Drama is a city and municipality in northeastern Greece in Macedonia. Drama is the capital of the regional unit of Drama, part of the East Macedonia and Thrace region; the town is the economic center of the municipality, which in turn comprises 60 percent of the regional unit's population. The next largest communities in the municipality are Choristi, Χiropótamos, Kallífytos, Kalós Agrós, Koudoúnia. Built at the foot of mount Falakro, in a verdant area with abundant water sources, Drama has been an integral part of the Hellenic world since the classical era. In the modern era, tobacco production and trade, the operation of the railway and improvement of the road network towards the port of Kavala, led to an increase in the population of the city and to the enhancement of commercial activity. Drama hosts the "Eleftheria", cultural events in commemoration of the city's liberation, at the end of June or beginning of July, an annual film festival in September. Archaeological finds show that in the area of the modern city there used to be an ancient Greek settlement named Dyrama or alternatively Hydrama, both meaning "rich in water".
Some scholars associate Drama with the ancient Greek Drabescus. Hydrama was notable as the place of worship for many Gods of classical Greek mythology Apollo and Artemis. With the passage of time Dyrama became Drama. In the South Slavic languages, the city is known as Драма, itself a transliteration of the Greek name; the municipality Drama was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Drama Sidironero The municipality has an area of 840.103 km2, the municipal unit 488.830 km2. Drabescus was part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires along with the rest of Greece; the region was conquered by Ottoman Empire in 1371. In the 19th century, the town became centre of the Sanjak of Drama. In 1912 during the First Balkan War, Drama was taken from the Ottomans by Bulgarian troops. Subsequently, in 1913 as a result of the Treaty of Bucharest, following the Second Balkan War, it was incorporated into Greece along with the rest of eastern Macedonia.
Drama was occupied by Bulgarian troops in the wake of the German invasion of Greece, from 1941 to 1944 during World War II. On 29 September 1941, in response to local communist guerrilla attacks against the Bulgarians in the villages of Drama, the Bulgarian occupation forces applied harsh reprisals in Drama and several villages like Choristi, Kyrgia and Prosotsani. On 4 March 1943, after midnight, the Bulgarian military authorities rounded up the Jewish population across their zone of occupation in eastern Macedonia and Thrace; the 4,000-strong community, including 589 Jews from Drama, was carried by train into Bulgarian territory and assembled in the tobacco warehouses, which were empty at that time of year. From there, they were taken by train to the Treblinka extermination camp. None of the 589 Jews from Drama returned. In the recent past the economy of the Drama area relied on the local paper and textile-clothing industries. However, these industries have either closed down or moved across the border to Bulgaria, because of the low demands of the Bulgarian workforce, with a negative impact on the local economy and employment.
The situation worsened after 2007, when Bulgaria was admitted to the EU, local Greek businessmen moved to expand their operations there. Other sources of revenue include agriculture, consisting of tobacco plantations, small-scale mining and forestry. There have been efforts to exploit the rich local natural environment and to develop ecotourism. There is a modern ski resort on Mount Falakro. Drama hosts an annual short film festival. Since 1978, Drama hosts Drama International Short Film Festival. In 1987, the festival was recognized nationally. In 1995, it added the International competition section where short films from all over the world visiting the city every year. In 1996, the festival was included in the National Cultural Network of Cities by the Greek Ministry of Culture; the Archaeological Museum of Drama covers human presence in the regional unit of Drama from the mid Paleolithic Period with traces of life from Paleolithic hunts in the caves of the source of the Angitis, up to modern times.
The exhibition space consists of three main halls. In the first archaeological finds from the cave of Maara give witness to the presence of nomadic hunters in the area from the mid Palaeolithic period, while other finds show us about the life of settled farmers and animal rearers from Neolithic villages and the passage of the Copper Age in the city of Drama and the village of Sitagri; the reproduction of a Neolithic house with finds which describe the activities of Neolithic man and his daily activities is the main centre of interest for visitors of all ages. Bust of Dionysius, found in the area of Kali Vrysi; the same hall continues the journey through time to the Iron Age and years where the main element was the worship of Dionysius at the city of Drama itself and at Kali Vrysi and other areas of the regional unit. In the second hall architectural sculptures and coins confirm that life continued in the city and throughout the whole regional
Tenedos, or Bozcaada in Turkish, is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. Administratively, the island constitutes the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province. With an area of 39.9 km2 it is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara. In 2011, the district had a population of 2,472; the main industries are wine production and fishing. The island has been famous for its grapes and red poppies for centuries, it is a former present Latin Catholic titular see. As Tenedos, it is mentioned in both the Iliad and the Aeneid, in the latter as the site where the Greeks hid their fleet near the end of the Trojan War in order to trick the Trojans into believing the war was over and into taking the Trojan Horse within their city walls; the island was important throughout classical antiquity despite its small size due to its strategic location at the entrance of the Dardanelles. In the following centuries, the island came under the control of a succession of regional powers, including the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the Delian League, the empire of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Pergamon, the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, before passing to the Republic of Venice.
As a result of the War of Chioggia between Genoa and Venice the entire population was evacuated and the town was demolished. The Ottoman Empire established control over the deserted island in 1455. During Ottoman rule, it was resettled by both Turks. In 1807, the island was temporarily occupied by the Russians. During this invasion the town was burnt down and many Turkish residents left the island. Under Greek administration between 1912 and 1923, Tenedos was ceded according to the Treaty of Lausanne to the new Turkish republic that emerged with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1923; the treaty called for a quasi-autonomous administration to accommodate the local Greek population and excluded the Greeks on the two islands from the wider population exchanges that took place between Greece and Turkey. Tenedos remained majority Greek until the late 1960s and early 1970s, when many Greeks emigrated because of systemic discrimination and better opportunities elsewhere. Starting with the second half of the 20th century, there has been immigration from mainland Anatolia from the town of Bayramiç.
The island is known in English as both Bozcaada. Over the centuries many other names have been used. Documented ancient Greek names for the island are Calydna and Lyrnessus; the official Turkish name for the island is Bozcaada,. The name Tenedos was derived, according to Apollodorus of Athens, from the Greek hero Tenes, who ruled the island at the time of the Trojan War and was killed by Achilles. Apollodorus writes that the island was known as Leocophrys until Tenes landed on the island and became the ruler; the island became known as Bozcaada. Tenedos remained a common name for the island along with Bozcaada after the Ottoman conquest of the island with Greek populations and Turkish populations using different names for the island. Tenedos is triangular in shape, its area is 39.9 km2. It is the third largest Turkish island after Marmara Imbros, it is surrounded by small islets, is situated close to the entrance of the Dardanelles. It is the only rural district of Turkey without any villages, has only one major settlement, the town center.
Geological evidence suggests that the island broke away from the mainland producing a terrain, plains in the west with hills in the Northeast, the highest point is 192 metres. The central part of the island is the most amenable to agricultural activities. There is a small pine forest in the Southwestern part of the island; the westernmost part of the island has large sandy areas not suitable for agriculture. The island has a Mediterranean climate with strong northern winds. Average temperature is 14 °C and average annual precipitation is 529 millimetres. There are a number of small streams running from north to south at the southwestern part of the island. Freshwater sources though are not enough for the island. Archeological findings indicate that the first human settlement on the island dates back to the Early Bronze Age II. Archaeological evidence suggests the culture on the island had elements in common with the cultures of northwestern Anatolia and the Cycladic Islands. Most settlement was on the small bays on the east side of the island.
