The Hyderabad Information Technology and Engineering Consultancy City, abbreviated as HITEC City, is an Indian Information Technology, Health informatics, Bioinformatics. HITEC City is spread across 200 acres of land under suburbs of Madhapur, Kondapur and Nanakramguda, the technology township is known as Cyberabad. HITEC City is within two kilometers of the commercial suburb of Jubilee Hills. HITEC City was commissioned by Larsen and Toubro Limited through its Special Purpose Vehicle, L&T Hitech City Limited, a joint venture company of L&T Infocity Limited and erstwhile Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation; the project is spread over 300 acres of land and was envisaged to develop 11,000,000 sq ft. of IT space and 4,500,000 sq ft. of residential space in a phased manner. The Project offers multitenanted as well as Built-to-suit facilities, it caters to all segments of the IT Industry including small & medium enterprises, with office areas starting from as small as 2,500 sq ft.
The project was initiated by APIIC with participation of private infrastructure companies like L&T, Raheja corporation, Ascendas IT Park, Vanenburg Corporation, Peepul Capital, SP, RMZ corporation, Divyasree infrastructure, Lancohills technology park, DLF, Emaar MGF and others. The area comprises IT parks such as L&T Infocity, Hitech City2 SEZ, Vanenburg IT Park or The V, Mindspace Cyberabad SEZ, DLF IT SEZ, Tech Mahindra IT SEZ, TCS Synergy park IT SEZ, SEZs of Infosys, Wipro and APIIC, built to suit campuses of several major technology companies. Cyber Towers is the initial phase of HI-TEC City and was inaugurated by Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Chandrababu Naidu in November 1998; this was the first tower to be built for promotion of Information Technology and it was marketed by both the officials of APIIC and L&T Infocity Ltd. Companies such as Orbees Business Solutions, Knowledge Matrix India Pvt Ltd. 7 Hills Business Solutions, AppLabs, NTT DATA, Patni Computer Systems, Oracle Corporation, GE Capital, WHISHWORKS, Prithvi Information Solutions, Naia Software Solutions India Pvt Ltd. Four Soft operate and call centers operate from this four-quadrant, 10-story building.
The Cyber Towers building is divided into four quadrants with a large fountain in the middle of the quadrants. Laxmi Cyber City, built in 2007 consists of three blocks. A block- HSBC GLT B block- E&Y, etc. C block- ADP The property is close to 1 Million sft. and shares its heritage with Laxmi Cyber Centre, Laxmi CentrePoint, Laxmi Cyber Point, Laxmi Cyber Towers SEZ etc. Infocity is the first software technology park layout in HITEC CITY which attracted major technology companies like Accenture, Oracle, s2Tech Technologies etc. Hyderabad International Convention Center was built by Emaar MGF of India; the company is part owned by Emaar of UAE. The facility is managed by Accor Hospitality; the Hyderabad International Convention Center with 5,000 seating capacity is India's largest convention facility. It is an integrated 291,000 square foot facility with a 287-room-capacity business hotel, Novotel Hyderabad, covering 15 acres; the center can be configured to increase seating capacity to about 6,500.
Hyderabad International Trade Expositions Limited is a venue for international exhibitions, trade shows, corporate events in India. It was conceptualized by German architects and inaugurated on 14 January 2003 by Commerce Minister Arun Shourie, the Trade Fair Office Building by Andhra Pradesh former Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu. HITEX is located at Madhapur; the facility is spread over nearly 100 acres. GITEX Hyderabad, is the annual IT&C expo organized by the Dubai World Trade Center in association with the Department of IT&C, Government of Andhra Pradesh. CII-Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre was established in the year 2004, as CII's Developmental Institute on Green Practices & Businesses, aimed at offering advisory services on conservation of natural resources; the Green Business Centre was inaugurated by His Excellency Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, the President of India on 14 July 2004; the Services of Green Business Centre include- Energy Management, Green Buildings, Green Companies, Renewable Energy, GHG Inventorization, Green Product Certification, Waste Management and Cleaner Production Process.
The Mindspace IT Park includes residential, recreational and retail spaces. The park provides about 4,000,000 square feet of office space. Spread across 110 acres, this layout provides about 40% open space with telecommunications and civic infrastructure, wide roads, greenery; the district witnessed immediate success with over a million square feet built and occupied within just 14 months of starting the project. The park built to suit facilities. Companies such as Hyundai Mobis, IBM, Accenture, CSC, Bank of America and Novartis have built to suit facilities in the park with 10000 workers within them. Other companies in multitenant facilities include Broadcom, Parexel, Syneos Health, Zensar Technologies Ltd, Tech Mahindra, Accenture, General Electric, OpenText Corporation, Patni Computer Systems, Thomson Reuters and Tieto; as of 2008 March, 20,000 people work in the park. The park is a notified SEZ and is set to accommodate about 55,000 IT workers making it the largest of the IT parks in HITEC CITY.
The park has a Westin Hotel and Inorbit Mall which have been opened in the second
Hyderabad district, India
Hyderabad District is a district in the state of Telangana in India that contains a part of the metropolitan area of Hyderabad. It is headed by a district collector, drawn from the IAS cadre and is appointed by the state government, it has the highest human density. The district is a city district. Old MCH area, central region of Hyderabad city comes under this district, it is a peaceful area in India where Hindus live in Harmony and unity. Hyderabad district was formed in 1948 after brutal Police Action of government of India by merging Atraf-a-Balda District and Baghat District. Baghat was a Taluk in Atraf-e-Balda District, was made a separate district in 1931-34 under the subedar of Medak division. After formation of Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu speaking of Hyderabad state in 1956 Hyderabad district boundary was altered Tandur Taluka, Telugu speaking region of Gulbarga district was merged in Hyderabad district and Parigi Taluka of Mahabubnagar district and Vikarabad Taluka of Medak District merged in Hyderabad district.
In 1978 Hyderabad district was split into Hyderabad Urban District and Hyderabad Rural District. Hyderabad Urban District was made by 4 Talukas are Charminar, Golkonda and Secunderabad Talukas. Hyderabad rural district was renamed as Ranga Reddy District. Hyderabad Urban district subdivided in 16 Mandals in 1985 and consist of 2 Revenue division Hyderabad District includes the area of the core area Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Secunderabad Cantonment, Osmania University. There are 16 administrative areas called mandals in Hyderabad, they are: Sri. M. Raghunandan Rao IAS is the present collector of the district. Hyderabad district comprises 15 Assembly constituencies in the core of the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. Hyderabad district occupies an area of 217 square kilometres. In the 2011 census Hyderabad district's population was 3,943,323, with a religious make-up of: Hindus, Christians, Jains and Buddhists. Equal to the US state of Oregon; this gives it a ranking of 57th in India.
The district has a population density of 18,480 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 4.71%. Hyderabad has a sex ratio of 943 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 80.96%. The collectorate administers the district on behalf of the state government; the Hyderabad District does not have elected officials at the district level due to the absence of a Zilla Parishad although it has representations at the state and Union level legislature. In addition the entire district is contained within the jurisdiction of the GHMC, the city administration. Representatives are popularly elected to various wards of GHMC. Official website Hyderabad new district map with villages and mandals list 2016
Makkah Masjid, Hyderabad
Makkah Masjid or Mecca Masjid, is a congregational mosque in Hyderabad, India. It is one of the largest mosques in India with a capacity of 20,000; the mosque was built between the 16th and 17th centuries, is a state-protected monument situated in the heart of the old city of Hyderabad, close to the historic landmarks of Charminar, Chowmahalla Palace and Laad Bazaar. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, commissioned bricks to be made from the soil brought from Mecca, the holiest site of Islam, used them in the construction of the central arch of the mosque, thus giving the mosque its name, it formed the centerpiece. Makkah Masjid was built during the reign of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth Qutb Shahi Sultan of Golconda; the three arched facades have been carved from a single piece of granite, which took five years to quarry. More than 8,000 workers were employed to build the mosque. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah laid the foundation stone and constructed it; the construction was abandoned after the death of the Emperor.
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, a French explorer, in his travelogue observed:"It is about 50 years since they began to build a splendid pagoda in the town which will be the grandest in all India when it is completed. The size of the stone is the subject of special accomplishment, that of a niche, its place for prayer, is an entire rock of such enormous size that they spent five years in quarrying it, 500 to 600 men were employed continually on its work, it required still more time to roll it up on to conveyance by. However, the mosque was completed in 1692, on orders of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, after he captured the city. During the rule of the Nizams of Hyderabad, the Nizams were buried in the mosque. On 18 May 2007, a bomb exploded inside the Makkah Masjid at the time of Friday prayers, killing at least thirteen people and injuring dozens; the main hall of the mosque is 75 feet high, 220 feet wide and 180 feet long, enough to accommodate 10,000 worshipers at a time. Fifteen arches support the roof of five on each of the three sides.
A wall rises on the fourth side to provide Mihrab. At the peak of the minarets flanking the mosque is an arched gallery, above that a smallish dome and a spire. Inscriptions from the Qur'an adorn many of the arches and doors; the main structure of the mosque is sandwiched between two massive octagonal columns made out of a single piece of granite. The cornices running around the entire mosque structure and the floral motifs and friezes over the arches remind the tourist of the great attention paid to detail in Qutub Shahi architecture, they have a close resemblance to the arches at Golkonda Fort. On the four sides of the roof on the main mosque, the ramparts are made of granite planks in the shape of inverted conches perched on pedestals. From the cornice of the mosque, its minarets are not as high as the minarets on the mazaar haven from their cornice; the octagonal columns have arched balconies on level with the roof of the mosque with an awning for a canopy, above which the column continues upwards till it is crowned by a dome and spire.
The entrance courtyard it is best of the mosque, a rectangular and canopied building houses the marble graves ofrulers of the Asaf Jahi dynasty rulers. This structure came up during the rule of the Asaf Jah rulers, it contains the tombs of the Asaf Jahi rulers except the 1st and the last Nizam - Mir Osman Ali Khan-who is buried in Judi Mosque opposite King Kothi PalaceAt both ends of this resting place for the Asaf Jahi's and much a part of it, are two rectangular blocks with four minarets each. These minarets arches. Above them is an octagonal inverted platter from which the rest of the minaret soars till it is arrested by a dome and a spire; the Makkah Masjid is a listed heritage building, lack of maintenance and growing pollution has withered and cracked the structure. It only received a chemical wash in 1995. On the edge of the pond are two stone and slab benches, whoever sits on them, according to legend, returns to sit on them A room in the courtyard is believed to house a hair of the Islamic prophet Muhammed.
Live Makkah Channel - Watch Live Makkah Channel Photos of Makkah Masjid on HyderabadPlanet.com
Aurangabad is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki. Khadki was the original name of the village, made a capital city by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam, Shah of Ahmadnagar. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a imposing city. Malik Ambar died in 1626, he was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan. With the capture of Daulatabad by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals. In 1653 when Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign. In 1724, Asif Jah, a Turkic general and Nizam al-Mulk of the Mughals in the Deccan region, decided to secede from the crumbling Mughal Empire, with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan and decided to make Aurangabad his capital.
His son and successor, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763. In 1795, the city came under the Maratha rule, following the Maratha victory in the Battle of Kharda, along with an indemnity of 30 million rupees paid by Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad to the Marathas. However, Maratha rule lasted only eight years before the city came under the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, under the protection of the British East India Company, following the British victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. During the period of the British Raj, the city was known as Aurungábád. After independence there have been demands to rename the city to Sambhaji Nagar; this demand further raised due to recent renaming of Faizabad to Allahabad to Prayagraj. Aurangabad was a part of the Princely State of Hyderabad during the British Raj, until its annexation into the Indian Union after the Indian Independence in 1947, thereafter a part of Hyderabad state of India until 1956.
In 1956 it became a part of newly formed bilingual Bombay state and in 1960 it became a part of Maharashtra state. The co-ordinates for Aurangabad are N 19° 53' 47" – E 75° 23' 54"; the city is surrounded by hills on all directions. Climate Classification: Aurangabad features a semiarid climate under the Köppen climate classification. Temperature: Annual mean temperatures in Aurangabad range from 17 to 33 °C, with the most comfortable time to visit in the winter – October to February; the highest maximum temperature recorded was 46 °C on 25 May 1905. The lowest recorded temperature was 2 °C on 2 February 1911. In the cold season, the district is sometimes affected by cold waves in association with the eastward passage of western disturbances across north India, when the minimum temperature may drop down to about 2 °C to 4 °C. Rainfall: Most of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September. Thunderstorms occur between November to April. Average annual rainfall is 710 mm; the city is cloudy during the monsoon season and the cloud cover may remain together for days.
The daily maximum temperature in the city drops to around 22 °C due to the cloud cover and heavy rains. The entire area is covered by the Deccan Traps lava flows of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age; the lava flows are overlain by thin alluvial deposits along the Sukhana river. The basaltic lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap is the only major geological formation occurring in Aurangabad; the lava flows are horizontal and each flow has two distinct units. The upper layers consist of vesiculara and amygdaloidal zeolitic basalt while the bottom layer consists of massive basalt; the lava flows are individually different in their ability to receive as well as hold water in storage and to transmit it. The difference in the productivity of groundwater in various flows arises as a result of their inherent physical properties such as porosity and permeability; the groundwater occurs under water table conditions and is controlled by the extent of its secondary porosity i.e. thickness of weathered rocks and spacing of joints and fractures.
The weathered vesicular trap and underlying weathered jointed and fractured massive trap constitutes the main water yielding zones. The soil is formed from igneous rocks and are black, medium black and calcareous types having different depths and profiles. Hinduism is the majority religion in Aurangabad city at 51.07% with 600,183 followers. Islam is the second most popular religion in the city with 361,817 people following it. Buddhism is followed by 178,307 people, Christianity is followed by 10,060 people, Jainism by 19,073, Sikhism by 3,427. Around 0.04% stated'other Religion', about 0.15% stated'No Particular Religion'. As one of the largest cities in India, as a result of its many colleges and universities, Aurangabad is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. In 2010, Aurangabad was in news for placing single largest order for Mercedes Benz cars in a single transaction in India — 150 Mercedes Benz cars worth ₹65 crore. Without a local Mercedes-Benz showroom and encountering an indifferent Mercedes-Benz dealer in the nearest city, a group of successful citizens pooled their orders and negotiated a record agreement with the firm.
Soon after that, bulk purchase order of 101 BMW cars was placed. Electronics giant Videocon has its manufacturing facility in Aurangabad where it manufactures a range of home appliances; the city was a major silk and cotton te
Hyderabad State known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra; the state was ruled from 1724 to 1857 by the Nizam, a viceroy of the Great Mogul in the Deccan. Hyderabad became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. Under the leadership of Asaf Jah V it changed its traditional heraldic flag; the dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's invasion and annexation of the state in 1948.
Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan, the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721. In 1724, he resumed rule under the title of Asaf Jah, his other title, Nizam ul-Mulk, became the title of his position "Nizam of Hyderabad". By the end of his rule, the Nizam had become independent from the Mughals, had founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of Maratha Empire; the Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed and Kharda. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes. From 1778, a British resident and soldiers were installed in his dominions. In 1795, the Nizam lost some of his own territories to the Marathas.
The territorial gains of the Nizam from Mysore as an ally of the British were ceded to the British to meet the cost of maintaining the British soldiers. Hyderabad was a 212,000 km2 region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of "His Exalted Highness" by the British; the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the world's richest men in the 1930s. In 1798, Nizam ʿĀlī Khan was forced to enter into an agreement that put Hyderabad under British protection, he was the first Indian prince to sign such an agreement. The Crown retained the right to intervene in case of misrule. Hyderabad under Asaf Jah II was a British ally in the second and third Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore wars, would remain loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, his son, Asaf Jah III Mir Akbar Ali Khan ruled from 1768 to 1829. During his rule, a British cantonment was built in Hyderabad and the area was named in his honor, Secunderabad.
The British Residency at Koti was built during his reign by the British Resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick. Sikander Jah was succeeded by Asaf Jah IV, who ruled from 1829 to 1857, was succeeded by his son Asaf Jah V. Asaf Jah V's reign from 1857 to 1869 was marked by reforms by his Prime Minister Salar Jung I. Before this time, there was no regular or systematic form of administration, the duties were in the hand of the Diwan, corruption was thus widespread. In 1867, the State was divided into five divisions and seventeen districts, subedars were appointed for the five Divisions and talukdars and tehsildars for the districts; the judicial, public works, educational and police departments were re-organised. In 1868, sadr-i-mahams were appointed for the Judicial, Revenue and Miscellaneous Departments. Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahbub Ali Khan became the Nizam at the age of three years, his regents were Salar Jung I and Shams-ul-Umra III. He assumed full rule at the age of 17, ruled until his death in 1911.
The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was established during his reign to connect Hyderabad State to the rest of British India. It was headquartered at Secunderabad Railway Station; the railway marked the beginning of industry in Hyderabad, factories were built in Hyderabad city. During his rule, the Great Musi Flood of 1908 struck the city of Hyderabad, which killed an estimated 50,000 people; the Nizam opened all his palaces for public asylum. He abolished Sati where women used to jump into their husband's burning pyre, by issuing a royal Firman; the last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan ruled the state from 1911 until 1948. He was given the title "Faithful Ally of the British Empire". Hyderabad was considered peaceful, during this time; the Nizam's rule saw growth of culturally. The Osmania University and several schools and colleges were founded throughout the state. Many writers, poets and other eminent people migrated from all parts of India to Hyderabad during the reign of Asaf Jah VII, his father and predecessor Asaf Jah VI.
The Nizam established Hyderabad State Bank. Hyderabad was the only state in British India which had the Hyderabadi rupee; the Begumpet Airp
Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority
The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority is the urban planning agency of Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana. The HMDA administers the Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, spread over an area of 7,257 km2 and covers the districts of Hyderabad district, Medchal district, part of Rangareddy district, Sangareddy district, Medak district, Yadadri district and Siddipet district. HMDA was formed by the merging of the following erstwhile entities: Hyderabad Urban Development Authority, Hyderabad Airport Development Authority, Cyberabad Development Authority and Buddha Poornima Project Authority. HMDA was set up for the purposes of planning, co-ordination, supervising and securing the planned development of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, it coordinates the development activities of the municipal corporations and other local authorities, the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board, the Telangana state Transmission Corporation, the Telangana State Infrastructure Corporation HMDA built the Outer Ring Road at a cost of 6696 crores.
The project started in 2005 and was completed in May 2018. The areas under Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority include districts of Hyderabad district, Medchal district, part of Rangareddy district, Sangareddy district, Medak district, Yadadri district and Siddipet district; the metropolitan region covers seven districts, 70 mandals, 1032 villages, including Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation which consists of 175 villages and 12 municipalities / nagar panchayats consisting of 31 villages. The Government approved a 50 per cent increase in the development charges for the builders for construction of buildings in the extended areas of the HMDA
Siege of Golconda
The Siege of Golconda occurred in January 1687, when Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb led his forces to besiege the Qutb Shahi dynasty at Golconda Fort and was home to the Kollur Mine. The ruler of Golconda was the well entrenched Abul Hasan Qutb Shah. Aurangzeb and the Mughal army had conquered two Muslim kingdoms: Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar and the Adilshahis of Bijapur, it was only a matter of time. The siege of Golconda lasted 8 months and on various occasions it had pushed the massive Mughal army to its limits, in fact the Golconda Fort was the most impregnable fort in the Indian subcontinent. Aurangzeb and the Mughals entered Golconda through a decisive victory but through the secret treachery of Sarandaz Khan, a military official in the army of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. After the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and the Mughal army had conquered two Muslim kingdoms: Tana Shah of Hyderabad and the Adilshahis of Bijapur. Aurangzeb had assigned his army of 10,000 to lead any future assault on Golconda Fort.
Ghaziuddin Khan Siddiqi Firuz Jang son of Khwaja Abid Siddiqi Kilich Khan and Father of Nizam I of Hyderabad Qamaruddin Khan Siddiqi was assigned to bombard the walls of the fort using a 100 Cannons including the powerful and massive Rahban and Fateh Rahber. Another Mughal cannon is said to be the most impressive it is known as the Azhdaha-Paikar it had the ability to shoot Cannon balls weighing over 35 kg, this particular bronze cannon was cast in the year 1647; the Mughal admiral Munnawar Khan was assigned to deliver food and weapon supplies to the besieging Mughal army. The general Dilir Khan was assigned to command the Matchlock Sepoys that tried to penetrate the defenses of Golconda Fort. While Shaista Khan, Murshid Quli Khan and Ibrahim Khan commanded the rest of the army and its reserves around Golconda Fort and throughout all the Qutbshahi territory; the ruler of Golconda Fort, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah had strong walls reinforced with granite and a powerful mortar called the Pata Burj. As the Qutbshahi ruler of Golconda, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah refused to surrender to the Mughals, he and his servicemen fortified themselves at Golconda Fort, fiercely protected the Kollur Mine, the world's only diamond mine at that time.
His most experienced Golconda commander Muqarrab Khan defected to the Mughals. The Qutbshahis had constructed massive fortifications throughout successive generations on a granite hill over 400 ft high with an enormous 8 mile wall enclosing the city; the main gates of Golconda had the ability to repulse any War elephant attack, as they had iron spikes on the gates to damage the advancing Mughal elephants. In January 1687, the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb led his grand Mughal army against the Deccan Qutbshahi ruler taking refuge in Golconda Fort. Aurangzeb alongside about 100 Cannons began siege operations. In order to breach the granite walls of Golconda Fort, Firuz Jang was appointed to utilize the massive Rahban, Fateh Rahber and the most impressive Cannon during the siege known as the Azhdaha-Paikar it had the ability to shoot Cannonballs weighing over 50 kg. In response to the Mughal bombardment Abul Hasan Qutb Shah fired from his powerful high-vicinity mortar called the Pata Burj, according to Saqi Mustad Khan bamboo rockets were utilized day and night against Mughal encampments.
Meanwhile, due to heavy rains the Manjera River over-flooded and the scarcity of food supplies became a dire complication, this led to the death of many animals and caused malnourished troops to get ill. Fearing a possible counterattack organized from the fort, Aurangzeb ordered the construction of a fortified position made of wood and mud, which would house and organize Mughal attacking parties; the intense cannon fire from Golconda Fort against the approaching Mughals caused the death of the experienced Mughal commander Kilich Khan Khwaja Abid Siddiqi and furthermore Aurangzeb was grieved by the death of his long time commander Gaziuddin Khan Siddiqi Bahadur Firuz Jang, who died of natural causes. Although the Qutbshahi's maintained impregnable efforts defending their walls, at night the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and his infantry of assembled and erected complex scaffolding that allowed them to scale the high walls. Aurangzeb ordered his men to throw huqqa while scaling the fortified wall and were reinforced by Matchlocks and Composite bows.
While most of these attacks remained unsuccessful, they managed to demoralize the defenders of Golconda Fort. During the eight-month siege the Mughals faced many hardships like small-scale famines for weeks at a time, but whenever the Mughal Admiral Munnawar Khan arrived with supplies and weapons with his river fleet, Aurangzeb would intensify the siege. Although the Qutbshahi's maintained impregnable efforts defending their walls, the siege had become unbearable for the officials in service of the Qutbshahi's and Sarandaz Khan revealed a back door that led directly Golconda Fort after the Mughals stormed the fort, Sarandaz Khan opened the gates that allows the Aurangzeb's army to enter; the Mughal army led by Ghaziud-Din Khan Feroze Jung the son of the fallen Kilich Khan Khwaja Abid Siddiqi was among the first to enter the gates. He charged towards the citadel of Abul Hasan Qutb Shah taking him prisoner by surprise. Firuz Jang and his forces occupied Kollur Mine and the Mughal reserves, disarmed the defenders of the fort and paved their way for the entry of victorious Mughal Emperor Aur