of these paintings had in fact been stolen. He worked on the return of Rubens paintings Our Lady with the parrot, in 1800 Herreyns was appointed a teacher-director of the former Antwerp Academy, which had been renamed lÉcole spéciale de peinture, sculpture et architecture dAnvers. When the school was renamed an academy in 1804, Herreyns could maintain his position which he would hold until his death, in 1810 he got permission from Napoleon to set up a museum in the former Franciscan monastery in Antwerp. In 1815,38 of the 63 pictures removed by the French were added to its collection and he taught the young Antoine-Joseph Wiertz.
Herreyns’ work was highly regarded in his time. During a visit to Antwerp in 1780, the Swedish king Gustav III admired one of Herreyns works called The Purification of the Virgin, the king immediately decided to appoint Herreyns as his court painter, although in reality Herreyns never went to Sweden
Leiden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south, the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the worlds most famous painters, was born, other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has one of Europes most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave, many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto, ‘City of Discoveries’. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdoms oldest university, Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students.
Leiden is a university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city. Leiden was formed on a hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude. In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon, the name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- canal. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum and this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the citys name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in closer to the town of Katwijk. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold, Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a war against her uncle, William I. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada, Leiden received city rights in 1266.
In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons, burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first and he rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship
Michael Bryan (art historian)
Michael Bryan was an English art historian, art dealer and connoisseur. He was involved in the purchase and resale of the great French Orleans Collection of art, selling it on to a British syndicate, Bryan was born in Newcastle upon Tyne and educated at the Royal Grammar School under Dr. Moyce. In June 1784, he married Juliana Talbot, the sister of Charles Talbot, the 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, Bryan moved back to London in 1790 establishing himself as an authority and dealer in Fine Art. In 1793 or 1794, he went to the continent in search of fine pictures. Among other places he visited Holland, and remained there until an order arrived from the French government to stop all English citizens resident there and he was, amongst many others, detained at Rotterdam. It was here that he met Jean-Joseph de Laborde who, in 1798, Bryan, in effect, became a middleman for the purchase, and contacted the Duke of Bridgewater, who authorised him to open negotiations. The collection was displayed in Bryans private art gallery in Pall Mall, London, in 1801 Bryan obtained, through the Duke of Bridgewater, the kings permission to visit Paris in order to purchase art from the cabinet of Monsieur Robit to bring back to England.
Among other fine pictures, he returned with two by the baroque Spanish artist Murillo - The infant Christ as the Good Shepherd, in 1804 Bryan retired from the art world, and settled at his brothers home in Yorkshire, where he remained until 1811. In 1812 Bryan again visited London, and commenced writing his magnum opus - the Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters and Engravers in 2 volumes, the first part appeared in May 1813, and concluded in 1816. He owned a gallery in Londons Savile Row, which became a gathering place for artists. In 1818 he became involved with some speculative art purchases which proved a failure, on 14 February 1821, Bryan suffered a severe paralytic stroke, dying at Portman Square, London on 21 March of the same year. Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers ( London, New York and Bombay Edition of 1903 -1905, Volume 11903 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 51905 Bryan, Bryans dictionary of painters and engravers revised and enlarged by George C
Ferdinand de Braekeleer the Elder
Ferdinand de Braekeleer, sometimes spelled as Ferdinand de Braeckeleer, was a Flemish painter. He is known for his paintings and is called the Elder to distinguish him from his son with the same name. Ferdinand was born in a poor family, after his parents died he was admitted to the Art school for orphans of Mathieu Ignace van Brée in Antwerp. He continued his education at the Royal Academy for Fine Arts of Antwerp and his paintings received several prizes in 1809 and 1811. In 1813 he made his reputation at the Salon de Paris with his work Aeneas die Anchises redt uit de brand van Troje. Early on, De Braekeleer decided that he wanted to make a living as a painter, in addition to historical paintings, he painted religious paintings, such as St. Sebastiaan for the Church of Our Lady of the Vineyard in Wijnegem. At the Antwerp art exhibition of 1819 he exhibited four paintings and this prize provided him with a scholarship that allowed him to study in Italy to improve his skills. He spent 1821 and 1822 in Italy, together with his tutor Van Brée he visited several Italian cities, including Naples, Firenze and Venice.
After his return to Belgium, De Braekeleer lived in his home town Antwerp and he created works inspired by the old Flemish masters. He primarily focused on historical paintings, one of these is the painting De Citadel van Antwerpen na het bombardement van 1832. Partially because of his paintings about the 1832 bombardments by the Dutch and his two sons, Ferdinand the Younger and Henri de Braekeleer followed in their fathers footsteps and became painters. His nephew Adriaan Ferdinand de Braekeleer, was a painter, on display in Schlossmuseum Weimar Oude jager met jong meisje,1867, private collection P. & V. Berko, Dictionary of Belgian painters born between 1750 &1875, Knokke 1981, p. 152-155. P. & V. Berko, 19th Century European Virtuoso Painters, Knokke 2011, p.498, illustrations p.442
Antoine Joseph Wiertz was a Belgian romantic painter and sculptor. Born in Dinant from a poor family, he entered the Antwerp art academy in 1820. Thanks to his protector Pierre-Joseph de Paul de Maibe, a member of the Second Chamber of the States-General, between November 1829 and May 1832, he stayed in Paris, where he studied the old masters at the Louvre. Upon his return, he established himself in Liège with his mother, during his stay in Rome, Wiertz worked on his first great work, Les Grecs et les Troyens se disputant le corps de Patrocle, on a subject borrowed from book XVII of Homers Iliad. It was exhibited in Antwerp in 1837, where it met some success. Wiertz submitted the work for the Paris Salon of 1838, badly hung and lit, his entry elicited indifference on the part of the public, and provoked sarcasm among the critics. This second humiliation led to a profound rancour against art critics and against Paris, as expressed in his virulent pamphlet Bruxelles capitale, in 1844, Wiertz painted a second version of his Patrocles on an even bigger scale than the first.
The Rome version is now in the Museum of Walloon Art in Liège, after the Paris disaster, Wiertz veered more and more to the excessive. A fine example is the monumental La Chute des Anges rebelles, the death of his mother in 1844 was a terrible blow to the artist. He left Liège in 1845 to settle in Brussels for good, during this period he painted a confrontation of Beauty and Death, Deux jeunes filles—La Belle Rosine, which remains perhaps his most famous work. Dissatisfied with the effect of oil painting, he developed a new technique combining the smoothness of oil painting with the speed of execution. This technique of mat painting entailed the use of a mixture of colours, turpentine, La Lutte homérique was the first big-scale painting executed in this technique. However, the used in this technique are responsible for the slow decay of the works produced with it. Wiertz was a portrait painter, who made self-portraits at various ages. Influenced mainly by Rubens and the late Michelangelo, Wiertz monumental painting often moves between classical academism and lurid romanticism, between the grandiose and the ridiculous.
After difficult negotiations with the Belgian government, Wiertz was able to realize his dream to turn his last studio into a museum for his works, the Belgian State bought a piece of land and funded the construction of a huge hall to accommodate the painters monumental works. In exchange, Wiertz donated all his works to the Belgian State and his remains were embalmed in accordance with Ancient Egyptian burial rites and buried in a vault in the municipal cemetery of Ixelles. A copy of one of Antoine Wiertzs works, the statue of The Triumph of Light was once prominently located high on San Franciscos Mount Olympus between the Haight-Ashbury and Corona Heights and it had been presented to the city of San Francisco by Adolph Sutro in 1887
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music