Settlement archaeological work was done and thus did not find definitive evidence of grape cultivation on the island during this period. However, grape cultivation was common on neighboring islands and the nearby mainland during this time. According to a reconstruction, based on the myth of Tenes, Walter Leaf stated that the first inhabitants of the island could be Pelasgians, who were driven out of the Anatolian mainland by the Phrygians. According to the same author, there are possible traces of Minoan and Mycenaean Greek influence in the island. Ancient Tenedos is referred to in Greek and Roman mythology, archaeologists have uncovered evidence of its settlement from the Bronze Age, it would stay prominent through the age of classical Greece, fading by the time of the dominance of ancient Rome. Although a small island, Tenedos's position in the straits and its two harb
Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347
The Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, sometimes referred to as the Second Palaiologan Civil War, was a conflict that broke out in the Byzantine Empire after the death of Andronikos III Palaiologos over the guardianship of his nine-year-old son and heir, John V Palaiologos. It pitted on the one hand Andronikos III's chief minister, John VI Kantakouzenos, on the other a regency headed by the Empress-Dowager Anna of Savoy, the Patriarch of Constantinople John XIV Kalekas, the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos; the war polarized Byzantine society along class lines, with the aristocracy backing Kantakouzenos and the lower and middle classes supporting the regency. To a lesser extent, the conflict acquired religious overtones; as the chief aide and closest friend of Emperor Andronikos III, Kantakouzenos became regent for the underage John V upon Andronikos's death in June 1341. While Kantakouzenos was absent from Constantinople in September the same year, a coup d'état led by Alexios Apokaukos and the Patriarch John XIV secured the support of Empress Anna and established a new regency.
In response, Kantakouzenos' army and supporters proclaimed him co-emperor in October, cementing the rift between himself and the new regency. The split escalated into armed conflict. During the first years of the war, forces of the regency prevailed. In the wake of several anti-aristocratic uprisings, most notably that of the Zealots in Thessalonica, a majority of the cities in Thrace and Macedonia came under regency control. With assistance from Stefan Dušan of Serbia and Umur Beg of Aydin, Kantakouzenos reversed these gains. By 1345, despite Dušan's defection to the opposition and the withdrawal of Umur, Kantakouzenos retained the upper hand through the assistance of Orhan, ruler of the Ottoman emirate; the June 1345 murder of megas doux Apokaukos, the regency's chief administrator, dealt the regency a severe blow. Formally crowned as emperor in Adrianople in 1346, Kantakouzenos entered Constantinople on 3 February 1347. By agreement, he was to rule for ten years as the senior emperor and regent for John V, until the boy came of age and ruled alongside him.
Despite this apparent victory, subsequent resumption of the civil war forced John VI Kantakouzenos to abdicate and retire to become a monk in 1354. The consequences of the prolonged conflict proved disastrous for the Empire, which had regained a measure of stability under Andronikos III. Seven years of warfare, the presence of marauding armies, social turmoil, the advent of the Black Death devastated Byzantium and reduced it to a rump state; the conflict allowed Dušan to conquer Albania and most of Macedonia, where he established the Serbian Empire. The Bulgarian Empire acquired territory north of the Evros river. In 1341, the Byzantine Empire was in a state of turmoil, despite the restoration of the Empire's capital to Constantinople and the recovery of a measure of its former power by Michael VIII Palaiologos, the policies implemented during his reign had exhausted the state's resources, the Empire's strength waned under his successor, Andronikos II Palaiologos. During Andronikos II's long reign, the remaining Byzantine possessions in Asia Minor fell to the advancing Turks, most notably the newly established Ottoman emirate.
This caused a flood of refugees into Byzantium's European provinces, while at the same time the Catalan Company wrought havoc in the imperial domains. Taxes rose to finance tributes to the Empire's enemies. A combination of these failures and personal ambition moved the Emperor's grandson and heir, the young Andronikos III Palaiologos, to revolt. Supported by a group of young aristocrats led by John Kantakouzenos and Syrgiannes Palaiologos, Andronikos III deposed his grandfather after a series of conflicts during the 1320s. Although successful in removing the old Emperor from power, the war did not augur well for the future, as the Empire's neighbours—the Serbs, Turks and Venetians—took advantage of Byzantine infighting to gain territory or expand their influence within the Empire; the only son of a former governor of the Byzantine holdings in the Morea, John Kantakouzenos was related to the Palaiologoi through his mother. He inherited vast estates in Macedonia and Thessaly, became a childhood friend and the closest and most trusted advisor of Andronikos III.
During Andronikos III's reign, John Kantakouzenos acted as his chief minister, holding the office of megas domestikos, commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army. The relationship between the two remained close, in 1330, when the heirless Andronikos III fell ill he insisted that Kantakouzenos be proclaimed Emperor or regent after his death, their ties were further strengthened in the spring of 1341, when the latter's eldest son, Matthew Kantakouzenos, wed Irene Palaiologina, a cousin of the Emperor. Unlike Andronikos II, who had disbanded the Byzantine army and navy, who favoured monks and intellectuals, Andronikos III was an energetic ruler who led his forces in military campaigns. In 1329, his first campaign against the Ottomans resulted in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Pelekanos, after which the Byzantine position in Bithynia collapsed. Subsequent sorties into the Balkans were successful in shoring up Andronikos' tottering realm. Thessaly and the Despotate of Epirus, two territories separated from the Empire after the Fourth Crusade, were restored to imperial rule without bloodshed in 1328 and 1337 respectively.
Andronikos III rebuilt a modest fleet, which allowed him to recover the ri
Claudius was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Antonia Minor, he was born at Lugdunum in the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37. Claudius' infirmity saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius's and Caligula's reigns, his survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an efficient administrator, he was an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads and canals across the Empire. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, issued up to twenty edicts a day, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign by elements of the nobility.
Claudius was forced to shore up his position. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew, step-son, adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, his 13-year reign would not be surpassed by any successors until that of Domitian, who reigned for 15 years. He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi, Julii Caesares, the Claudii Nerones, he was a great-nephew of Augustus. He was a nephew of Tiberius through Tiberius' brother. Through his brother Germanicus, Claudius was a great uncle of Nero. Through his mother Antonia Minor he was a grandson of Mark Antony. Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum, he had two older siblings and Livilla. His mother, may have had two other children who died young, his maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister, he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. His paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus' third wife, Tiberius Claudius Nero.
During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania from illness. Claudius was left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried; when Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, used him as a standard for stupidity, she seems to have passed her son off to his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was a little kinder, but often sent him short, angry letters of reproof, he was put under the care of a "former mule-driver" to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In AD 7, Livy was hired to tutor him with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus.
He spent a lot of his time with the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase, his work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars, either too truthful or too critical of Octavian—then reigning as Augustus Caesar. In either case, it was far too early for such an account, may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant, his mother and grandmother put a stop to it, this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line; when he returned to the narrative in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the Second Triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, his family pushed him into the background; when the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 BC, Claudius' name was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes and Lucius, Germanicus' children.
There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades and that he did not appear at all. When Augustus died in AD 14, Claudius—then aged 23—appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life. Despite the disdain of the Imperial family, it seems that from early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the equites, or knights, chose
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press. With more than 5,000 entries, it contains comprehensive information in English on topics relating to the Byzantine Empire, it was edited by Alexander Kazhdan, was first published in 1991. Kazhdan was a professor at Princeton University who became a Senior Research Associate at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC before his death, he contributed to many of the articles in the Dictionary and always signed his initials A. K. at the end of the article to indicate his contribution. The dictionary is available in printed and e-reference text versions from Oxford Reference Online, it covers the main historical events of Byzantium, as well as important religious events. It includes biographies of eminent political and literary personalities and describes in detail religious, cultural and political topics. Cultural topics include music and the arts. Other topics covered include warfare, education, commerce, science and medicine providing a comprehensive picture of the complex and advanced political and social structures of Byzantine society.
Oxford Reference Online