Melbourne International Comedy Festival
The Melbourne International Comedy Festival is the third-largest international comedy festival in the world. Established in 1987, it takes place annually in Melbourne over four weeks starting in March and running through to April; the Melbourne Town Hall has served as the festival hub since the early 1990s, but performances are held in venues throughout the city. The MICF plays host to hundreds of international artists. Although it is a vehicle for stand-up and cabaret acts, the festival has included sketch shows, improvisational theatre, musical shows and art exhibitions; the televised Gala is one of the festival's flagship event, showcasing short performances from many headline and award-winning comics. Other popular events include The Great Debate, a televised comedy debate, the Opening Night Super Show, Upfront, a night of performances featuring female comedians; the Festival produces three flagship development programs: Raw Comedy, Australia's biggest open mic competition. The Festival undertakes an annual national roadshow, showcasing festival highlights in regional towns across Australia.
The festival was launched in 1987 at a media conference hosted by Peter Cook. According to the festival's co-founder, John Pinder, the idea of holding an international comedy festival originated in the early 1980s. In 1986, Pinder persuaded the Victorian Tourism Commission to fund an overseas trip in order to visit other international comedy festivals and investigate the possibility of holding a festival in Melbourne. Pinder became convinced it would work, after his return wrote a report for the state government, which they accepted; the following year, the first annual Melbourne International Comedy Festival launched. Traditionally the festival would open on or around April Fool's Day, though it now begins in mid to late March and runs for four weeks, its first year, in 1987, featured 56 separate shows, including performances by the Doug Anthony All Stars, Wogs Out of Work, Gerry Connolly, Los Trios Ringbarkus and Rod Quantock. By 1999, it was being attended by some 350,000 patrons annually.
In 2010, it played host to a record 369 shows and 4,947 performances both local and international, including artists from the US, the UK, Ireland and China. In addition, it achieved an attendance of over 508,000 and its highest-ever box office revenue of A$10.9 million, ranking it as Australia's largest cultural event. Activities were centred around the Universal and Athenaeum Theatres but in the early 1990s the MICF shifted its epicentre to the newly refurbished Melbourne Town Hall, which has remained the festival hub. Soon after this, it spread out further to include an independently produced program at the Melbourne Trades Hall as well. In 2010, for the first time, the Festival ran the Trades Hall venue; the MICF is the third-largest international comedy festival in the world, behind Edinburgh's Fringe Festival and Montreal's Just For Laughs. Although it is a vehicle for stand-up and cabaret acts, its programme has featured sketch shows, improvisational theatre, musical shows and art exhibitions.
There is a tradition for experimenting with unusual comedy venues, such as Rod Quantock's "Bus" tours and the similar "Storming Mount Albert By Tram", which used buses and trams as mobile theatres in which the audience members were passengers. In 2006, the opening of the festival was delayed due to the Festival Melbourne that occurred as part of the 2006 Commonwealth Games held in Melbourne. Following the end of the festival in Melbourne various local and international comedians join the MICF Roadshow, which spends several months touring regional Australia and in 2010, Singapore. Australian comic Peter Helliar says that performing in Melbourne is more fun for comedians because there is less pressure involved than in Edinburgh, where there is greater competition to gain an audience. Journalist Simon Fanshawe describes Melbourne as "the festival where the comedians go to play... the most relaxed, least fevered and the most audience friendly of all the festivals."Matt Quartermaine, a Melbourne-based writer and comedian, says that the loss of these venues has meant that local comics do not have the chance to trial and perform their material until it is polished and sharp enough for them to make a living from it.
