The Suzuki method is an internationally known music curriculum and teaching philosophy dating from the mid-20th century, created by Japanese violinist and pedagogue Shinichi Suzuki. The method aims to create an environment for learning music which parallels the linguistic environment of acquiring a native language. Suzuki believed that this environment would help to foster good moral character. I want to make good citizens. If a child hears fine music from the day of his birth and learns to play it himself, he develops sensitivity and endurance, he gets a beautiful heart. The Suzuki Method was conceived in the mid-20th century by Suzuki, a Japanese violinist who desired to bring beauty to the lives of children in his country after the devastation of World War II; as a skilled violinist but a beginner at the German language who struggled to learn it, Suzuki noticed that children pick up their native language and dialects adults consider "difficult" to learn are spoken with ease by children at age five or six.
He reasoned that if children have the skill to acquire their native language, they have the necessary ability to become proficient on a musical instrument. He pioneered the idea that preschool age children could learn to play the violin if the learning steps were small enough and the instrument was scaled down to fit their body, he modeled his method, which he called "Talent Education", after his theories of natural language acquisition. Suzuki believed that every child, if properly taught, was capable of a high level of musical achievement, he made it clear that the goal of such musical education was to raise generations of children with "noble hearts"....all children can be well educated... The central belief of Suzuki, based on his language acquisition theories, is that all people can learn from their environment; the essential components of his method spring from the desire to create the "right environment" for learning music. These components include: Saturation in the musical community.
This includes attending local classical music concerts, developing friendships with other music students, listening to recordings of professional musicians in the home every day, starting before birth if possible. Deliberate avoidance of musical aptitude auditions to begin music study. Suzuki believed that teachers who test for musical aptitude before taking students, or who look only for "talented" students, are limiting themselves to people who have started their music education. Just as every child is expected to learn their native language, Suzuki expected every child to be able to learn to play music. Emphasis on playing from a young age,typically starting formal instruction between the ages of three and five years old.. Using well-trained teachers. Suzuki believed in training musicians not only to be better musicians but to be better teachers. Suzuki Associations worldwide offer ongoing teacher-training programs to prospective and continuing Suzuki teachers. In the beginning, learning music by ear is emphasized over reading written musical notation.
Suzuki observed that children speak before learning to read, thought that children should be able to play music before learning to read. To support learning by ear, students are expected to listen to recordings of the music they are learning daily. Other methods—such as Simply Music, the Gordon Music Learning Theory, Conversational Solfège—have students playing before reading notes, but may not have the same focus on daily listening and learning by ear. Memorization of all solo repertoire is expected; the focus on memorization continues after a student begins to use sheet music to learn new pieces. Music theory and note reading are left to the teacher; the Suzuki method does not include a formal plan or prescribe specific materials for introducing music theory & reading, in part because Suzuki created the method in a culture where music literacy was taught in schools. Regular playing in groups is encouraged. Retaining and reviewing every piece of music learned is strongly encouraged; this is intended to raise musical ability.
Review pieces, along with "preview" parts of music a student is yet to learn, are used in place of the more traditional etude books. Traditional etudes and technical studies are not used in the beginning stages, which focus exclusively on a set of performance pieces. Frequent public performance makes performing feel like a natural and enjoyable part of being a musician; the method discourages competitive attitudes between players, advocates collaboration and mutual encouragement for those of every ability and level. However, this does not mean the elimination of evaluations of student performances; the parent of the young student is expected to supervise instrument practice every day, instead of leaving the child to practice alone between lessons, to attend and take notes at every lesson so they can coach the student effectively. This element of the method is so prominent that a newspaper article once dubbed it "The Mom-Centric Method." Although Suzuki was a violinist, the method he founded is not a "school of violin playing" whose students can be identified by the set of techniques they use to play the violin.
However, some of the technical concepts Suzuki taught his own students, such as the development of "tonalization", were so essential to his way of teaching that they have been carried over into the entire method. Other non-instrument specific techniques are u
Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
J. P. P. is a group of Finnish folk musicians fiddlers, hailing from Kaustinen. The name meant Järvelän Pikkupelimannit, the small fiddlers of Järvelä, but today the group only uses the abbreviation JPP; the group still uses the Kaustinen traditional settings with fiddles and double bass, although their arrangements are more advanced than earlier generations of traditional musicians in the area used. The group's repertoire consists of traditional tunes as well as newly written items in the old style dance rhythms - polskas, schottisches etc. - but some Finnish style tangos, you can hear some jazz and bluegrass influences as well. The main part of the group's own compositions and arrangements are made by the group members Arto Järvelä and Timo Alakotila; the brothers Jouni and Arto Järvelä are the fourth generation of folk musicians, JPP did come by as a part of the group Järvelän Pelimannit that consisted of the older musicians of the village Järvelä. JPP developed the tradition further by their arrangements and by, inspired by another of the local folk music groups, playing not only the local tunes but those from other parts of the country.
Most of the members have studied at the Sibelius-Akatemia university of music at the folk music department. For many years the band consisted of Jouni and Arto Järvelä, their uncle Mauno Järvelä, Jarmo and Juha Varila on fiddle, Timo Alakotila on harmonium and Janne Virkkala on double bass. Jouni Järvelä and the Varila brothers were replaced by Matti Mäkelä and Tommi Pyykönen, first at tours and also at recordings. Timo Myllykangas was the group's bass player for some time, now replaced by Antti Järvelä; the group does not make as many records today as they did in the 90s, but the group still tours both in Europe and to North America to folk music/world music festivals. Besides JPP, the members have several other projects. Arto Järvelä and Tima Alakotila are involved in many other groups, both pure folk music and fusions with other styles. Mauno Järvelä used to play in symphony orchestra, is very active as a teacher in violin and pelimanni music, his method of teaching children to play violin, related to the Suzuki method, is nicknamed the sisuki method.
Järvelän Pikkupelimannit, 1983 Laitisen Mankeliska, 1986 JPP, 1988 I've Found a New Tango, 1990 Pirun Polska/Devil's polska, 1992 Kaustinen Rhapsody, 1994 String Tease, 1998 History, 1999 Huutokatrilli!, 2001 Artology, 2006 Official homepage The JPP on hoedown.com TVfolk.net
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Sibelius Academy is part of the University of the Arts Helsinki and a university-level music school which operates in Helsinki and Kuopio, Finland. It has an adult education centre in Järvenpää and a training centre in Seinäjoki; the Academy is the only music university in Finland. It is among the biggest European music universities with 1,700 enrolled students; the Sibelius Academy is one of the organizers of the International Jean Sibelius Violin Competition held every five years in Helsinki. The academy was founded in 1882 by Martin Wegelius as Helsingfors musikinstitut and renamed Sibelius-Akatemia in 1939 to honour its own former student and Finland's most celebrated composer Jean Sibelius. In 2013, the academy merged with two independent universities, Helsinki Theatre Academy and Academy of Fine Arts, Helsinki, to form the University of the Arts Helsinki; the primary degree at the Sibelius Academy is the Master of Music degree. The school offers postgraduate degrees with artistic and research options.
The postgraduate degrees are the Licentiate of Arts in Music Lic. A. and the doctoral degree of Doctor of Arts in Music D. A; the Academy offers the following degree programmes: Degree Programme in Church Music Degree Programme in Composition and Music Theory Degree Programme in Folk Music Degree Programme in Jazz Music Degree Programme in Orchestral and Choral Conducting Degree Programme in Music Education Degree Programme in Music Technology Degree Programme in Music Performance Degree Programme in Vocal Music Degree Programme in Arts Management Kalevi Aho Erik Bergman Paavo Heininen, former professor of composition Tuomas Kantelinen Pekka Kostiainen and choral conductor Magnus Lindberg Jaakko Mäntyjärvi Erkki Melartin, student/composer/professor/Director Helsinki Conservatory Veli-Matti Puumala, professor of composition Einojuhani Rautavaara Kaija Saariaho Aulis Sallinen Jean Sibelius Leo Funtek, conductor and music professor Pietari Inkinen and conductor Sasha Mäkilä, assistant conductor of The Cleveland Orchestra Sakari Oramo, conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra Jorma Panula, conductor and teacher Atso Almila, conductor and teacher Esa-Pekka Salonen, conductor of the Philharmonia Orchestra, former conductor of the LA Philharmonic, composer Jukka-Pekka Saraste, former conductor of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra David Searle, orchestral conductor of The Catholic University of America Symphony Orchestra Leif Segerstam, conductor of the Turku Philharmonic Orchestra Ulf Söderblom, Principal Conductor of the Finnish National Opera, taught at the Sibelius Academy and conducted its orchestras from 1965 to 1968 Osmo Vänskä, music director of the Minnesota Orchestra Susanna Mälkki, conductor of the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra Hannu Lintu, conductor of the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra Juhani Aaltonen, Finnish jazz saxophonist and flautist Linda Brava, violinist France Ellegaard and faculty member Gerard Le Feuvre and founder of the Kings Chamber Orchestra Simon Ghraichy, pianist Tuija Hakkila, pianist Anja Ignatius and professor Kari Kriikku, clarinetist Matias Kupiainen, lead guitarist of the band Stratovarius Pekka Kuusisto, violinist Risto Lauriala, pianist Max Lilja, cellist in the band Hevein and founding member of Apocalyptica Hui-Ying Liu-Tawaststjerna, pianist Paavo Lötjönen, cellist in the band Apocalyptica Antero Manninen, former cellist in the band Apocalyptica and cellist in the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra Olli Mustonen and composer Arto Noras, student of Paul Tortelier Mikko Paananen, known as Mige, bassist of the band HIM Martti Pokela, founder of the folk music department and former professor of the kantele Aku Raski aka Huoratron, electro house and chiptune musician Martti Rousi, cello teacher Antti Siirala, winner of the Dublin and Beethoven international piano competitions Eicca Toppinen, cellist in the band Apocalyptica Perttu Kivilaakso, cellist in the band Apocalyptica, former Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra Anneli Aarika-Szrok, contralto Kim Borg, bass Monica Groop, mezzo-soprano Tommi Hakala, winner of the 2003 Cardiff Singer of the World Competition Jorma Hynninen, baritone Soile Isokoski, soprano Topi Lehtipuu, tenor Peter Lindroos, tenor Karita Mattila, winner of the 1983 Cardiff Singer of the World Competition Jyrki Niskanen, tenor Arja Saijonmaa, singer Petteri Salomaa, bass-baritone Tuuli Takala, soprano Tarja Turunen, former singer of the symphonic metal band Nightwish Soila Sariola, singer of the double platinum awarded and multiple gold winning vocal ensemble Rajaton Matti Salminen, bass Paula Vesala, singer of PMMP Martti Wallén, opera singer Sibelius Academy Sibelius Academy official Facebook page Effects of the Bologna Declaration on Professional Music Training in Europe European Association of Conservatoires
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe and bassoon, percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, snare drum and cymbals, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called philharmonic orchestra; the actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.
The typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton; the conductor sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The conductor prepares the orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert, in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on their interpretation of the music being performed; the leader of the first violin section called the concertmaster plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the Baroque music era, orchestras were led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, as pit ensembles for operas and some types of musical theatre.
Amateur orchestras include those made up of students from an elementary school or a high school, youth orchestras, community orchestras. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus; the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments; the orchestra, depending on the size, contains all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Ludwig van Beethoven's influence on the classical model. In the 20th and 21st century, new repertory demands expanded the instrumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a flexible use of the classical-model instruments and newly developed electric and electronic instruments in various combinations.
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orchestra may be used to distinguish different ensembles from the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony orchestra will have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. Chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles; the term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra. The so-called "standard complement" of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven; the composer's instrumentation always included paired flutes, clarinets, bassoons and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven calculated the expansion of this particular timbral "palette" in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, 9 for an innovative effect.
The third horn in the "Eroica" Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of "choral" brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth known as the Pastoral Symphony; the Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica".