Maturidiyya is one of the main schools of Sunni Islam theology. It was formalized by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi and brought the beliefs present among the majority of Sunnis under one school of systematic theology, it is considered one of the orthodox Sunni creeds alongside the Ash'ari school. Māturīdism has been the predominant theological orientation among the Sunni Muslims of Persia prior to its conversion to Shiaism in the 16th century and the Ahl al-Ray and enjoyed a preeminent status in the Ottoman Empire and Mughal India. Outside the old Ottoman and Mughal empires, the majority of Turkic tribes, Central Asian, South Asian Muslims believe in Maturidi theology. There have been Arab Maturidi scholars; the Maturidi school prioritizes the traditions of Sufism. The Maturidi view holds that: All attributes of God are eternal and not separated from God. Ethics have an objective existence and humans are capable of recognizing it through reason. Although humans are intellectually capable of realizing God, they need revelations and guidance of Prophets, because human desire can divert the intellect and because certain knowledge of God has been specially given to these Prophets.
Humans are free in determining their actions within scope of God-given possibilities. Accordingly, God has created all possibilities; the Quran is the uncreated word of God. The Six articles of faith. Religious authorities need reasonable arguments to prove their claims. Support of science and falsafa; the Maturidis state. The Ash ` aris say that faith itself decreases according to one's actions. Maturidism holds, that humans are creatures endowed with reason, that differentiates them from animals. Further, the relationship between people and God differs from that of God. Ethics do not need prophetic guidance. Maturidi considered hadiths as unreliable, when they are in odd with reason. However, the human mind alone could not grasp the entire truth, thus it is in need of revelation in regard of mysterious affairs. Further, Maturidism opposes anthropomorphism and similitude, while does not deny the divine attributes, they must be left out. List of Ash'aris and Maturidis Athari Mu'tazili Islamic schools and branches 2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny An article from a Turkish site Biography of Imâm Al Mâturîdî The Place of Reason in the Theologies of al-Maturidi and al-Ash'ari Article "Kalam" in The Encyclopedia of Islam, 1st edition
Edward Conway, 1st Earl of Conway PC, FRS, of Ragley Hall, Alcester, in Warwickshire, was an English peer and politician who served as Secretary of State for the Northern Department between 1681 and 1683. Conway was born circa 1623, the son and heir of Edward Conway, 2nd Viscount Conway by his wife Frances Popham, daughter of Sir Francis Popham MP, of Wellington in Somerset and Littlecote in Berkshire, he succeeded as 3rd Viscount Conway and 3rd Viscount Killultagh following the death of his father in 1655. Conway became a member of the Irish Privy Council in 1660 and was a confidant of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society on 2 January 1668, became governor of Charlemont Fort in 1671 and served as Master of the Ordnance in Ireland from 1679. On 3 December 1679, Conway was created Earl of Conway. On 2 February 1681 he joined the Privy Council of King Charles II and became Secretary of State for the Northern Department, he resigned in January 1683 amid allegations that he was complicit in "crimes and misdemeanours... either in relation to the King's person or his public negotiations or transactions with foreign ambassadors, or in not rightly pursuing the King's instructions to ambassadors abroad".
He served as Lord Lieutenant of Warwickshire from 1682 to 1683. He married three times, but had no children: Firstly on 11 February 1651 to Anne Finch, daughter of Sir Heneage Finch. Following her death he retired to Ragley Hall in Warwickshire. Secondly he married daughter of George Booth, 1st Baron Delamer. Thirdly he married Ursula Stawell, daughter of George Stawell, who survived him and remarried to John Sheffield 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, he was buried in Arrow, Warwickshire. As he died with no children, his titles became extinct, he appointed by his will as heir to his estates, including Ragley Hall, his eight-year old first cousin once removed Popham Seymour, eldest son of Laetitia Popham by her husband Sir Edward Seymour, 4th Baronet of Berry Pomeroy in Devon. His bequest stipulated that Popham Seymour should adopt the arms and additional surname of Conway, thus he became known as Popham Seymour-Conway; the latter's nephew and eventual heir was Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, whose seat became Ragley Hall, where his descendant the 9th Marquess is still seated in 2015.
Benjamin Lloyd Crump is an American civil rights attorney and founder of the Tallahassee, Florida-based law firm Ben Crump Law. He is known for his association with the 2012/2013 George Zimmerman case, for representing the family of Michael Brown, an 17-year-old African-American male shot and killed by police in Ferguson, Missouri. Benjamin Lloyd Crump was born in Lumberton, North Carolina, near Fort Bragg, where his biological father served in the United States Army; the oldest of nine siblings and step-siblings, Crump grew up in an extended family and was raised by his grandmother Mittie. His mother Helen, worked as a hotel maid and in a local Converse shoe factory, his mother sent him to attend South Plantation High school in Plantation, Florida where he lived with her second husband, a math teacher, whom Crump identifies as his father. He attended Florida State University and received his bachelor's degree in criminal justice in 1992. Crump received his Juris Doctor from Florida State University in 1995.
A classmate of Crump's at Florida State University College of Law was journalist Shannon Bream. He is a life member of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. Crump is known for taking on cases that garner widespread media attention and civil rights implications. An example was the shooting of Trayvon Martin, who on February 26, 2012 was killed by George Zimmerman. Crump represents Martin's family. Crump represented the family of Alesia Thomas, a 35-year-old single African-American mother who died while in police custody in August 2012. Journalist Chuck Philips reported that during the arrest by female Officer Mary O’Callaghan, Thomas was "slammed to the ground, handcuffed behind her back, kicked in the groin, hog-tied and stuffed into the back seat of a patrol car, where she died." Crump demanded that dashboard video of the incident be released, threatening legal action and encouraging Attorney General Eric Holder to launch a federal probe. In October 2013, one of the arresting officers was charged with felony assault of Thomas, pleading not guilty.
Judge Shelly Torrealba signed off on a request by the district attorney's office to only release the video to prosecutors and defense attorneys. This was to prevent the tainting of potential jury candidates O'Callaghan's attorney Robert Rico said. On August 11, 2014, the family of Michael Brown announced that they would be hiring Crump to represent their case as the death had been compared to the Trayvon Martin case. Other past clients include the family of Martin Lee Anderson, an African-American teenager who died after a beating in 2006 by guards in a Florida youth detention center, he represented the family of Kendrick Johnson, an African-American high school student, found dead at his school in Valdosta, Georgia under mysterious circumstances, but stepped down from their legal team in late 2015. Crump is representing the family of Corey Jones, killed by a plainclothes officer while waiting for a tow truck in South Florida. Crump represents Terrence Crutcher's family, an unarmed black man shot and killed by a Tulsa Police officer as well as Zeke Upshaw, an NBA G League player who collapsed midgame in 2018 and was delayed assistance by the NBA's paramedics.
In April 2017, Crump appeared as an attorney on the American reality prime time court show You the Jury, canceled after two episodes. In December 2017, Crump investigated the murder of Tupac Shakur in the television documentary series Who Killed Tupac? The show narrates an investigation led by Crump who works with Mopreme Shakur. In 2018, Crump hosted; the show focused on people who served at least a decade behind bars for being wrongfully convicted of a crime. Crump hoped to "impact the larger society about these larger matters so they can be aware when they go into the courtroom as jurors". In 2017 Crump announced the opening of a new law firm, Ben Crump law, PLLC. In 2018 he became a Board Member for the National Black Justice Coalition. Crump, Benjamin L. "Ben Crump — the Man Who Represented the Families of Michael Brown, Trayvon Martin, Tamir Rice — Will Not Stop Fighting for Justice." NowThis. 2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “Every Black Person Has Had A'Starbucks Moment'.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 21 Apr.
2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “After Stephon Clark's Death and Mourning in Communities across the Nation.” USA Today, USA Today, 29 Mar. 2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “Stand Your Ground Is a License to Kill. Repeal It.” Miami Herald, Miami Herald, 5 Feb. 2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “Libyan Slave Trade Perpetuates The Commodification of Black Bodies.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 5 Jan. 2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “Civil Rights Resolutions for a Better America in 2018.” CNN, CNN, 2 Jan. 2018. Crump, Benjamin L. “The Unsolved Murder of Tupac Shakur Speaks To The Black Male's Experience Nationwide.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 12 Dec. 2017. Crump, Benjamin L. “Trump's Response To Charlottesville Was Far Too Little And Way Too Late.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 15 Aug. 2017. Crump, Benjamin L. “Only A Just America Will Be A Truly Great America.” HuffPost, The HuffPost, 15 Jan. 2017. Crump, Benjamin L. “Benjamin Crump: Seven Deaths Cannot Be In Vain.” TIME, TIME, 8 July 2016. Crump, Benjamin. "Will America now chal