The Motel (film)
The Motel is the debut feature from director Michael Kang. The film won the Humanitas Prize in the Sundance Film Festival category, was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award for Best First Feature, it is based on the novel Waylaid by Ed Lin. Thirteen-year-old Ernest Chin's life is devoted to working at his family's hourly-rate motel, where a steady stream of prostitutes and various other shady characters come and go. Abandoned by his father, he lives with his mother and younger sister Katie; the film is a loosely assembled series of vignettes examining the difficulty of adolescence. Recurring themes include painful encounters with a bully named Roy and Ernest's persistent feelings of being misunderstood by his family. Ernest blindly explores his incipient sexuality, which includes nursing a crush on Christine, an older girl who works at a Chinese restaurant nearby. Ernest's life changes after he meets the newest guest at the motel: a self-destructive yet charming Korean-American man named Sam Kim, caught in a downward spiral after estrangement from his wife.
The Motel was met with critical acclaim and particular praise went to Michael Kang's directing. The film scored a rating of 87% on the review-aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes based on 31 reviews. Bob Longino of Atlanta Journal-Constitution liked the film and wrote, "There is honesty and integrity in the filmmaking and the performances, which make The Motel among the best character studies of the year."Elizabeth Weitzman from New York Daily News said that the Motel is "Unlike so many indie films, Michael Kang's empathetic debut embraces eccentricity without drowning in its own hip irony."V. A. Musetto of the New York Post exclaimed in his review "Kang makes an impressive feature directorial debut with The Motel, but the person to keep an eye on is Jeffrey Chyau, a student at the Bronx High School of Science, a delight in the lead role."Stephen Holden of the New York Times wrote in his positive review that "Michael Kang's small observed portrait of a Chinese-American boy captures the glum desperation of inhabiting the biological limbo of early adolescence."Joey Leydon at Variety magazine said of the film, "Indie coming-of-age dramedy about a precocious Chinese-American youth whose family operates a sleazy roadside motel signals arrival of a singularly promising filmmaker." and ended with comparing Kang's directing to acclaimed Indie directors Francois Truffaut and Frank Whaley saying "Writer-director Michael Kang covers familiar territory mined memorably by auteurs ranging from Francois Truffaut to Frank Whaley."
Official website The Motel on IMDb Official Site @ Palm Pictures The Motel at Rotten Tomatoes
Jennifer Joanna Aniston is an American actress, film producer, businesswoman. The daughter of actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow, she began working as an actress at an early age with an uncredited role in the 1987 film Mac and Me. After her career grew in the 1990s, Aniston has remained a well-known public figure and established herself as one of the leading and highest-paid actresses in Hollywood as of 2018. Aniston rose to fame portraying Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends, for which she earned Primetime Emmy, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild awards; the character was popular while the series aired and was recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television. Aniston has since played lead roles in romantic comedies, her box office successes include Bruce Almighty, The Break-Up, Marley & Me, Just Go with It, Horrible Bosses, We're the Millers, each of which grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office receipts. Her most critically acclaimed roles include the dramedy the drama Cake.
Aniston co-founded production company Echo Films in 2008. Divorced from actor Brad Pitt, to whom she was married for five years, she is separated from actor Justin Theroux, whom she married in 2015. Aniston was born on February 11, 1969, in the Los Angeles suburb of Sherman Oaks, the daughter of Greek-born actor John Aniston and actress Nancy Dow. One of her maternal great-grandfathers, Louise Grieco, was from Italy, her mother's other ancestry includes English, Scottish, a small amount of Greek. Aniston has two half-brothers, John Melick, her older maternal half-brother, Alex Aniston, her younger paternal half-brother. Aniston's godfather was one of her father's best friends; as a child she moved to New York City. Despite her father's television career she was discouraged from watching television, though she found ways around the prohibition; when she was six, she began attending a Waldorf school. Her parents split up. Having discovered acting at age 11 at the Waldorf school, Aniston enrolled in Manhattan's Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts, where she joined the school's drama society.
Anthony Abeson was her drama teacher. She was in The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window by Lorraine Hansberry and Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov. Aniston first worked in Off-Broadway productions such as For Dear Life and Dancing on Checker's Grave, supported herself with part-time jobs which included working as a telemarketer and bike messenger. In 1988, she had an uncredited minor role in Me; the next year she appeared on The Howard Stern Show as a spokesmodel for Nutrisystem, moved back to Los Angeles. She obtained her first regular television role on Molloy in 1990, appeared in Ferris Bueller, a television adaptation of the 1986 film Ferris Bueller's Day Off, she starred as a teenager going to summer camp in the made-for-television film Camp Cucamonga, as a spoiled daughter followed by a vengeful leprechaun in the horror film Leprechaun. A 2014 retrospective from Entertainment Weekly identified Leprechaun as her worst role, Aniston herself has expressed embarrassment over it. Aniston appeared in two more failed television comedy series, The Edge and Muddling Through, guest-starred in Quantum Leap, Herman's Head, Burke's Law.
Depressed over her four unsuccessful television shows, Aniston approached Warren Littlefield at a Los Angeles gas station asking for reassurance. The head of NBC entertainment encouraged her to continue acting, a few months helped cast her for Friends, a sitcom, set to debut on NBC's 1994–1995 fall lineup; the producer wanted Aniston to audition for the role of Monica Geller, but Courteney Cox was considered more suitable. Thus, Aniston was cast as Rachel Green, she was offered a spot as a featured player on Saturday Night Live, but turned it down to do Friends. She played Rachel until the show ended in 2004; the program was successful and Aniston, along with her co-stars, gained worldwide recognition among television viewers. Her character was popular and was recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television; the actress received five Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including a win for Lead Actress. She was nominated for two Golden Globe Awards and won in 2003 as Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Aniston became the highest-paid television actress of all time with her $1 million-per-episode paycheck for the final season of Friends. Her character's relationship with Ross Geller, portrayed by David Schwimmer in the show, was popular among audiences, the couple was voted as television's favorite couple in polls and magazines. Following a four-year hiatus, Aniston returned to film work in 1996, when she performed in the ensemble cast of romantic comedy She's the One. Aniston's first starring vehicle was Picture Perfect, in which she played a struggling young advertising executive opposite Kevin Bacon and Jay Mohr. While the film received mixed reviews, it was a moderate commercial success, Aniston's performance was more warmly received, with many critics suggesting that she had screen presence. In 1998, she appeared as a woman who falls for a gay man in the romantic comedy The Object of My Affection, the next year she starred as a restaurant waitress in the cult film Office Space.
Sundance Film Festival
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, the largest independent film festival in the United States with more than 46,660 attending in 2016. It is held in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, it is a showcase for new work from international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres; the 2019 Sundance Film Festival began January 24 and ran through February 3. Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978, as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah, it was founded by John Earle. The 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. With chairman Robert Redford, the help of Utah Governor Scott M. Matheson, the goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, to increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah.
At the time, the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, to celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system; the jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, included Verna Fields, Linwood G. Dunn, Katharine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr. Mark Rydell, Anthea Sylbert. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what was to become the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania as executive director. More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers; that year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart. The festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left the festival to pursue a production career in Hollywood. Several factors helped propel the growth of Utah/US Film Festival.
First was the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, who became the festival's inaugural chairman. By having Redford's name associated with the festival, it received great attention. Secondly, the country was hungry for more venues that would celebrate American-made films as the only other festival doing so at the time was the USA Film Festival in Dallas. Response in Hollywood was unprecedented, as major studios did all they could to contribute their resources. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.
The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.
The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena; the Sundance London 2015 Festival was cancelled in an announcement on 16 January 2015. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016 and again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Cinema in London's West End. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong took place from 22 September to 2 October 2016 and is scheduled again for 21 September to 1 October 2017, it is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City. M
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Chuck & Buck
Chuck & Buck is a 2000 American black comedy drama film directed by Miguel Arteta. It stars Mike White. Buck O'Brien is a 27-year-old amateur playwright with the maturity level of an adolescent; when Buck's mother dies unexpectedly, he invites his close childhood friend Chuck to the funeral. Chuck is a successful music industry exec with Carlyn, he and Buck experimented sexually with each other when they were 11, but Charlie has repressed these memories and acts as if they had not occurred. Chuck had moved away while they were still children, Buck has pined after him since. During their awkward reunion, Buck makes a sexual advance on Charlie in the bathroom. Charlie rebuffs him, returns to Los Angeles with Carlyn, but not before extending an obligatory invitation for Buck to visit him there. Buck withdraws $10,000 from his bank account, packs up his car, takes up residence in a motel in Los Angeles, he begins scripting a play on a yellow legal pad: titled "Hank and Frank and the Witch", it is an obvious plea for Charlie's love.
Too shy to announce his presence right away, Buck starts trying to see Charlie at his office at Trimorph Entertainment. Buck surreptitiously follows Charlie to find out where he lives. While standing in front of the playhouse across the street from Charlie's job, he strikes up a conversation with Beverly, the house manager. Buck hires Beverly to produce his play, casts Sam, a talentless actor who bears a strong resemblance to Charlie, in the lead. Buck works up the nerve to approach Charlie and his girlfriend. After being invited to a party that Charlie and Carlyn host, Buck becomes aware of just how far apart he and Chuck have grown, he becomes resentful of Carlyn, who he erroneously believes is interfering with their friendship. As a result of this mind-set, Buck's behavior becomes erratic and obsessive; the end of the film deals with both Buck confronting each other over their past. The two have sex, Buck wants Charlie to stay afterward, but Charlie says they must part ways. Buck is distraught afterward, but realizes he has found a new life at the playhouse.
When discussing a play over dinner with Beverly, Buck notices Charlie has arrived with Carlyn. Charlie and Buck exchange glances across the room, but Buck disregards them and goes back to his conversation. Buck comes to the theater to find an invitation to the wedding. Buck offers the couple his blessing with his presence. Buck and Carlyn make peace as Buck moves on from his obsession with Charlie and keeps their sexual encounter a secret from Carlyn. Mike White as Buck O'Brien Chris Weitz as Charlie "Chuck" Sitter Lupe Ontiveros as Beverly Franco Paul Weitz as Sam Maya Rudolph as Jamilla Beth Colt as Carlyn Mary Wigmore as Diane Paul Sand as Barry Pamela Gordon as Mrs. O'Brien Tony Maxwell as Himself Chuck & Buck, although marketed as a comedy, is more considered to be a darkly humorous psychological thriller, or dramedy. Academic James R. Keller says the film explores "the hysterical fear of exposure some heterosexual males experience" when they have had sexual relations with another man; the film prominently features the songs: Gwendolyn's "Freedom of the Heart" Petra Haden's "Look Both Ways Before You Cross" Josh Mancell's "Nwo Tew" Simon Jeffes' "Air a Danser"Additionally, Jeffes' "Paul's Dance", "Prelude and Yodel" and "Nothing Really Blue" are featured on the soundtrack.
The video for "Doctor Worm" by They Might Be Giants is featured during a scene that takes place in Chuck/Charlie's office. Charlie claims to have signed the band to his label; the film has received positive reviews from critics. On the film review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, Chuck & Buck received an 84% approval rating, based on 87 reviews with an average rating of 7/10; the website's critical consensus calls the film "Poignant, unsettling." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 76 out of 100, based on 30 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". In an interview with The New York Times in 2010, actor Jeff Bridges named White's performance the Best of the Decade. Queer cinema Chuck & Buck on IMDb Chuck & Buck at AllMovie Chuck & Buck at Box Office Mojo Chuck & Buck at Rotten Tomatoes
A. D. Vision was an American multimedia entertainment studio that served as the largest American and British anime distributor in the late 20th to early 21st centuries. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, ADV Films was formed in 1992 by video game fan John Ledford and anime fans Matt Greenfield and David Williams; the company spent the next 17 years in the fields of home video production and distribution, broadcast television, theatrical film distribution, original productions and comic book publishing. In 2002, most of ADV Films' back catalog were used to program the Anime Network. For over 15 years, ADV released successful anime titles. Among them are Neon Genesis Evangelion, RahXephon, Full Metal Panic, Azumanga Daioh, Elfen Lied, Red Garden and Le Chevalier D'Eon; the company maintained offices in North America and Asia. In addition to North America, ADV Films distributed their home media releases in the United Kingdom and Germany. With declining fortunes in the mid-2000s due to low sales, ADV's collapsed and liquidated their assets in 2009.