Furthermore, these local comedians must compete with international acts, some of whom the festival pays to bring to Melbourne. Quartermaine says that this makes people more to overlook the local acts, adopting an attitude of "we can see you guys anytime, so we’re going to one of the foreign acts". Lorin Clarke, a Melbourne-based writer and director of comedy theatre, argues that shows self-produced by Australian comedians have great difficulty competing against shows featuring international comics which are produced by the Melbourne International Comedy Festival. Clarke argues. In addition to over 200 nightly shows which play during the festival there are a number of special one-off events; the best-known of these is the Comedy Festival Gala, which showcases short acts from many headline and award-winning comedians performing shows at that year's festival. It has become known as the festival's flagship event and sells out months in advance, it is hos
Foxtel is an Australian pay television company, operating in cable television, direct broadcast satellite television, IPTV streaming services. It was formed in 1995 through a joint venture established between News Telstra. With Fox being the 65% and Telstra the 35% shareholders, it shares many features with the Sky service in the United Kingdom, including iQ, the electronic program guide, a similar remote control, Red Button Active. In 1995, a venture between News Corporation and Telstra took place whereby Telstra would transmit a TV signal through its coaxial network and News Corporation would be the basis for offering channel negotiations and connections. Foxtel was formed... On 23 October 1995, Foxtel commenced a 20 channel service, delivered over the Telstra Hybrid Fibre Coaxial network. In May 1998, Australis Media, the owner of a satellite television service known as Galaxy, was declared insolvent. In June 1998, Foxtel was able to boost its customer base by acquiring Galaxy subscribers from the liquidator of Australis Media and commenced supplying programming to Galaxy's subscribers on an interim basis.
In February 1999, Foxtel began offering its own satellite service to new customers. Publishing and Broadcasting Limited bought half of News Corporation's shares in October 1998, giving each quarter ownership. In 2002, a Content Sharing Agreement between Foxtel and Optus Television was approved by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. On 11 July 2011, Austar announced that "it had entered into definitive transaction agreements with Liberty Global, Inc. and Foxtel Management Pty Limited under which Foxtel will acquire Austar by a series of transactions including a scheme of arrangement." This takeover involved a minority shareholder approval on 30 March 2012, the approval of the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission on 10 April 2012, has had approval from a Second Court Hearing. Austar shares were suspended from the ASX on 16 April 2012 and delisted on 27 April 2012; the takeover was completed on 24 May 2012. News Corporation acquired Consolidated Media Holdings in November 2012, bringing its stake in Foxtel to 50%, up from 25%.
On 15 June 2015, Foxtel agreed to buyout 15% shares in Ten Network Holdings, subject to approval from the ACCC. Prior to the acquisition, Discovery backed out from bidding partnership with Foxtel. In June 2017, Foxtel announced that it would be undergoing a major rebrand – the first in its 22-year history – as part of a move to convey an image that "Foxtel is for everyone"; the former logo, described by the company as "quite aggressive, quite arrogant, quite elitist", would be replaced with an all lowercase logo, its Foxtel Play service would rebranded to Foxtel Now. On 6 March 2018, News Corp Australia announced a merger of Fox Sports with Foxtel. News Corp owns a 65 percent stake in the combined entity, with Telstra owning 35 percent; the combining of the two businesses places emphasis on live-streaming sports and entertainment. Foxtel grew in 2007, with most of Foxtel's highest-ever rating events being broadcast that year, including the 2007 AFC Asian Cup quarter-final between Australia and Japan, which drew an average of 419,000 viewers, an Australian pay television record at that time.
This ratings record has since been eclipsed by the 2011 Rugby World Cup on Fox Sports 1 averaging around 500,000 viewers, smashed by the 2012 London Olympics Coverage, broadcast on 8 dedicated channels in both HD and SD formats, which saw an average of 946,432 viewers tuning in on the opening weekend, with around 600,000 to 700,000 viewers nightly thereafter. As of 2012, Fox Sports channels Fox Footy, average between 90,000 and 300,000 + viewers for NRL/AFL matches throughout the week; the highest-rated light entertainment shows are The Simpsons most weeknights on FOX8 with around 110,000 viewers, as well as Family Guy with around 70,000 viewers. A&E has recorded healthy audience numbers for its TruTV & A&E US syndicated shows from the US – Pawn Stars, Hardcore Pawn, Storage Wars. BBC UKTV consistently rates well with British soaps EastEnders and Coronation Street; the LifeStyle channel has experienced audiences in excess of 100,000 people for its Premiere shows Location, Location Australia, Grand Designs Australia, Selling Houses Australia, Disney Channel and The Real Housewives of Melbourne brings strong ratings.
Foxtel transmits its cable service via Telstra hybrid fibre-coaxial cable into the Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth metropolitan areas, along with the Gold Coast. Foxtel now transmits its satellite service into these cities as well as all over Australia including regional areas since the takeover of Austar, previous Austar customers are now 100% Foxtel customers with the conversion from Austar to Foxtel in regional Australia is now complete, satellite service is not supplied to user sites where Telstra HFC cable is available in metropolitan areas. Foxtel on Mobile launched on Telstra's Next G Network in late 2006 and is now available within Telstra Next G coverage areas, which covers 99% of the population. Telstra's network and Foxtel were created to combat the threat posed to Telstra's local call business by the combination of Optus Vision content bundling with Optus' local telephony services.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a 1964 children's novel by British author Roald Dahl. The story features the adventures of young Charlie Bucket inside the chocolate factory of eccentric chocolatier Willy Wonka. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was first published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in 1964 and in the United Kingdom by George Allen & Unwin, 11 months later. The book has been adapted into two major motion pictures: Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory in 1971, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory in 2005; the book's sequel and the Great Glass Elevator, was written by Roald Dahl in 1971 and published in 1972. Dahl had planned to write a third book in the series but never finished it; the story was inspired by Roald Dahl's experience of chocolate companies during his schooldays. Cadbury would send test packages to the schoolchildren in exchange for their opinions on the new products. At that time and Rowntree's were England's two largest chocolate makers and they each tried to steal trade secrets by sending spies, posing as employees, into the other's factory.
Because of this, both companies became protective of their chocolate-making processes. It was a combination of this secrecy and the elaborate gigantic, machines in the factory that inspired Dahl to write the story. 11-year-old Charlie Bucket lives in poverty in a small house with four grandparents. His grandparents share the only bed in the house, located in the only bedroom. Charlie and his parents sleep on mattresses on the floor. One day, Grandpa Joe tells him about the legendary and eccentric chocolatier Willy Wonka and all the wonderful candies he made until the other candymakers sent in spies to steal his secret recipes, which led him to close the factory to outsiders; the next day, the newspaper announces that Wonka is reopening the factory and has invited five children to come on a tour, after they find a Golden Ticket in a Wonka Bar. Each ticket find is a media sensation and each finder becomes a celebrity; the first four golden tickets are found by the gluttonous Augustus Gloop, the spoiled and petulant Veruca Salt, the gum-addicted Violet Beauregarde, the TV-obsessed Mike Teavee.
One day, Charlie sees a fifty-pence coin buried in the snow. He finds the fifth and final golden ticket; the ticket says he can bring one or two family members with him and Charlie's parents decide to allow Grandpa Joe to go with him. Wonka takes the kids and their parents go inside where they meet Oompa-Loompas, a race of small people who help him operate the factory since he rescued them from poverty and fear in their home country Loompaland; the other kids are ejected from the tour in comical and painful ways, befitting their various greedy characters and personalities. Augustus gets sucked up a pipe after falling into the Chocolate River in the Chocolate Room, Violet inflates into a giant blueberry after sampling an experimental three-course chewing gum meal of tomato soup, roast beef and blueberry pie in the Inventing Room, Veruca is thrown down the rubbish chute in the Nut Room after she tries stealing a nut-testing squirrel and they consider her a "bad nut", Mike gets shrunk after he tries to be the first person to be sent by television in the Television Room's Television Chocolate Technology.
During each elimination, the Oompa-Loompas sing a morality song about them. With only Charlie remaining, Wonka congratulates him for "winning" the factory and, after explaining his true age and the reason behind his Golden Tickets, names Charlie his successor, they ride the Great Glass Elevator to Charlie's house. Afterwards, Wonka invites Charlie's family to come live with him in the factory. Dahl’s widow said that Charlie was written as'a little black boy.' Dahl’s biographer said the change to a white character was driven by Dahl’s agent, who thought a black Charlie would not appeal to readers. In the first published edition, the Oompa-Loompas were described as African pygmies, were drawn this way in the original printed edition. After the announcement of a film adaptation sparked a statement from the NAACP expressing concern that the transportation of Oompa-Loompas to Wonka's factory resembled slavery, Dahl found himself sympathizing with the NAACP's concerns and published a revised edition.
In this edition, as well as the subsequent sequel, the Oompa-Loompas were drawn as being white and appearing similar to hippies, the references to Africa were deleted. Dahl expressed regret over the original version, saying that his original intention of depicting Charlie as a black child was evidence that he was not racist. Various unused and draft material from Dahl's early versions of the novel have been found. In the initial, unpublished drafts of Charlie and the Chocolate Factory nine golden tickets were distributed to tour Willy Wonka's secret chocolate factory and the children faced more rooms and more temptations to test their self-control; some of the names of the children cut from the final work include: Clarence Crump, Bertie Upside, Terence Roper Elvira Entwhistle Violet Glockenberry Miranda Grope and Augustus Pottle Miranda Mary Piker Marvin Prune Wilbur Rice and Tommy Troutbeck, the subjects of The Vanilla Fudge Room Herpes Trout "Spotty Powder" was first published as a shor
British Academy of Film and Television Arts
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts is an independent charity that supports and promotes the art forms of the moving image in the United Kingdom. In addition to its annual awards ceremonies, BAFTA has an international programme of learning events and initiatives offering access to talent through workshops, scholarships and mentoring schemes in the United Kingdom and the United States. BAFTA started out as the British Film Academy, was founded in 1947 by a group of directors David Lean, Alexander Korda, Roger Manvell, Laurence Olivier, Emeric Pressburger, Michael Powell, Michael Balcon, Carol Reed, other major figures of the British film industry. David Lean was the founding chairman of the academy; the first Film Awards ceremony took place in May 1949 and honouring the films The Best Years of Our Lives, Odd Man Out and The World Is Rich. The Guild of Television Producers and Directors was set up in 1953 with the first awards ceremony in October 1954, in 1958 merged with the British Film Academy to form the Society of Film and Television Arts, whose inaugural meeting was held at Buckingham Palace and presided over by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh.
In 1976, Queen Elizabeth, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Royal and The Earl Mountbatten of Burma opened the organisation's headquarters at 195 Piccadilly, in March the society became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. BAFTA is an independent charity with a mission to "support and promote the art forms of the moving image, by identifying and rewarding excellence, inspiring practitioners and benefiting the public", it is a membership organisation comprising 7,500 individuals worldwide who are creatives and professionals working in and making a contribution to the film and games industries in the UK. In 2005, it placed an overall cap on worldwide voting membership "which now stands at 6,500". BAFTA does not receive any funding from the government: it relies on income from membership subscriptions, individual donations, trusts and corporate partnerships to support its ongoing outreach work. BAFTA has offices in Scotland and Wales in the UK, in Los Angeles and New York in the United States and runs events in Hong Kong and mainland China.
Amanda Berry OBE has been chief executive of the organisation since December 2000. In addition to its high-profile awards ceremonies, BAFTA manages a year-round programme of educational events and initiatives including film screenings and Q&As, tribute evenings, interviews and debates with major industry figures. With over 250 events a year, BAFTA's stated aim is to inspire and inform the next generation of talent by providing a platform for some of the world's most talented practitioners to pass on their knowledge and experience. Many of these events are free to watch online via its official channel on YouTube. BAFTA runs a number of scholarship programmes across US and Asia. Launched in 2012, the UK programme enables talented British citizens who are in need of financial support to take an industry-recognised course in film, television or games in the UK; each BAFTA Scholar receives up to £12,000 towards their annual course fees, mentoring support from a BAFTA member and free access to BAFTA events around the UK.
Since 2013, three students every year have received one of the Prince William Scholarships in Film and Games, supported by BAFTA and Warner Bros. These scholarships are awarded in the name of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in his role as president of BAFTA. In the US, BAFTA Los Angeles offers financial support and mentorship to British graduate students studying in the US, as well as scholarships to provide financial aid to local LA students from the inner city. BAFTA New York's Media Studies Scholarship Program, set up in 2012, supports students pursuing media studies at undergraduate and graduate level institutions within the New York City area and includes financial aid and mentoring opportunities. Since 2015, BAFTA has been offering scholarships for British citizens to study in China, vice versa. BAFTA presents awards for film and games, including children's entertainment, at a number of annual ceremonies across the UK and in Los Angeles, USA; the BAFTA award trophy is a mask, designed by American sculptor Mitzi Cunliffe.
When the Guild merged with the British Film Academy to become the Society of Film and Television Arts the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the first'BAFTA award' was presented to Sir Charles Chaplin on his Academy Fellowship that year. Today's BAFTA award – including the bronze mask and marble base – weighs 3.7 kg and measures 27 cm x 14 cm x 8 cm. In 2017, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts introduced new entry rules for British Films Only starting from 2018 season. BAFTA's annual film awards ceremony is known as the British Academy Film Awards, or "the BAFTAs", reward the best work of any nationality seen on British cinema screens during the preceding year. In 1949 the British Film Academy, as it was known, presented the first awards for films made in 1947 and 1948. Since 2008 the ceremony has been held at the Royal Opera House in London's Covent Garden, it had been held in the Odeon cinema on Leicester Square since 2000. Since 2017, the BAFTA ceremony has been held at the Royal Albert Hall.
The ceremony had been performed during April or May of each year, but since 2002 it has been held in February to precede the academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Academy Awards, or Oscars. In order for a film to be considered for a BAFTA nomination its first public exhibition must be displayed in a cinema and it must have a
Allen Kelsey Grammer is an American actor, voice actor, singer, director and activist, best known for his two-decade-long portrayal of psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane on the NBC sitcoms Cheers and Frasier, he has won five Primetime Emmy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, one Tony Award, has worked as a television producer and writer. Grammer was born February 21, 1955, in Charlotte Amalie, Saint Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands, the son of Sally, a singer and actress, Frank Allen Grammer, Jr. a musician and owner of a coffee shop and a bar and grill called Greer's Place. He had one younger sister. Grammer and his sister Karen were subsequently raised by their mother and grandparents in New Jersey; the family relocated to Florida, shortly afterwards his grandfather died when Kelsey was twelve. Two years in 1968, Frank Allen Grammer, his father, was murdered. In 1975, his sister Karen was raped and murdered after a work shift at the age of 18. In 1980, his two half-brothers died while scuba diving in the Virgin Islands.
Grammer attended a private preparatory school in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. It was there that he first began to perform on stage. From the age of 16, with his mother's approval, he began to smoke a pipe. Grammer won a scholarship to the prestigious Juilliard School, he was a member of Group 6, 1973–1975. He failed to attend classes and was expelled. After leaving Juilliard, Grammer had a three-year internship with the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego in the late 1970s before a stint in 1980 at the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he made his Broadway debut in 1981 as "Lennox" in Macbeth, taking the lead role when Philip Anglim withdrew after receiving negative reviews. Grammer played Michael Cassio in a Broadway revival of Othello, with James Earl Jones and Christopher Plummer. In 1983 he performed in the demo of the Stephen Sondheim–James Lapine production Sunday in the Park with George, starring Mandy Patinkin. In 2000, Grammer again played Macbeth on Broadway, in a production. On April 18, 2010, Grammer made his Broadway musical debut playing the role of Georges in a revival of the Jerry Herman/Harvey Fierstein musical La Cage aux Folles, for which he was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical.
Grammer originated the roles of Charles Frohman and Captain Hook in the Broadway premiere of the musical Finding Neverland in March 2015, continuing with the roles through June 28, 2015. He returned to the stage from January 19 to April 3, 2016. Most he made an appearance in the West End production of Big Fish. Grammer arrived at iconic television status in 1984 as Dr. Frasier Crane in the NBC sitcom Cheers. Grammer's former Juilliard classmate and Broadway co-star Mandy Patinkin suggested Grammer to the New York casting director, he got what was supposed to be a six-episode job, but ended up as a regular cast member until May 1993, when the show ended. In September 1993 the character became the center of the spin-off Frasier, one of the most successful spin-offs in TV history. In addition to starring, he directed more than 30 episodes during the second half of the series, sang the closing theme "Tossed Salads and Scrambled Eggs." Frasier was nominated for and won many awards during its 11-year run, concluding in May 2004.
Grammer has received 11 consecutive Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his role in Frasier. He won four times tie with Carrol O'Connor, Michael J. Fox and Jim Parsons for the most wins for Primetime Emmy Award for Best Actor in a Comedy Series. In 2001, he negotiated a US$700,000-per-episode salary for Frasier, his 20-year run playing Dr. Frasier Crane ties a length set by James Arness in playing Marshal Matt Dillon on Gunsmoke from 1955 to 1975 but was surpassed by Richard Belzer in playing Det. John Munch on Homicide: Life on the Street and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit since 1993. Frasier Crane had a crossover appearance in 1993 Wings episode "Planes, Trains, & Visiting Cranes". Since Frasier, Grammer has had multiple failed attempts at Television, In 2005, Grammer returned to television, he produced and appeared in an American adaptation of the British show The Sketch Show, which aired on Fox. The main cast consisted of Malcolm Barrett, Kaitlin Olson, Mary Lynn Rajskub and Paul F. Tompkins, as well as Lee Mack from the British version of the show.
Grammer appeared in only short closing segments in each episode. Many of the sketches from the British version were re-created, such as the "California Dreamin'", "English Course", "Sign Language" sketches. Only six episodes of the show were made, it was canceled after only four of them had aired. In 2007, Grammer starred with Patricia Heaton in the American sitcom Back to You, which Fox cancelled after its first season, his next attempt, ABC's Hank, fared worse. It was canceled. Grammer commented, "Honestly, it just wasn't funny."In 2014 Grammer returned to sitcom television in Partners with comedian Martin Lawrence. The Lionsgate-produced show was written and executive produced by Robert L. Boyett and Robert Horn, known for writing hit shows like Family Matters, Living Single, Full House, Designing Women, Perfect Strangers. Despite this the show was cancelled after its first season. In 2011 and 2012, Grammer found temporary success in the Starz drama series Boss as a fictional mayor of Chicago in the mold of Richard J. Daley which premiered in October 2011.
It was his first dramatic TV series. At the 2012 Golden Globe Awards Kelsey Grammer won the award for Best Actor in a Television Series Drama for his role on Boss; the show ran for 18 episodes over two
Leicester Square is a pedestrianised square in the West End of London, England. It was laid out in 1670 and is named after the contemporary Leicester House, itself named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester; the square was a gentrified residential area, with tenants including Frederick, Prince of Wales and artists William Hogarth and Joshua Reynolds. It became more down-market in the late 18th century as Leicester House was demolished and retail developments took place, becoming a centre for entertainment. Several major theatres were established in the 19th century, which were converted to cinemas towards the middle of the next. Leicester Square holds a number of nationally important cinemas such as the Odeon Leicester Square, Leicester Square, which are used for film premieres; the nearby Prince Charles Cinema is popular for showing cult films and marathon film runs. The square remains a popular tourist attraction, including hosting events for the Chinese New Year; the square has always had a park in its centre, Lammas land.
The park's fortunes have varied over the centuries, reaching near dilapidation in the mid-19th century after changing ownership several times. It was restored under the direction of Albert Grant, which included the construction of four new statues and a fountain of William Shakespeare; the square was extensively refurbished and remodelled for the 2012 London Olympics, costing more than £15m and taking over 17 months to complete. The square lies within an area bound to the north; the park at the centre of the Square is bound to the north. It is within the City of Westminster, north of Trafalgar Square, east of Piccadilly Circus, west of Covent Garden, south of Cambridge Circus; the nearest Underground station is Leicester Square, which opened in 1906. London bus routes 29 and 176 run on nearby Charing Cross Road. Leicester Square has been used as name for the immediate surrounding area corresponding with Coventry Street, Cranbourn Street, Charing Cross Road and St Martin's Street; this includes Bear Street, Hobhouse Court, Hunt's Court, Irving Street, Orange Street, Oxdendon Street, Panton Street, Trafalgar Square.
The land where Leicester Square now lies once belonged to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster Abbey and the Beaumont family. In 1536, Henry VIII took control of 3 acres of land around the square, with the remaining 4 acres being transferred to the king the following year; the square is named after Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, who purchased this land in 1630. By 1635, he had built himself Leicester House, at the northern end; the area in front of the house was enclosed, depriving inhabitants of St Martin in the Fields parish of their right to use the common land. The parishioners appealed to King Charles I, he appointed three members of the privy council to arbitrate. Lord Leicester was ordered to keep part of his land open for the parishioners; the square was developed in the 1670s. The area was entirely residential, with properties laid out in a similar style to nearby Pall Mall. In 1687, the northern part of the square became part of the new parish of Soho; the 7th Earl of Leicester took ownership of the property in 1728 and it was the residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales from 1742 until Leicester's death the following year.
The poet Matthew Prior lived at what is now No. 21 around 1700 and artist William Hogarth resided at No 30 between 1733 and 1764, where he produced some of his best known works including Gin Lane. The magistrate Thomas de Veil to found Bow Street Magistrates' Court, lived at No 40 between 1729 and 1737; the painter Joshua Reynolds lived at No 47 from 1760 until his death in 1792. At the end of the 17th century, Lord Leicester's heir, Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester, permitted a small amount of retail development in booths along the front of Leicester House. A statue of King George I was built on the square in 1760 following the coronation of his grandson, George III; the square remained fashionable throughout most of the 18th century, with notable residents including the architect James Stuart at No 35 from 1766 to 1788 and the painter John Singleton Copley at No. 28 from 1776 to 1783. Leicester House was intermittently inhabited during the mid-18th century, was sold to the naturalist Ashton Lever in 1775.
Lever turned the house into a museum with a significant amount of natural history objects. In turn, the square began to serve as a venue for popular entertainments. Brothels started appearing around Leicester Square during the century, visitors could pay to watch the severed heads of traitors executed at Temple Bar through a telescope. Leicester House became, it was demolished in 1791–72 due to rising debts following the extinction of the Leicester peerage, replaced by Leicester Place. That in turn was converted into a church in 1865 and is now the site
Julie Dawn Cole
Julie Dawn Cole is an English actress, active for more than 40 years. She began as a child performer in what remains her best-remembered film, 1971's Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, playing the spoiled Veruca Salt, she has two children. A native of Guildford, Cole was twelve when she was cast in the supporting role during the project's pre-production phase in the first half of 1970; the film debuted in New York on 30 June 1971 and in London the following week, with Julie chosen to present a bouquet of flowers to Princess Margaret at the Royal Premiere. She and Willy Wonka's other pre-adolescent "leading lady," American Denise Nickerson, both had crushes on Peter Ostrum an American, alternated days spending time with him while there were breaks in filming. Cole played trainee nurse Jo Longhurst in the first season of the British drama Angels, in the mid-1970s.. In the mid 1970s Cole appeared on episodes of the Dutch-produced detective show Van Der Valk starring Barry Foster. In the second season of Poldark, in 1977, she played 15-year-old Rowella Chynoweth, seducing her sister's portly husband.
Other credits include the Children's Film Foundation movie Paganini Strikes Again, the comedy film That Lucky Touch starring Roger Moore, a 1982 episode of Tales of the Unexpected, the 1984 TV film of Camille, starring Greta Scacchi and Colin Firth. She featured as'Robot 35' in the CBBC comedy Galloping Galaxies!. In her long career, she's accumulated a number of theatrical credits as well as pantomime and voice-over work. Cole has appeared on radio in BBC Radio 2 broadcasts of British panto, including the 26 December 1979 broadcast of Puss in Boots as "Princess Rosepetal", as "Jill" in the 25 December 1981 broadcast of Mother Goose, as "Alice" in the 27 December 1982 broadcast of Dick Whittington. In 2002 she developed a children's acting drama school. After qualifying in 1998 as a fitness instructor, she worked in the 2000s on various projects, including the 2005 ITV series Fat Families as fitness advisor to one of the title families. In 2006, she was seen on the popular soap Emmerdale. In August 2010 Cole co-starred in an Edinburgh Fringe show entitled "Willy Wonka Revisited: The Veruca Salt Sessions", where she plays a semi-fictional version of herself discussing Veruca and obsessive fans with her unseen therapist, while her co-star plays an Australian fan describing his obsession with Veruca to his unseen therapist.
She works as a psychotherapist. Cole loves being asked about her two children. "Whenever Holly said or did anything brattish, I'd just go,'Is there a problem, Veruca? Can I help you?' That always snapped her out of it. But I didn't call Barnaby anything. Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory And Mother Makes Three Paganini Strikes Again That Lucky Touch Angels Poldark The Many Wives of Patrick The Mill on the Floss Grundy Camille WYSIWYG Married for Life Emmerdale Julie Dawn Cole on IMDb Julie Dawn Cole filmography as compiled by the British Film Institute Julie Dawn Cole interviewed for the 40th anniversary of the Willie Wonka film