National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Duchy of Holstein
The Duchy of Holstein was the northernmost state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Schleswig-Holstein. It was established when King Christian I of Denmark had his County of Holstein-Rendsburg elevated to a duchy by Emperor Frederick III in 1474. Holstein was ruled jointly with the Duchy of Schleswig by members of the Danish House of Oldenburg for its entire existence. From 1490 to 1523 and again from 1544 to 1773 the Duchy was partitioned between various Oldenburg branches, most notably the dukes of Holstein-Glückstadt and Holstein-Gottorp; the Duchy ceased to exist when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866 after the Second Schleswig War. The northern border of Holstein along the Eider River had formed the northern border of the Carolingian Empire, after Emperor Charlemagne upon the Saxon Wars reached an agreement with King Hemming of Denmark in 811; the lands of Schleswig beyond the river remained a fief of the Danish Crown, while Holstein became an integral part of East Francia, the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
Adolf VIII, the last Count of Holstein-Rendsburg and Duke of Schleswig had died without heirs in 1459. As Schleswig had been a Danish fief, it had to fall back to King Christian I of Denmark, himself a nephew of Adolf sought to enter into possession of Holstein, he was backed by the local nobility, who supported the continued common administration of both lands and by the 1460 Treaty of Ribe proclaimed him as the new Count of Holstein. The comital Holstein lands south of the Eider River remained a mediate fief held by the Ascanian dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. In 1474 Emperor Frederick III conferred Imperial immediacy to Christian by elevating him to a Duke of Holstein. In 1544, the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were partitioned in three parts between Christian's grandson Christian III of Denmark and his two younger half-brothers, as follows: The royal part, held by Christian III and his successors. From 1648 the royal parts of Schleswig and Holstein were administered out of Glückstadt and became known as the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Glückstadt.
Before 1773 its Holstein territory consisted of the following Ämter: Rendsburg, South Dithmarschen, Segeberg, Plön. The Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in Haderslev, held by Duke Hans the Elder. Hans had no issue and after his death in 1580, his territories were divided among his brothers; the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in Gottorp, held by his successors. In addition, significant parts of Holstein were jointly administered by the Dukes of Holstein-Glückstadt and the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp on the Baltic Sea coast. In 1640, the County of Holstein-Pinneberg, whose ruling house was extinct, was merged in the royal part of the Duchy of Holstein. In 1713, during the Great Northern War, the estates of the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig including Schloss Gottorf were conquered by royal Danish troops. In the 1720 Treaty of Frederiksborg, Duke Charles Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp ceded them to his liege lord the Danish crown, his remaining territories formed the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp, administered from Kiel.
In 1773, Charles Frederick's grandson, Emperor of Russia gave his Holstein lands to the Danish king, in his function as Duke of Holstein, in exchange for the County of Oldenburg, Holstein was reunited as a single state. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Duchy of Holstein gained sovereignty. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Duchy of Holstein became a member of the German Confederation, resulting in several diplomatic and military conflicts about the so-called Schleswig-Holstein Question. Denmark defended its rule over Holstein in the First Schleswig War of 1848-51 against the Kingdom of Prussia. However, in Second Schleswig War Prussian and Austrian troops conquered Schleswig. Christian IX of Denmark had to renounce both Holstein in the Treaty of Vienna. Holstein was put under Austrian administration, until annexed by Prussia in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War; the Danish king in his function as duke of Holstein, duke of Schleswig, appointed statholders to represent him in the duchies.
The statholders fulfilled the tasks related to the ducal power as patrimonial lords in the royal shares of Holstein and Schleswig, as well as the royal part in the condominial government with the houses of Gottorp and Haderslev for all the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. 1523/45–1550: Johan Rantzau 1550–1556: Count Bertram von Ahlefeldt 1556–1598: Heinrich Rantzau 1598–1600: vacancy? 1600–1627: Geerd Rantzau 1627–1647: vacancy 1647–1648: Prince Frederick of Denmark 1648–1663: Christian zu Rantzau 1663–1685: Friedrich von Ahlefeldt, Count of Langeland, vice-statholder since 1660 1685–1697: Detlev zu Rantzau 1697–1708: Friedrich von Ahlefeldt, Count of Langeland, vice-statholder since 1686 1708–1722: Carl von Ahlefeldt, Count of Langeland 1722–1730:? 1730–1731: Margrave Charles Augustus of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, uncle of the next 1731–1762: Margrave Frederick Ernest of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, brother-in-law of King Christian VI 1762–1768: Count Friedrich Ludwig von Ahlefeldt-Dehn 1768–1836: Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel 1836–1842: Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel 1842–1851: Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 1851–1864: Christian zu Rantzau?
Peace of Prague
Reinfeld is a town in the district of Stormarn, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated near approx. 8 km east of Bad Oldesloe, 14 km west of Lübeck. It belongs to the Hamburg Metropolitan Region. In 1186 monks from the Cistercian abbey of Loccum founded the monastery of Reynevelde near where the stream Heilsau meets the river Trave; the monks created about 60 ponds to raise fish to eat on the days meat was not allowed. The Abbey prospered until the Reformation. Johan of Plön is said to have been buried in the abbey in 1359 among other "nobles". In 1582 it was closed down by the dukes of Plön and most of the buildings except for the church demolished. A four winged castle was built 1599–1604 from the material; when the Plön line of the Dukes died out in 1761 the duchy of Plön including Reinfeld and the castle fell to King Frederick V of Denmark. The castle was considered useless and was demolished in 1775, the old bricks being reused for a new yet smaller building. In 1635 the dam of the Herrenteich broke and the water damaged the old abbey church so it had to be taken down.
A new Church was built the following year on a nearby hill called "Eichberg". The Danes ruled in Reinfeld from 1762 until 1864. After a short period under Austrian rule as a result of the Second War of Schleswig, Holstein became a province of Prussia in 1866. Reinfeld became a town in 1926; the coat of arms is divided in two, the top half shows on a red background in yellow an Abbots crosier with the opening to the right and two stems of wheat with ears pointing away from the centre diagonally. The bottom half shows on a blue background. Saint-Pryvé-Saint-Mesmin, France), since 1996 Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Kaliska, Poland Reinfeld has a railway station on the line between Hamburg and Lübeck; the line was opened in 1865 by the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn with the original station building still standing. As of 2007 the line is being electrified as one of the last sections on the Vogelfluglinie; the town is touched by the Federal Highway B 75, that connects Lübeck. When an old level crossing between Bad Oldesloe and Reinfeld with the Hamburg-Lübeck railway line was turned into an underpass an old cobblestone section underneath the newer road surface reappeared and was preserved as a path for the nearby woods.
The Bundesautobahn 1 runs just east of Reinfeld. The poet Matthias Claudius was born here on 15 August 1740. Paul von Schoenaich was a General Major and pacifist, he was the president of the German Peace Society 1929–1933 and 1946–1951. He died in Reinfeld on 7 January 1954
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was a German poet. His best known work is the epic poem Der Messias. One of his major contributions to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models. Klopstock was born at the eldest son of a lawyer. Both in his birthplace and on the estate of Friedeburg on the Saale, which his father rented, he spent a happy childhood. Having been given more attention to his physical than to his mental development, he grew up strong and healthy and was considered an excellent horseman. In his thirteenth year, he returned to Quedlinburg and attended the gymnasium there, in 1739 went on to the famous classical school named Schulpforta. Here he soon became adept in Greek and Latin versification, wrote some meritorious idylls and odes in German, his original intention of making Henry the Fowler the hero of an epic was abandoned in favor of a religious epic, under the influence of Milton's Paradise Lost, with which he became acquainted through Bodmer's translation.
While still at school, he had drafted the plan of Der Messias on which most of his fame rests. On 21 September 1745 he delivered, on quitting school, a remarkable "departing oration" on epic poetry—Abschiedsrede über die epische Poesie, kultur- und literargeschichtlich erläutert—and next proceeded to Jena as a student of theology, where he drew up in prose the first three cantos of the Messias. Finding life at that university not to his liking, he transferred in the spring of 1746 to Leipzig, where he joined a circle of young men of letters who contributed to the Bremer Beiträge. In this periodical the first three cantos of Der Messias were published anonymously in hexameter verse in 1748. A new era in German literature had commenced, the identity of the author soon became known. In Leipzig he wrote a number of odes, the best known of, An meine Freunde, afterwards recast as Wingolf, he left the university in 1748 and became a private tutor in the family of a relative at Langensalza, where unrequited love for a cousin disturbed his peace of mind.
For that reason he gladly accepted in 1750 an invitation from Bodmer, the translator of Paradise Lost, to visit him in Zürich, where Klopstock was treated with every kindness and respect and recovered his spirits. Bodmer, was disappointed to find in the young poet of the Messias a man of strong worldly interests, a coolness sprang up between the two men. At this juncture Klopstock received from Frederick V of Denmark, on the recommendation of his minister Count von Bernstorff, an invitation to settle in Copenhagen with an annuity of 400 thalers, in the hope that he would complete Der Messias there; the offer was accepted. On his way to the Danish capital, Klopstock met in Hamburg the woman who in 1754 became his wife, Margareta Möller, the "Cidli" of his odes, she was an enthusiastic admirer of his poetry. His happiness was short, his grief at her loss finds pathetic expression in the fifteenth canto of the Messias. The poet subsequently published his wife's writings, Hinterlassene Werke von Margareta Klopstock, which give evidence of a tender and religious spirit.
See Memoirs of Frederick and Margaret Klopstock and her correspondence with Samuel Richardson, published 1818. Klopstock now relapsed into melancholy, he continued to live and work in Copenhagen and next, following Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg, turned his attention to northern mythology, which in his view should replace classical subjects in a new school of German poetry. In 1770, when King Christian VII dismissed Count Bernstorff from office, he retired with the latter to Hamburg but retained his pension, together with the rank of councillor of legation. In 1773 were published the last five cantos of the Messias. In the following year he published a scheme for the regeneration of German letters, Die Gelehrtenrepublik. In 1775 he traveled south, making the acquaintance of Goethe on the way, spent a year at the court of the Margrave of Baden at Karlsruhe. Thence, in 1776, with the title of Hofrath and a pension from the Margrave, which he retained along with that from the king of Denmark, he returned to Hamburg where he spent the remainder of his life.
His latter years he passed, as had always been his inclination, in retirement, only relieved by socializing with his most intimate friends, occupied in philological studies and taking scant interest in the new developments in German literature. However, he was enthusiastic about the American War of the French Revolution; the French Republic sent him a diploma of honorary citizenship. At the age of 67 he undertook a second marriage, to Johanna Elisabeth von Winthem, a widow and a niece of his late wife, who for many years had been one of his most intimate friends, he died in Hamburg on 14 March 1803, mourned throughout Germany, was buried with great ceremony next to his first wife in the churchyard of the village of Ottensen. The Messias follows from the aspirations to become an epic poet, which Klopstock nurtured in his early years; the leitmotif of the work is the Redemption, given an epic treatment. He resorted to Christian mythology in trying to circumscribe the subject-matter within the dogmas of the Church.
Milton's Paradise Lost was one of the models Klopstock had in mind in giving form to his poem. The poem took twenty-five ye
Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, incidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music, his major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667, the Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759, the three last piano sonatas, the opera Fierrabras, the incidental music to the play Rosamunde, the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise. Born to immigrant parents in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of Vienna, Schubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age, his father gave him his first violin lessons and his older brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. In 1808, at the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of Haydn and Beethoven, he left the Stadtkonvikt at the end of 1813, returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher.
In 1821, Schubert was granted admission to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in March 1828, the only time he did so in his career, he died eight months at the age of 31, the cause attributed to typhoid fever, but believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of the 19th century, his music continues to be popular. Franz Peter Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund, Archduchy of Austria on 31 January 1797, baptised in the Catholic Church the following day, he was the twelfth child of Maria Elisabeth Katharina Vietz.
Schubert's immediate ancestors came from the province of Zukmantel in Austrian Silesia. His father, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a well-known parish schoolmaster, his school in Lichtental had numerous students in attendance, he was appointed schoolmaster two years later. His mother was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith and had been a housemaid for a Viennese family before marriage. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children, nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, a year was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. Ignaz recalled: I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, that for the future he would make his own way, and in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had distanced and out stripped me, whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Soon after, Schubert was given his first lessons outside the family by Michael Holzer and choirmaster of the local parish church in Lichtental. Holzer would assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert, the lessons may have consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Holzer gave the young Schubert instruction in organ as well as in figured bass. According to Holzer, however, he did not give him any real instruction as Schubert would know anything that he tried to teach him; the boy seemed to gain more from an acquaintance with a friendly apprentice joiner who took him to a neighbouring pianoforte warehouse where Schubert could practise on better instruments. He played viola in the family string quartet, with his brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on first and second violin and his father on the cello.
Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri Vienna's leading musical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognised. In November 1808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt through a choir scholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart, the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn, the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven, a composer for whom he developed a significant admiration, his exposure to these and other works, combined with occasional visits to the opera, laid the foundation for a broader musical education. One important musical influence came from the songs by Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, an important composer of Lieder; the precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun, Schub