Section23 Films, Sentai Filmworks, AEsir Holdings, Valkyrie Media Partners and Seraphim Digital. Ledford and Williams continue to work for these companies as mentors and creative consultants and most of ADV's back catalog were re-licensed by Discotek Media, Media Blasters, Sentai Filmworks, Maiden Japan, NIS America, Nozomi Entertainment, Viz Media, Ponycan USA, Aniplex of America and Funimation. Several times in the 2010s, Sentai Filmworks revived the ADV Films name to re-release the likes of Mezzo DSA on DVD, Kino's Journey on DVD and SD Blu-ray and Elfen Lied on DVD and HD Blu-ray. John Ledford, a native of Houston, started a Japanese video game and video console import business in 1990, he was introduced to anime. At the time, San Francisco-born Matt Greenfield ran a local anime club called Anime NASA, which included classmate David Williams. After consulting with Ledford, Greenfield joined him and Williams to found A. D. Vision, which opened for business on August 17, 1992. Ledford contacted Toho about optioning the rights to license Devil Hunter Yohko.
Shozo Watanabe, the general manager of Toho's Los Angeles office, expressed concern that A. D. Vision would not be able to handle the distribution of the film. Unable to find another distributor, Toho convinced A. D. Vision to license the series; that December, Devil Hunter Yohko became the first title to be released by A. D. Vision. In 2007, Japan's Sojitz announced that Japan Content Investments, an investment group run by Sojitz, Development Bank of Japan, film distribution company KlockWorx, planned to contribute money to A. D. Vision, in return for equity in the company. Ledford was to remain the majority shareholder and CEO. JCI subsidiary ARM planned to contribute money for ADV to use in acquiring new distribution licenses; the investment was to ADV Films to raise its output of new anime titles, which had dropped in 2006, back to previous levels or above. In return, ADV planned to assist Sojitz with the acquisition of North American and European content for importation into Japan. According to ADV, they reportedly had "big plans" for its manga line.
In August 2007, a notice was sent to retailers stating that ADV Films would be taking over the distribution and sales of Geneon properties in the US as of October 1. In preparation, Geneon United States laid off most of its sales division. Dentsu confirmed that the distribution deal was canceled through a press release on September 21, 2007 with no reasons given except that Geneon and ADV were "unable to reach a mutual agreement." In June 2006, ADV Films entered into a partnership with the Japanese Sojitz Corporation. This was done as a means of acquiring more titles in the Japanese market. From this point on all titles that ADV acquired were with Sojitz's help. However, in January 2008, ADV mysteriously removed a large number of titles from their website. All the titles removed were titles acquired since the Sojitz collaboration including Gurren Lagann, which had test disks sent out with dubbed episodes; as of May 2008, Gurren Lagann was licensed by Bandai Entertainment. ADV Films made booth appearances at the Anime Central 2008 convention, but they canceled their planned panel.
In July 2008, Funimation announced the acquisition of thirty of these titles. The titles removed from ADV's website are as follows: 009-1, 5 Centimeters per Second, Ah! My Goddess: Flights of Fancy, both the film and television adaptions of the Key visual novel Air, Best Student Council, Blade of the Phantom Master, Comic Party Revolution, Coyote Ragtime Show, Devil May Cry, the 2006 live-action horror film Ghost Train, Guyver: The Bioboosted Armor, Innocent Venus, Jing King of Bandits: 7th Heaven, Jinki: Extend, the 2006 anime remake of yet another Key visual novel, Kurau: Phantom Memory, Le Chevalier D'Eon, Moeyo Ken, Moonlight Mile, Nerima Daikon Brothers, Pani Poni Dash!, Project Blue Earth SOS, Pumpkin Scissors, Red Garden, Tokyo Majin, UFO Princess Valkyrie, the first anime of Utawarerumono, Venus vs. Virus, The Wallflower, Welcome to the NHK and Xenosaga. On October 20, 2008, it was announced that ADV had entered into a licensing arrangement with new licensor Sentai Filmworks; the highlight of the new partnership was that ADV would be distributing the anime television adaptation of the popular visual novel Clannad they acquired the distribution rights to Koharu Biyori, Mahoromatic: Something More Beautiful, Tsukihime (previou
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC