Jerzy Neyman, born Jerzy Spława-Neyman, was a Polish mathematician and statistician who spent the first part of his professional career at various institutions in Warsaw, Poland and at University College London, the second part at the University of California, Berkeley. Neyman first introduced the modern concept of a confidence interval into statistical hypothesis testing and co-revised Ronald Fisher's null hypothesis testing, he was born into a Polish family in Bendery, in the Bessarabia Governorate of the Russian Empire, the fourth of four children of Czesław Spława-Neyman and Kazimiera Lutosławska. His family was Roman Neyman served as an altar boy during his early childhood. Neyman would become an agnostic. Neyman's family descended from a long line of military heroes, he graduated from the Kamieniec Podolski gubernial gymnasium for boys in 1909 under the name Yuri Cheslavovich Neyman. He began studies at Kharkov University in 1912, where he was taught by Russian probabilist Sergei Natanovich Bernstein.
After he read'Lessons on the integration and the research of the primitive functions' by Henri Lebesgue, he was fascinated with measure and integration. In 1921 he returned to Poland in a program of repatriation of POWs after the Polish-Soviet War, he earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree at University of Warsaw in 1924 for a dissertation titled "On the Applications of the Theory of Probability to Agricultural Experiments". He was examined among others, he spent a couple of years in London and Paris on a fellowship to study statistics with Karl Pearson and Émile Borel. After his return to Poland he established the Biometric Laboratory at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw, he published many books dealing with experiments and statistics, devised the way which the FDA tests medicines today. Neyman proposed and studied randomized experiments in 1923. Furthermore, his paper "On the Two Different Aspects of the Representative Method: The Method of Stratified Sampling and the Method of Purposive Selection", given at the Royal Statistical Society on 19 June 1934, was the groundbreaking event leading to modern scientific sampling.
He introduced the confidence interval in his paper in 1937. Another noted contribution is the Neyman -- the basis of hypothesis testing, he was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1928 in Bologna and a Plenary Speaker of the ICM in 1954 in Amsterdam. In 1938 he moved to Berkeley. Thirty-nine students received their Ph. D's under his advisorship. In 1966 he was awarded the Guy Medal of the Royal Statistical Society and three years the U. S.'s National Medal of Science. He died in Oakland, California in 1981. Fisher, Ronald "Statistical methods and scientific induction" Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 17, 69—78. Neyman, Jerzy. "Note on an Article by Sir Ronald Fisher". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B. 18: 288–294. JSTOR 2983716. Reid, Jerzy Neyman—From Life, Springer Verlag, ISBN 0-387-90747-5 O'Connor, John J.. ASA biographical article by Chin Long Chiang Jerzy Neyman — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Biography of Jerzy Neyman from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences
Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
David George Kendall
David George Kendall FRS was an English statistician and mathematician, known for his work on probability, statistical shape analysis, ley lines and queueing theory. He spent most of his academic life in the University of Cambridge, he worked with M. S. Bartlett during World War II, visited Princeton University after the war. David George Kendall was born on 15 January 1918 in Ripon, West Riding of Yorkshire, attended Ripon Grammar School before attending Queen's College, graduating in 1939, he worked on rocketry during the World War II, before moving to Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1946. In 1962 he was appointed the first Professor of Mathematical Statistics in the Statistical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, he was elected to a professorial fellowship at Churchill College, he was a founding trustee of the Rollo Davidson Trust. In 1986, he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath. Kendall was an expert in probability and data analysis, pioneered statistical shape analysis including the study of ley lines.
He defined Kendall's notation for queueing theory. The Royal Statistical Society awarded him the Guy Medal in Silver in 1955, followed in 1981 by the Guy Medal in Gold. In 1980 the London Mathematical Society awarded Kendall their Senior Whitehead Prize, in 1989 their De Morgan Medal, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1964. He was married to Diana Fletcher from 1952 until his death, they had two sons and four daughters, including Wilfrid Kendall, professor in the Department of Statistics at the University of Warwick, journalist Bridget Kendall MBE, Felicity Kendall Hickman, Judy Kendall and poet at University of Salford, George Kendall, Harriet Strudwick, the Antipodean sibling. Kendall, David G. "Geometric ergodicity and the theory of queues", in Arrow, Kenneth J.. Janus: The Papers of Professor David Kendall Royal Society citation
James Durbin FBA was a British statistician and econometrician, known for his work on time series analysis and serial correlation. The son of a greengrocer, Durbin was born in Widnes, where he attended the Wade Deacon Grammar School, he studied mathematics at St John's College, Cambridge where his contemporaries included David Cox and Denis Sargan. After wartime service in the Army Operational Research Group, he worked as a statistician for two years with the British Boot and Allied Trades Research Association and took a postgraduate diploma in mathematical statistics at Cambridge, supervised by Henry Daniels. After two years at the department of applied economics in Cambridge, Durbin joined the London School of Economics in 1950 and was appointed professor of statistics in 1961, a post he held until his retirement in 1988, he served as president of the International Statistical Institute in 1983–5 and of the Royal Statistical Society in 1986–7. In 2008 he was awarded the highest distinction of the Guy Medal in Gold.
The citation read: His last book, Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods, was published by Oxford University Press in May 2012. His last books were co-authored by Siem Jan Koopman of VU University Amsterdam, he died on 23 June 2012
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher was a British statistician and geneticist. For his work in statistics, he has been described as "a genius who single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science" and "the single most important figure in 20th century statistics". In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine natural selection. For his contributions to biology, Fisher has been called "the greatest of Darwin’s successors". From 1919 onward, he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years, he established his reputation there in the following years as a biostatistician. He is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics, he outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection. His contributions to statistics include the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions, founding principles of the design of experiments, much more. Fisher held strong views on race.
Throughout his life, he was a prominent supporter of eugenics, an interest which led to his work on statistics and genetics. Notably, he was a dissenting voice in UNESCO's statement The Race Question, insisting on racial differences. Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, into a middle-class household, he was one of twins, with the other twin being still-born and grew up the youngest, with three sisters and one brother. From 1896 until 1904 they lived at Inverforth House in London, where English Heritage installed a blue plaque in 2002, before moving to Streatham, his mother, died from acute peritonitis when he was 14, his father lost his business 18 months later. Lifelong poor eyesight caused his rejection by the British Army for World War I, but developed his ability to visualize problems in geometrical terms, not in writing mathematical solutions, or proofs, he entered Harrow School won the school's Neeld Medal in mathematics. In 1909, he won a scholarship to study Mathematics at Cambridge.
In 1912, he gained a First in Astronomy. In 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual mate choice. During 1913–1919, Fisher worked for six years as a statistician in the City of London and taught physics and maths at a sequence of public schools, at the Thames Nautical Training College, at Bradfield College. There he settled with Eileen Guinness, with whom he had two sons and six daughters. In 1918 he published "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance", in which he introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis, he put forward a genetics conceptual model showing that continuous variation amongst phenotypic traits measured by biostatisticians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes and thus be the result of Mendelian inheritance. This was the first step towards establishing population genetics and quantitative genetics, which demonstrated that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in reconciling its discontinuous nature with gradual evolution.
Joan Box, Fisher's biographer and daughter says that Fisher had resolved this problem in 1911. In 1919, he began working at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years, where he analysed its immense data from crop experiments since the 1840s, developed the analysis of variance. In 1919, he was offered a position at the Galton Laboratory in University College London led by Karl Pearson, but instead accepted a temporary job at Rothamsted in Harpenden to investigate the possibility of analysing the vast amount of crop data accumulated since 1842 from the "Classical Field Experiments", he analysed the data recorded over many years and in 1921, published Studies in Crop Variation, his first application of the analysis of variance ANOVA. In 1928, Joseph Oscar Irwin began a three-year stint at Rothamsted and became one of the first people to master Fisher's innovations. Between 1912 and 1922 Fisher recommended and vastly popularized Maximum likelihood. Fisher's 1924 article On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics presented Pearson's chi-squared test and William Gosset's Student's t-distribution in the same framework as the Gaussian distribution and is where he developed Fisher's z-distribution a new statistical method used decades as the F distribution.
He pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and the statistics of small samples and the analysis of real data. In 1925 he published Statistical Methods for Research Workers, one of the 20th century's most influential books on statistical methods. Fisher's method is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis"; this book popularized the p-value, plays a central role in his approach. Fisher proposes the level p=0.05, or a 1 in 20 chance of being exceeded by chance, as a limit for statistical significance, applies this to a normal distribution, thus yielding the rule of two standard deviations for statistical significance. The 1.96, the approximate value of the 97.5 percentile point of the normal distribution used in probability and statistics originated in this book. "The value for which P=.05, or 1 in 20, is 1.96 or nearly 2
Charles Booth (social reformer)
Charles James Booth was an English social researcher and reformer known for his innovative work in documenting working class life in London at the end of the 19th century. His work, along with that of Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree, influenced government intervention against poverty in the early 20th century and contributed to the creation of Old Age pensions and free school meals for the poorest children. Charles Booth was born in Liverpool, Lancashire on 30 March 1840 to Charles Booth and Emily Fletcher, his father was a wealthy corn merchant as well as being a prominent Unitarian. He attended the Royal Institution School in Liverpool before being apprenticed in the family business at the age of sixteen. Booth married Mary Macaulay in niece of the historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, she was a cousin of the Fabian socialist and author Beatrice Webb. They had 3 sons and 4 daughters, his eldest daughter Antonia married the Hon Sir Malcolm Macnaghten, others married into the Ritchie and Gore Browne families.
Booth's father died in 1860. He entered the skins and leather business with his elder brother Alfred, they set up Alfred Booth and Company with offices in Liverpool and New York City using a £20,000 inheritance. After learning the shipping trades, Booth was able to persuade Alfred and his sister Emily to invest in steamships and established a service to Pará, Maranhão and Ceará in Brazil. Booth himself went on the first voyage to Brazil on 14 February 1866, he was involved in the building of a harbour at Manaus which overcame seasonal fluctuations in water levels. Booth described this as his "monument" when he visited Manaus for the last time in 1912. Booth was critical of the existing statistical data on poverty. By analysing census returns he argued that they were unsatisfactory and sat on a committee in 1891 which suggested improvements which could be made to them. Booth publicly criticised the claims of the leader of the Social Democratic Federation H. M. Hyndman – leader of Britain's first socialist party.
In the Pall Mall Gazette of 1885, Hyndman stated. Booth investigated poverty in London, working with a team of investigators which included his cousin Beatrice Potter and the chapter on women's work was conducted by the budding economist Clara Collet; this research, which looked at incidences of pauperism in the East End of London, showed that 35% were living in abject poverty – higher than the original figure. This work was published under the title Life and Labour of the People in 1889. A second volume, entitled Labour and Life of the People, covering the rest of London, appeared in 1891. Booth popularised the idea of a'poverty line', a concept conceived by the London School Board. Booth set this line at 10 to 20 shillings, which he considered to be the minimum amount necessary for a family of 4 or 5 people to subsist. After the first two volumes were published Booth expanded his research; this investigation was carried out by his team of researchers. Nonetheless Booth continued to operate his successful shipping business while these investigations were taking place.
The fruit of this research was a second expanded edition of his original work, published as Life and Labour of the People in London in nine volumes between 1892 and 1897. A third edition appeared 1902-3, he used this work to argue for the introduction of Old Age Pensions which he described as "limited socialism". Booth argued. Booth was far from tempted by the ideals of socialism, but had sympathy with the working classes and, as part of his investigations, he took lodgings with working-class families and recorded his thoughts and findings in his diaries; the London School of Economics keeps his work on an online searchable database. Booth's 1902 study included antisemitic references to the impact of Jewish immigration, comparing it to the "slow rising of a flood" and that "no Gentile could live in the same house with these poor foreign Jews, as neighbours they are unpleasant. Although Jews were statistically only a small part of the cigar trade in the United Kingdom, Booth saw the trade as "almost in the hands of the Jewish community" in the East End.
Life and Labour of the People in London can be seen as one of the founding texts of British sociology, drawing on both quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Because of this, it was an influence on Chicago School sociology and the discipline of community studies associated with the Institute of Community Studies in East London; the importance of Booth's work in social statistics was recognised by the Royal Statistical Society, which in 1892 elected him president and awarded him the first Guy Medal in Gold. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1899. Booth had some involvement in politics, although he canvassed unsuccessfully as the Liberal parliamentary candidate in the General Election of 1865. Following the Conservative Party victory in municipal elections in 1866, his interest in active politics waned; this result changed Booth's attitudes, he foresaw that he could influence people more by educating the electorate, rather than by being a representative in Parliament. He rejected subsequent offers from Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone of elevation to the House of Lords as a Peer.
Major Greenwood FRS was an English epidemiologist and statistician. Major Greenwood junior was born in Shoreditch in London's East End, the only child of Major Greenwood, a doctor in general practice there and his wife Annie, daughter of Peter Lodwick Burchell, F. R. C. S. M. B. L. S. A; the Greenwood family is recorded back to the twelfth century in the person of Wyomarus Greenwode, of Greenwode Leghe, near Heptonstall, caterer to the Empress Maude in 1154. Greenwood was educated on the classical side at Merchant Taylors' School and went on to study medicine at University College London and the London Hospital. On qualifying in 1904 he worked for a time as assistant to his father but after a few months he gave up clinical practice for good, he went to work as a demonstrator for the physiologist Leonard Hill at the London Hospital Medical College. Leonard Hill recalled, "By recognising the ability of a student with nothing behind him to show his worth and by appointing him my assistant I may claim to have started Greenwood on his career."
While Greenwood made a good start in physiological research he was drawn to statistics. After a period of study with Karl Pearson he was appointed statistician to the Lister Institute in 1910. There he worked on a wide range of problems, including a study of the effectiveness of inoculation with the statistician Udny Yule. In the First World War Greenwood first served in the Royal Army Medical Corps but was put in charge of a medical research unit at the Ministry of Munitions. There he investigated the health problems associated with factory work, one result of, an influential study of accidents which he produced with Yule. In 1919 Greenwood joined the newly created Ministry of Health with responsibility for medical statistics, he co-authored a number of papers with Ethel Newbold during his tenure there. In 1928 he became the first professor of Epidemiology and Vital Statistics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine where he stayed until he retired in 1945, he established a group of researchers.
Greenwood played the same role in A. B. Hill's career; the Royal Society awarded the Buchanan Medal to Greenwood in 1927, elected him a Fellow in 1928. The election certificate stated Engaged in medical research. Has applied the statistical method to the elucidation of many problems of physiology, pathology and epidemiology. Is the author, or joint author, of more than sixty papers dealing with these applications, including important contributions to the experimental study of epidemiology. Has done much to encourage and develop the use of modern statistical methods by medical laboratory investigators, and, as Chairman of the Medical Research Council's Statistical Committee, to secure the adequate planning and execution of field investigations, he was elected President of the Royal Statistical Society in 1934 and awarded its Guy Medal in Gold in 1945. Greenwood produced a large body of research, was the first holder of important positions in modern medical statistics and wrote extensively on the history of his subject, but as Austin Bradford Hill wrote in his obituary, "in the future, it may well indeed seem that one of his greatest contributions, if not the greatest, lay in his outlook, in his statistical approach to medicine a new approach and one long regarded with suspicion.
And he fought this fight continuously and honestly—for logic for accuracy, for ‘little sums.’" His name is attached to the Greenwood formula for the variance or standard error of the Kaplan–Meier estimator of survival. A statistical method invented by Major Greenwood in a statistical study of infectious diseases is still used in present-day research; the Greenwood statistic was used to discover that there is some kind of order in the placement of genes on the chromosomes of living things and this inspired a new look at epigenetics, now considered to be as important as genetics in how living organisms develop and evolve. Greenwood lived at Loughton, where among his neighbours were Sir Frank Baines, Millais Culpin, Leonard Erskine Hill. Greenwood, M.. "A First Study of the Weight and Correlation of the Human Viscera, with Special Reference to the Healthy and Diseased Heart". Biometrika. 3: 63–83. Doi:10.1093/biomet/3.1.63. Greenwood, M.. Physiology of the special senses. London: E. Arnold. Greenwood, M.
"The Statistics of Anti-typhoid and Anti-cholera Inoculations, the Interpretation of such Statistics in general". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 8: 113–94. PMC 2004181. PMID 19978918. Greenwood, Major & Udny Yule, G.. "An Inquiry into the Nature of Frequency Distributions Representative of Multiple Happenings with Particular Reference to the Occurrence of Multiple Attacks of Disease or of Repeated Accidents". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. 83: 255–279. Doi:10.2307/2341080. JSTOR 2341080.\ Edgar L. Collis and Major Greenwood; the health of the industrial worker. 1921 Cripps, L, Greenwood, M. and Newbold, E. "A Biometric Study of the Inter-relations of `Vital Capacity' stature, stem length and weight in a Sample of Healthy Male Adults". Biometrika. 14: 3–4. Doi:10.2307/2331816. JSTOR 2331816. Greenwood, M.. "On the Estimation of Metabolism from Determination of Carbon Dioxyde Production and on Estimation of External W