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Maunder Minimum

The Maunder Minimum known as the "prolonged sunspot minimum", is the name used for the period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare, as was noted by solar observers. The term was introduced after John A. Eddy published a landmark 1976 paper in Science. Astronomers before Eddy had named the period after the solar astronomers Annie Russell Maunder and her husband, Edward Walter Maunder, who studied how sunspot latitudes changed with time; the period which the Maunders examined included the second half of the 17th century. Two papers were published in Edward Maunder's name in 1890 and 1894, he cited earlier papers written by Gustav Spörer; because Annie Maunder had not received a university degree, restrictions at the time caused her contribution not to be publicly recognized. Spörer noted that, during a 28-year period within the Maunder Minimum, observations revealed fewer than 50 sunspots; this contrasts with the typical 40,000–50,000 sunspots seen in modern times. The Maunder Minimum occurred with a much longer period of lower-than-average European temperatures, to have been caused by volcanic activity.

The Maunder Minimum occurred between 1645 and 1715 when few sunspots were observed. That was not because of a lack of observations, as during the 17th century, Giovanni Domenico Cassini carried out a systematic program of solar observations at the Observatoire de Paris, thanks to the astronomers Jean Picard and Philippe de La Hire. Johannes Hevelius performed observations on his own. Here is the total of sunspots recorded, by example, in the decennial years: During the Maunder Minimum enough sunspots were sighted so that 11-year cycles could be extrapolated from the count; the maxima occurred in 1676–1677, 1684, 1695, 1705 and 1718. Sunspot activity was concentrated in the southern hemisphere of the Sun, except for the last cycle when the sunspots appeared in the northern hemisphere, too. According to Spörer's law, at the start of a cycle, spots appear at lower latitudes until they average at about latitude 15° at solar maximum; the average continues to drift lower to about 7° and after that, while spots of the old cycle fade, new cycle spots start appearing again at high latitudes.

The visibility of these spots is affected by the velocity of the Sun's surface rotation at various latitudes: Visibility is somewhat affected by observations being done from the ecliptic. The ecliptic is inclined 7° from the plane of the Sun's equator; the Maunder Minimum coincided with the middle part of the Little Ice Age, during which Europe and North America experienced colder than average temperatures. Whether there is a causal relationship, however, is still under evaluation; the current best hypothesis for the cause of the Little Ice Age is that it was the result of volcanic action. The onset of the Little Ice Age occurred well before the beginning of the Maunder Minimum, northern-hemisphere temperatures during the Maunder Minimum were not different from the previous 80 years, suggesting a decline in solar activity was not the main causal driver of the Little Ice Age; the correlation between low sunspot activity and cold winters in England has been analyzed using the longest existing surface temperature record, the Central England Temperature record.

They emphasize that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters, not a global effect. A potential explanation of this has been offered by observations by NASA's Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment, which suggest that solar UV output is more variable over the course of the solar cycle than scientists had thought. In 2011, an article was published in the Nature Geoscience journal that uses a climate model with stratospheric layers and the SORCE data to tie low solar activity to jet stream behavior and mild winters in some places and colder winters in others. In Europe, examples of cold winters are 1683–84, 1694–95, the winter of 1708–09; the term "Little Ice Age" applied to the Maunder Minimum is something of a misnomer, as it implies a period of unremitting cold, not the case. For example, the coldest winter in the Central England Temperature record is 1683–1684, but summers during the Maunder Minimum were not different from those seen in subsequent years; the drop in global average temperatures in paleoclimate reconstructions at the start of the Little Ice Age was between about 1560 and 1600, whereas the Maunder Minimum began 50 years later.

Past solar activity may be recorded by various proxies, including carbon-14 and beryllium-10. These indicate lower solar activity during the Maunder Minimum; the scale of changes resulting in the production of carbon-14 in one cycle is small and can be taken into account when radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of archaeological artifacts. The interpretation of the beryllium-10 and carbon-14 cosmogenic isotope abundance records stored in terrestrial reservoirs such as ice sheets and tree rings has been aided by reconstructions of solar and heliospheric magnetic fields based on historic data on Geomagnetic storm activity, which bridge the time gap between the end of the usable cosmogenic isotope data and the start of modern spacecraft data. Other historical sunspot minima have been detected either directly or by the analysis of the cosmogenic isotopes. In a 2012 study, sunspot minima have been detected by analysis of carbon-14 in lake sedi


Calmore is a townland lying within the civil parish of Kilcronaghan, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies in the north-west of the parish, is bounded by the townlands of, it was apportioned to the Drapers company as well as Crown freeholds. The townland was part of Tobermore electoral ward of the former Magherafelt District Council, however in 1926 it was part of Tobermore district electoral division as part of the Maghera division of Magherafelt Rural District, it was part of the historic barony of Loughinsholin. The townland of Calmore is named after a large ancient hazel tree, said to have been used in pagan ceremonies; the townland of Calmore appears to have been a place of some importance, attested by a crannog that once lay in an ancient lake in the townland. This crannog is stated as having been of a tolerable large size and constructed of an oak frame, composed of large logs and planks bound together by wooden pins; this frame was fastened by mortices. In April 1835, at the crannog, a flat bottomed boat of oak was discovered, containing several oak boards that served as seats.

This boat appeared to have had no nail or iron work, being hallowed out from the trunk of a tree. In the 1780s a smaller boat of similar construction had been found, but had been scuttled and sunk several times, it is stated that these boats may have been either pleasure or fishing boats belonging to Calmore Castle. The crannog was dismantled in the early 19th century. Calmore Castle was an ancient castle, it has been known as O'Hagan's Castle and Rowley's Castle. The O'Hagans of Ballinascreen when being questioned by John O'Donovan in 1821 as part of his letters pertaining to the antiquities of County Londonderry, claimed that Sir William O'Hagan built Calmore Castle. Local traditions however picked up by the Ordnance Survey Memoirs of 1836-37 state that it was his father, Shane More O'Hagan, who built it. Shane More O'Hagan is noted as being the proprietor of the Drapers Proportion in this area together with other tracts of land, including ten townlands in Ballynascreen and Lough Insholin, the heart of a large territory of the same name.

The Ordnance Survey Memoirs note that in neighbouring Moneyshanere, a battle was said to have been fought between the O'Hagans who are stated as ruling Tobermore and the O'Neills of Tyrone, who are said to have come rampaging down from Ballynascreen. During its control by the O'Hagans, Calmore Castle was considered "once a place of considerable strength, which commanded the mountain passes, the fords of the Moyola". After Sir William O'Hagan, Calmore Castle was inhabited by Owen Roe O'Hagan, who after which it is said to have been burned down. By 1619, a plantation house was built for William Rowley, which incorporated parts of Calmore Castle. Rowley was the brother of John Rowley, former chief agent of The Honourable The Irish Society, for the Drapers Company. Shortly after the 1641 rebellion, it fell back into Irish hands. In 1689, it was burnt by a party of Irish, who were part of the Irish army retreating from the Siege of Derry. A tradition is recorded claiming that two years after it was burnt down, the person who led the party and was the first to throw a sheaf of burning straw into the rooms, came begging to the windows of the repaired building.

When he was recognised he was "stalled" by Rowley himself. The last inhabitant of the estate was Henry Rowley in 1814, but was still listed as "Rowley's Castle" in Civil Survey maps from 1850; the Calmore Castle Plantation House no longer exists. The remains of the castle were carried off by John McKee, for building work; the town of Tobermore lies in this townland, those of Moneyshanere and Tobermore. Kilcronaghan List of townlands in Tobermore Tobermore

2018 Rome escalator accident

The 2018 Rome escalator accident was an incident where twenty-four people fans of the CSKA Moscow Football team, were injured after a crowded escalator at a Rome Metro station malfunctioned and sped up and hurled people down the escalator. The escalator at the Repubblica Metro station in Rome, malfunctioned on 23 October; the station was crowded due to many fans, traveling to the Rome Olympic stadium, to watch a game between CSKA Moscow and AS Roma, in the Champions League. A group of CSKA fans were going down into the station, with witnesses raising claims that they were jumping and singing before the incident; the escalator sped up sending people on the stairs at a fast pace, with little time for those at the bottom to get out of the way. Some fans attempted to escape by utilizing the median to either slide down, or get to the other escalator. After the escalator was stopped, a photo was released of the escalator stairs crumpled at the bottom, exposing jagged and exposed metal plates. Seven people were reported to have been injured, with varying accounts of the total amount of injured.

Some of the injured were trapped between the metal plates of the steps at the bottom of the escalator. Rome Mayor Virginia Raggi issued a request for a formal inquest over the cause of the malfunction; the entire Repubblica station was closed so that investigators and firefighters could carry out all investigations and rescue operations. In the week following the accident protests against Raggi, raised concerns about her failing to address the city's issues such as the accident and lack of funds for city upkeep and infrastructure. A representative from ATAC, Rome's public transport company, issued a statement that "all maintenance checks of the escalator were carried out and the results were in accordance to the norms." Police after studying the accident footage concluded that the fans were not jumping on the escalator. The CSKA fans released a statement on 24 October that, they are trying to shun the responsibility of what happened."

Rudraprayag district

Rudraprayag is a district of the state of Uttarakhand of northern India. The district occupies an area of 2439 km²; the town of Rudraprayag is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district is bounded by Uttarkashi District on the north, Chamoli District on the east, Pauri Garhwal District on the south, Tehri Garhwal District on the west. Rudraprayag District was established on 16 September 1997, it was carved out from the following areas of three adjoining districts: The whole of Augustmuni and Ukhimath block and part of Pokhri and Karnprayag block from Chamoli District Part of Jakholi and Kirtinagar block from Tehri District Part of Khirsu block from Pauri DistrictThe internationally known Shri Kedarnath Temple is at the north, Madmaheshwar at east, Nagrasu at southern east and Shrinagar at extreme south. The Mandakini River is the main river of the district; as of 2011 it is the least populous district of Uttarakhand. According to the 2011 census Rudraprayag district has a population of 242,285 equal to the nation of Vanuatu.

This gives it a ranking of 585th in India. The district has a population density of 119 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 4.14%. Rudraprayag has a sex ratio of 1120 females for every 1000 males, making it the 6th highest in the country as per 2011 census, second being Almora that too in uttarakhand, a literacy rate of 82.09%. The predominant first language of the district is Garhwali, spoken by 94.5% of the population according to the 2011 census. Hindi, though used a lingua franca, is the first language of 4.2%, while 0.60% are speakers of Nepali. Kedarnath Rudraprayag TUNGESHWAR MANDIR TIYUNG Kedarnath Tungnath Madhyamaheshwar Mathiyana Devi Ukhimath Kalimath Koteshwar Mahadev Umra Narayan Dhari Devi Triyuginarayan Temple Haryali Devi Jai Nari Devi,SATERAKHAL Sri Kartikswami Mahrshi Agastya muni Maharaj Temple Basukedar Temple Durga Maa Temple Gaurikund Badhani Taal Tungnath Phalshi Chopta Jakh Temple Dungaira Temple, Sidhsaur Ghandiyal Devta, Thati Barma Shaneshwar Maharaj Silla Rudraprayag Tungeshwar mahadev Temple, Tyung Tarag is situated 23 km from Rudraprayag headquarters via Chopta Pokhri road.

There belongs negi bandhu the rajputs. Lwara village - 45–46 km from Rudraprayag, 7 km from Guptkashi, its population is between 1000-1500. Temple of Maa Chandika is situated in the centre of village; the Rawan Ganga flows at distance of 1 km from the village. Andarwari - near Guptkashi, 45 km from Rudraprayag city and 5 km from Guptkashi city. Rudraprayag Sumerpur Bawai - 20 km from Rudraprayag city via Maikoti-Durgadhar, 18 km from Tilwada Uthind Pola Maikoti Darmola Thati, Barma- Has one temple Ghandiyal Devta. Sann village - about 7 km from Rudraprayag Biron Dewal village Basti village - has two temples, one of Durga Devi and one of Bharkeshwar Mahadev Pounthi Silgarh - Pounthi village is a group of six small villages: Talli Pounthi, Kathood, Chonralgaon and Bhatwari, it is 25 km from the district headquarters and 7 km from Jakholi tehsil. Many freedom fighters and armymen are from this area, including the late Shri Gyan Singh Rawat; the village is accessible by road from Rishikesh, Tilwara and Jakholi.

Some of the adjacent villages are Khaliyan Bangar, Jakhwadi, Liswalta and Badhani Taal. Darmwari Benji Village Syund Village Triyuginarayan village Guptakashi KIRORA- POST OFFICE MUNNADEWAL Gaurikund Kamera Syund Dholsari Ghimtoli Damar is situated at the bank of the river Madakini and known for its ancient lord Shiva temple. Village is 1 km from Bhiri bus stand. Jaggi Kandai village Bainji Kandai Dashjula village JARMWAR Dashjula village Dangi - 15 km away from Rudraprayag city Ukhimath, Ransi, Panchkedar Gaurikund village Paldwari village Kyark village Tilwara village Maikoti Nagrasu °Ratura - 8 km from Rudraprayag, Odali Village 1 km from Ratura Market Kalna Village- situated in the center of Rudraprayag and Gaucher and nearestin ratura Odli way There are three most popular temples of Maa Bhagwati, Gwareel Devta & Narsing Devta and Maa Chandika at center to Village, there are Bhandari, Negi and Kandari family. Most of thing is that 65% younguster are from Govt service, this village people always like hard working in agricultural.

Kokhandi village Phalasi Village - near Chopta, 20 km from Rudraprayag city Chond Village - near Chopta, 20 km from Rudraprayag city Bhatwari village Jakhwadi Bangar - near Khaliyan Bangar Jakholi - Block headquarters situated near Tilwada, Ghansali Tehri Basukedar- reputedly where Shiva lived before coming to Kedarnath. It's a Shiva temple constructed by Pandava; this is around 35 km from Agustmuni. This is an old track to visit Kedarnath, it is said. Kandi village - 20 km from Chandrapuri. Amkoti town - at Tilwada - Ghansali Road, 9 km from Jakholi. Meeting point of Kund and Patiyangana fair of Nagela Devta. Jakhal Bhardar 9 km from 19 km from headquarter Rudraprayag. Amdala- 10 km from RUDRAPRAYAG Main Market & 6 km from KOTESHWAR Temple. Korkhi po-buyung Dhariyanj Village Shriwa Post office Parkandi Tyung- 4km from bhiri town, this village is popular because of its serenity and spirituality. 80 feet Shiva temple is main attraction of this area. Leopard of Rudraprayag Pillu Village: The most famous Karmajeet temple in Rudraprayag District.

Near Ganesh Nagar. Tamind Village: 09 km from Rudraprayag and 3 km from Tilwada Semalta Village: A prominent village of patti Bhardar; the village is well

Chhayapuri railway station

Chhayapuri railway station is a railway station on the Western Railway network in the state of Gujarat, India. Chhayapuri railway station is 6 km far away from Vadodara Junction. Passenger and Superfast trains halt here. Union Minister of State for Railways, Suresh Angadi inaugurated the Chhayapuri railway station on 14 December, 2019 in Vadodara. Chhayapuri railway station will now serve as a satellite station of Vadodara to improve mobility and punctuality of trains, reduce vehicular traffic congestion around Vadodara railway station and help in expansion of the city. Following Express and Superfast trains halt at Chhayapuri railway station in both directions: 19167/68 Ahmedabad - Varanasi Sabarmati Express 19165/66 Ahmedabad - Darbhanga Sabarmati Express 12947/48 Ahmedabad - Patna Azimabad Express 19421/22 Ahmedabad - Patna Weekly Express 12917/18 Ahmedabad - Hazrat Nizamuddin Gujarat Sampark Kranti Express 11463/64 Somnath - Jabalpur Express 11465/66 Somnath - Jabalpur Express 19309/10 Gandhinagar Capital - Indore Shanti Express 19575/76 Okha - Nathdwara Express 12475/76 Hapa - Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Katra Sarvodaya Superfast Express 12477/78 Jamnagar - Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Katra Sindhu Superfast Express 12473/74 Gandhidham - Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Katra Sarvodaya Superfast Express 15045/46 Gorakhpur - Okha Express Vadodara district

Somebody to You

"Somebody to You" is a song by British pop rock band The Vamps. A version featuring American singer Demi Lovato was released in the United Kingdom on 18 May 2014 as the fourth single from their debut studio album, Meet the Vamps; the song peaked at number 4 on the UK Singles Chart, becoming the group's fourth successive top 5 single in the United Kingdom. It peaked at number 14 in Australia, their highest charting single to date in the country; the song was released as the band's first official single in the United States, alongside their debut extended play Somebody to You, released on 4 August 2014, but failed to chart on the Billboard Hot 100. However, the EP charted at number 10 on the Billboard 200; the official music video was uploaded on YouTube on 9 June 2014. The video was shot in Malibu, California; the video is about a young girl who spends time with her friends in the summer until they are joined by The Vamps, their group's lead singer falls in love with the girl. Demi Lovato appears.

The Vamps and Lovato first performed the song live on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, on 10 November 2014. Digital download"Somebody to You" – 3:03Digital download – Acoustic version"Somebody to You" – 3:01Digital download – EP"Somebody to You" – 4:45"Can We Dance" – 3:44 "Sweater Weather" – 3:16CD1"Somebody to You" – 3:03 "Midnight Memories" "That Girl" "On the Floor"CD2"Somebody to You" "Rough Night" DVD"Somebody to You" – 3:03 "Carry on Vamping: A Day on Tour" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics