Thomas Michael Menino was an American politician who served as the 53rd Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1993 to 2014. He was the city's longest-serving mayor. Before becoming mayor, the Boston native was President of the Boston City Council. Menino was President of the United States Conference of Mayors and co-chair and co-founder with Michael Bloomberg of Mayors Against Illegal Guns. In January 2014, he was appointed Professor of the Practice of Political Science at Boston University, he served as Co-Founder and Co-Director of the Initiative on Cities, an urban leadership research center based at Boston University. Menino was born on December 1942, in Readville, a part of Boston's Hyde Park neighborhood, he was the son of both of Italian descent. Menino's father was a factory foreman at Westinghouse Electric, his grandparents lived on the first floor of his parents' Hyde Park home. After graduating from St. Thomas Aquinas High School in Jamaica Plain in 1960, Menino enrolled in three night classes at Boston College and began working at Metropolitan Life Insurance.
Much to his father's dismay, Menino decided. Carl Menino once recalled his son's reasons for opting out of higher education: "Truman didn't go to college," the younger Menino would tell his father. President Harry S. Truman was Menino's favorite president and was his personal hero. Menino received an Associate degree in Business Management at Chamberlayne Junior College, now Mount Ida College. During his terms as Boston City Councilor, Menino received a Bachelor of Arts in Community Planning at the University of Massachusetts Boston in 1988. Prior to running for office, Menino worked as a housing relocation specialist for the Boston Redevelopment Authority, was a research assistant for state legislative committee on housing and urban development, served an aide to state senator Joseph F. Timilty. Menino was elected Boston City Councilor for the newly created District 5 in November 1983, capturing 75 percent of the vote against Richard E. Kenney, he served the Hyde Park district for nine years.
In 1984, he was named chairman of the council's Development Committee. Menino ran unopposed for re-election in November 1985. In 1986, then-mayor Raymond Flynn offered Menino the position of Recreation Commissioner. In response to Flynn's proposal, Menino said it "surprised" him, but that he does "think about all opportunities that come before." Menino did not assume the position. He was re-elected with 87 percent of the vote. In 1988, Menino became chairman of the City Council's Finance Committee; this committee was renamed the City Council Ways and Means Committee in 1990, a name that it continues to hold today. Menino remained chairman of the Ways and Means Committee for the entirety of his tenure as City Councilor. Menino was known to be a "vigilant watchdog of the city budget,", he was again re-elected in November 1989 and November 1991. He was a founding member of the City Council's Tourists and Tourism Committee, created in 1991. In 1992, Menino planned to run for the United States Congress seat that Rep. Brian J. Donnelly was vacating.
This 11th Congressional seat served a district that stretched from the Boston neighborhood of Dorchester through communities on the South Shore and into Plymouth County. After federal courts decided to allot Massachusetts only 10 congressional seats, Donnelly's district disappeared, Menino chose to not challenge Representatives from the other districts. In March 1993, President Clinton appointed Mayor Flynn to be the United States Ambassador to the Holy See. Mayor Flynn accepted the position making Menino, President of the Boston City Council at the time, acting mayor. On July 12, 1993, Menino became acting Mayor of Boston until the upcoming November 1993 election. Menino ran against James Brett, Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and Assistant Secretary of Energy, to secure his first mayoral bid after serving as acting mayor. Menino won 71 percent of the vote. Menino ran against Peggy Davis-Mullen, Boston City Councilor since 1994, won 76 percent of the vote. Menino ran against Maura Hennigan, Boston City Councilor since 1982, won 68% of the vote.
Menino ran against Michael Flaherty, Boston City Councilor and former City Council President, won 57% of the vote. On July 13, 2009, Menino became the longest-serving mayor in Boston history, securing an unprecedented fifth term. According to Menino's official biography, "Among his main priorities, are: providing every child with a quality education. On March 28, 2013, Menino announced. On April 25, 2006, Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg hosted a summit at Gracie Mansion in New York City, during which the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition was formed; the coalition, of which Menino remained co-chair until the finality of his mayoralty, stated its goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The initial group consisted of 15 mayors. That goal was met six months ahead of schedule, led to its current membership of more than 900 mayors, with members from both major political parties and 40 states. On July 19, 2012, Mayor Menino stated that he would work to prevent Chick-fil-A from opening restaurants within Boston, especially
University of Massachusetts Amherst
The University of Massachusetts Amherst is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts. It is the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system. UMass Amherst has an annual enrollment of 1,300 faculty members and more than 30,000 students and was ranked 27th best public university by U. S. News Report in 2018 in the national universities category; the university offers academic degrees in 77 master's and 48 doctoral programs. Programs are coordinated in colleges; the main campus is situated north of downtown Amherst. In 2012, U. S. News and World Report ranked Amherst among the Top 10 Great College Towns in America, it is a member of the Five College Consortium. The University of Massachusetts Amherst is categorized as a Research University with Highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In fiscal year 2014, UMass Amherst had research expenditures exceeding $200 million. UMass Amherst sports teams are called the Minutemen and Minutewomen, the colors being maroon and white.
All teams participate in NCAA Division I. The university is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, while playing ice hockey in Hockey East and football as an FBS Independent; the university was founded in 1863 under the provisions of the Federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to provide instruction to Massachusetts citizens in "agricultural and military arts." Accordingly, the university was named the Massachusetts Agricultural College, popularly referred to as "Mass Aggie" or "M. A. C." In 1867, the college had yet to admit any students, been through two Presidents, had still not completed any college buildings. In that year, William S. Clark was appointed Professor of Botany, he appointed a faculty, completed the construction plan, and, in the fall of 1867, admitted the first class of 50 students. Clark became the first president to serve longterm after the schools opening and is regarded the primary founding father of the college. Of the school's founding figures, there are a traditional "founding four"- Clark, Levi Stockbridge, Charles Goessmann, Henry Goodell, described as "the botanist, the farmer, the chemist, the man of letters."The original buildings consisted of Old South College, North College, the Chemistry Laboratory known as College Hall, the Boarding House, the Botanic Museum and the Durfee Plant House.
Although enrollment was slow during the 1870s, the fledgling college built momentum under the leadership of President Henry Hill Goodell. In the 1880s, Goodell implemented an expansion plan, adding the College Drill Hall in 1883, the Old Chapel Library in 1885, the East and West Experiment Stations in 1886 and 1890; the Campus Pond, now the central focus of the University Campus, was created in 1893 by damming a small brook. The early 20th century saw great expansion in the scope of the curriculum; the first female student was admitted in 1875 on a part-time basis and the first full-time female student was admitted in 1892. In 1903, Draper Hall was constructed for the dual purpose of a dining female housing; the first female students graduated with the class of 1905. The first dedicated female dormitory, the Abigail Adams House was built in 1920. By the start of the 20th century, the college was thriving and expanded its curriculum to include the liberal arts; the Education curriculum was established in 1907.
In recognition of the higher enrollment and broader curriculum, the college was renamed Massachusetts State College in 1931. Following World War II, the G. I. Bill, facilitating financial aid for veterans, led to an explosion of applicants; the college population soared and Presidents Hugh Potter Baker and Ralph Van Meter labored to push through major construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s with regard to dormitories. Accordingly, the name of the college was changed in 1947 to the "University of Massachusetts." By the 1970s, the University continued to grow and gave rise to a shuttle bus service on campus as well as many other architectural additions. Du Bois Library, the Fine Arts Center. Over the course of the next two decades, the John W. Lederle Graduate Research Center and the Conte National Polymer Research Center were built and UMass Amherst emerged as a major research facility; the Robsham Memorial Center for Visitors welcomed thousands of guests to campus after its dedication in 1989.
For athletic and other large events, the Mullins Center was opened in 1993, hosting capacity crowds as the Minutemen basketball team ranked at number one for many weeks in the mid-1990s, reached the Final Four in 1996. UMass Amherst entered. In 2003, for the first time, the Massachusetts State Legislature designated UMass Amherst as a Research Univ
Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood of 4.4 square miles in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Founded by Boston Puritans seeking farm land to the south, it was part of the town of Roxbury; the community seceded from Roxbury as a part of the new town of West Roxbury in 1851, became part of Boston when West Roxbury was annexed in 1874. In the 19th century, Jamaica Plain became one of the first streetcar suburbs in America and home to a significant portion of Boston's Emerald Necklace of parks, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. In 2010, Jamaica Plain had a population of 37,468 according to the United States Census. Shortly after the founding of Boston and Roxbury in 1630, William Heath's family and three others settled on land just south of Parker Hill in what is now Jamaica Plain. In the next few years, William Curtis, John May and others set up farms nearby along Stony Brook, which flowed from south to north from Turtle Pond to an outlet in the Charles River marshes in the current filled-in Fens area of Boston.
John Polley followed with a farm which he purchased from Lt. Joshua Hewe in 1659 at the site of the present day Soldier's Monument at the intersection of South and Centre streets, closer to the "Great Pond" known as Jamaica Pond. For services rendered during the Pequot War, Joseph Weld received a grant of 278 acres of land between South Street and Centre Street, his son John built a home along South Street in what is now the Arnold Arboretum, his descendants continued to live in the area for many generations. In the late 17th century, the name "Jamaica" first appears for the area of Roxbury between Stony Brook and the Great Pond. There are a number of theories regarding the origin of the name "Jamaica Plain". A well-known theory traces the origin to "Jamaica rum", a reference to Jamaican cane sugar's role in the Triangle Trade of sugar and slaves. Another explanation is that "Jamaica", though a different letter "A" pronunciation, is an Anglicization of the name of Kuchamakin, regent for the young Chickatawbut, sachem of the Massachusett tribe.
On some maps, until the mid-19th century, the area was marked as "Jamaica Plains". John Ruggles and Hugh Thomas donated land in 1676 for the building of the community's first school. A gift of 75 acres of land south of the "Great Pond" by John Eliot provided financial support for the school, named the Eliot School in his honor. During the 18th century, the farms of the Jamaica section of Roxbury transitioned from subsistence to market orientation, serving the growing Boston population. At the same time, wealthy men built estates in the bucolic countryside. In 1740, Benjamin Faneuil, nephew of Boston merchant Peter Faneuil, bought land between Centre Street and Stony Brook. In 1752, Commodore Joshua Loring built a home to which he retired. At Jamaica Pond, the provincial governor, Francis Bernard, built a summer home on 60 acres. In 1769, the community's first church was built paid for by Susannah and Benjamin Pemberton before permission was granted from the two existing parishes of Roxbury. After many appeals and bargains, the families along South Street and to the west were released by the Second Parish in 1772 and the Third Parish of Roxbury was incorporated, on May 26, 1773, the colonial legislature granted an act "setting off the nine families and their lands from the First Precinct of the Town of Roxbury and annexing to the Third Precinct in the said town."
During the occupation of Boston, the colonial assembly met in this building. The church was the only church in Jamaica Plain for seventy years and during that time became one of the original Unitarian churches and continues on the same site now known as the First Church in Jamaica Plain; the original white clapboard building was replaced by the stone Romanesque Revival building in 1854 designed by the architect Nathaniel Bradlee. The Minutemen from the Third Parish fought at Lexington and Bunker Hill under the command of Captain Lemuel Child and are commemorated on a plaque next to the Civil War Monument. In 1775, troops from Rhode Island and Connecticut were quartered with residents of Jamaica Plain. General Washington stationed troops on today's Bussey Hill in the Arnold Arboretum; the units protected the road south to Dedham, where the American arsenal was kept, in case the British broke the siege of Boston. With the American Revolution, many of the Tory estate owners fled the country, were replaced by the rising elite of the new Boston.
In 1777, John Hancock purchased an estate near the pond. The widow Ann Doane bought the estate once owned by Loyalist Joshua Loring, she soon was remarried, to attorney David S. Greenough; when Samuel Adams became governor of Massachusetts, he bought the former Peacock Tavern at today's Centre and Allandale streets, near the Faulkner Hospital. With his wealth made in the China trade, James Perkins built his home, overlooking Jamaica Pond in 1802; the early years of the 19th century continued the trends of the post-Independence years. An aqueduct was built to Boston and inner Roxbury by the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation, which provided water to Boston and the Town of West Roxbury, from 1795 to 1886. Carriages carried people to Roxbury and Boston on Centre Street, in 1806 on the new Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike toll road. In 1826, "hourlies" ran from Jamaica Plain to Roxbury and Boston on a regular schedule, the 1830s brought larger "omnibuses" to carry the growing passenger base; the first train line reached Jamaica Plain in 1834 when t
Albert Leo "Dapper" O'Neil was an American politician who served as a conservative member of the Boston City Council for twenty-eight years. Prior to joining the council, he served on the Boston Licensing Board and was an operative for the legendary Mayor of Boston James Michael Curley. O'Neil graduated from Roxbury Memorial High School in 1937, attended Suffolk University Law School, but left before graduating to serve in the United States Army during World War II. After the war, he graduated from the Staley School of the Spoken Word with a degree in oratory, he worked with a railroad company and was employed by the state housing board. In a 1978 interview, O'Neil explained that he got his nickname because his mother was meticulous about how her children dressed, where he grew up "everybody had a nickname." From 1948 to 1961, O'Neil ran for office five times, three times for state representative and once apiece for City Council and School Committee, losing all five races. He chauffeured for Massachusetts gubernatorial candidate Endicott Peabody.
After Peabody was elected Governor of Massachusetts in November 1962, he considered appointing O'Neil as his patronage secretary. In October 1963, Peabody appointed O'Neil to the Boston Licensing Board. In 1967, O'Neil ran for Mayor of Boston, finishing eighth in the preliminary election with only 0.95% of the vote. In January 1971, O'Neil was appointed to the Boston City Council after the resignation of Louise Day Hicks, elected to the United States House of Representatives, he was subsequently re-elected each term being two years. While on the Council, O'Neil thrice ran for Suffolk County Sheriff, he lost the Democratic nomination to Thomas Eisenstadt in 1974, Dennis J. Kearney in 1978, Robert Rufo in 1986. In 1992, he was elected Council President after the death of Christopher A. Iannella. In November 1999, O'Neil finished fifth in an at-large race. In a story published in The Boston Globe after O'Neil's loss, Boston historian Thomas H. O'Connor wrote, "This is the last hurrah not for a man but for the politicking he represents."
O'Connor went on to say that O'Neil's career endured "largely through the kinds of loyalties he built up over thirty years, from people for whom he'd done favors, they'd never forget him, they'd talk about him to their relatives. He built a political career on a system of local patronage." O'Neil was a longtime supporter of the right to bear arms. I'll protect people against anyone who comes through that door."In January 1999, O'Neil confirmed he was a supporter of Council of Conservative Citizens, a white supremacist group, leading to a heated exchange with fellow councillor Gareth R. Saunders. O'Neil called supporters of integration "suburban liberals", suggested they were "Communist dupes", he was fond of quoting the alleged saying of Nikita Khrushchev, "We will bury you from within," reflecting his belief that integration or desegregation was "a Communist plot against Boston". O'Neil was an outspoken supporter of the white minority governments of South Africa and Rhodesia. At least in part because of his explicit rejection of race-based grievance and identity politics, he was much admired and praised by Boston columnist and radio talk show host Howie Carr.
In 1995, Boston newspapers reported that harassment complaints had been filed against O'Neil by a female city worker and a female college student. A 1984 recording by O'Neil of the song "The Irish Belly Dancer" can be found online. In 1996, he won $50,000 from a Massachusetts Lottery scratch ticket. O'Neil never married. After treatment for prostate cancer in 1992 and 1993, O'Neil had cancer surgery in January 1998; as of 1997, he was blind. O'Neil died in December 2007—his funeral was held at St. Theresa of Avila Church in West Roxbury. Derjue, Amy. "Dapper O'Neil Puts Globe and Herald On the Same Page". Boston. English, Bella. "Dapper's guilty of bad taste". The Boston Globe. P. 17. Retrieved March 8, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com. Vennochi, Joan. "The things we shouldn't forget about Dapper". The Boston Globe. White, Diane. "When Dapper made me kiss him". The Boston Globe. P. 65. Retrieved March 8, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com. "Dapper O'Neil at Mapplethorpe exhibit". Bostonlocaltv.org. August 1, 1990. Dapper O'Neil at Find a Grave
Boston Public Schools
Boston Public Schools is a school district serving the city of Boston, United States. The district is led by a Superintendent, hired by the Boston School Committee, a seven-member school board appointed by the mayor after approval by a nominating committee of specified stakeholders; the School Committee sets policy for the district and approves the district's annual operating budget. This governing body replaced a 13-member elected committee after a public referendum vote in 1991; the superintendent serves as a member of the mayor's cabinet. From October 1995 through June 2006, Dr. Thomas W. Payzant served as superintendent. A former undersecretary in the US Department of Education, Payzant was the first superintendent selected by the appointed School Committee. Upon Dr. Payzant's retirement, Chief Operating Officer Michael G. Contompasis, former headmaster of Boston Latin School, became Interim Superintendent, was appointed superintendent in October 2006. Dr. Manuel J. Rivera, superintendent of the Rochester City School District, had agreed to become the next superintendent of the BPS, but instead accepted a post as deputy secretary for public education for New York Governor Eliot Spitzer.
In June 2007, the Boston School Committee voted unanimously to appoint Dr. Carol R. Johnson as the next superintendent, beginning in August 2007. Dr. Johnson had served as superintendent of the Memphis City Schools since 2003. Dr. Johnson's tenure ended in summer 2013, John McDonough served as interim superintendent until July 1, 2015; the superintendent is Dr. Tommy Chang; the mayor and Boston City Council have control over the overall appropriation for the Boston Public Schools, but the School Committee has control over how funding is allocated internally, has control over policy. Laura Perille Interim Dr. Thomas Chang John McDonough Interim Dr. Carol R. Johnson Michael G. Contompasis Interim Dr. Thomas W. Payzant Lois Harrison-Jones Dr. Laval S. Wilson Robert R. Spillane BPS is the oldest public school system in America, founded in 1647, it is the home of the nation's first public school, Boston Latin School, founded in 1635. The Mather School opened in 1639 as the nation's first public elementary school, English High School, the second public high school in the country, opened in 1821.
In the mid-1970s, conflict raged in Boston's schools over forced busing of students. The state had enacted the Racial Imbalance Law in 1965, requiring school districts to design and implement plans to effect racial balancing in schools that were more than 50% "non-white". After years of consistent failure by the Boston School Committee to comply with the law, the U. S District Court ruled in 1974 that the schools were unconstitutionally segregated, implemented as a remedy the busing of many students from their neighborhood schools to other schools across the city; the busing aroused fierce criticism among some residents — from 1974 there were a great many protests at Boston schools, some of which turned violent, in 1975 the Boston Police Department stationed uniformed officers in South Boston High School, Charlestown High and other schools. An exodus of the city's white residents to the suburbs or private schools followed. In 2012, 13 % of Boston public school students were 22 % middle class or affluent.
In September 2006 the district won the Broad Prize for Urban Education. The national prize, sponsored by philanthropist Eli Broad, includes $500,000 in college scholarships to graduates from the winning district. In most years since the prize program began in 2002, Boston has been a finalist, earning $125,000 in scholarships each year. In 2017 the district's schools began using the Gall-Peters map projection instead of the Mercator map projection on the grounds that the latter misrepresents the sizes of continents along the Equator. Boston Public Schools operates schools throughout the city of Boston. BPS assigns students based on preferences of the applicants and priorities of students in various zones. Since 1989, the city has broken the district into three zones for elementary- and middle-school students. High schoolers can choose any school throughout the city. Due to the geography of East Boston, for all grade levels each child in East Boston is guaranteed a seat at a school in East Boston.
In 2013, the Boston School Committee voted to begin a new school choice system for the 2014-15 school year and beyond. The new plan, called "Home-Based," measures schools through a combination of MCAS scores and growth, which are grouped in four tiers; every family has at least two schools within the top tier, four in the top half of performance, six in the top 75%. Families are able to list any school within one mile of their home; the plan was first approved by an External Advisory Committee made up of parents, academic experts and community leaders. It was developed by an academic team from Harvard and MIT, which volunteered for the project after hearing about the community process in 2012; the District launched a website, to help the community contribute. These schools offer programs starting at either age 3 or age 4 and ending in either the first or third grade. Baldwin Early Learning Center East Boston Early Education Center Ellison/Parks Early Education School Haynes Early Education Center West Zone Early Learning Center Edwards Middle School Frederick Middle School Irving Middle School James P. Timilty Middle School McCormack Middle School Middle School Academy Rogers Middle School UP Academy Charter School of Boston Dearborn STEM Academy Henderson Upper School Josiah Quincy Upper School Carter Developm
Raymond Leo Flynn is an American politician who served as 52nd Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1984 until 1993. He was appointed United States Ambassador to the Holy See by President Bill Clinton. Before entering politics, Flynn was an All-American college basketball player at Providence College, during his senior year was selected Most Valuable Player in the 1963 National Invitation Tournament. In April 1963, he was selected by the Syracuse Nationals in the fourth round of the NBA draft; the Nationals relocated to Philadelphia to become the 76ers, but Flynn did not play for them, as he spent part of the 1963–64 season with the Wilmington Blue Bombers of the Eastern Professional Basketball League. Philadelphia traded his NBA rights to the Boston Celtics in September 1964, in October he was the last player cut by the then-champions. Flynn began his political career as a Democratic member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1971 to 1979, representing the South Boston neighborhood during the turbulent busing crisis of the early 1970s.
He served on the Boston City Council from 1978 to 1984, before running for Mayor of Boston in 1983. He was reelected in 1987 and again in 1991. Flynn served as president of the United States Conference of Mayors during 1991–92. Flynn, a lifelong pro-life activist, was instrumental in drawing the pro-life, Catholic vote to pro-choice Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas in his 1992 bid for the White House against incumbent George H. W. Bush. In 1993, Flynn resigned during his third term as mayor when he was appointed by Clinton to serve as U. S. Ambassador to the Holy See. Flynn served as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary from September 2, 1993, through September 20, 1997. Following his service as ambassador, Flynn ran unsuccessfully for Massachusetts's 8th congressional district seat, being vacated by Joseph P. Kennedy II in 1998. Flynn formally announced his candidacy in June, in September lost in the Democratic primary election to eventual general election winner Mike Capuano. In 2010, Flynn crossed party lines to vote for the successful candidacy of Republican Scott Brown for the United States Senate.
In 2012, Flynn appeared in television ads supporting Brown for re-election. While serving as mayor, Flynn played himself in the 1989 Cheers episode "The Stork Brings A Crane". In the episode, Flynn has his entourage take away Cliff Clavin. Flynn was an avid runner who made headlines when he ran in the Boston Marathon and the New York City Marathon in 1984. In March 2007, Flynn was grand marshal of the 246th New York St. Patrick's Day Parade. In May 2007, Flynn joined the College of Fellows of the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology in Berkeley, who awarded him the honorary degree Doctor of Humane Letters. In September 2008, Flynn was hospitalized. In March 2011, Flynn's home was broken into. Flynn is married to Catherine, they have six children: Ray Jr. Eddie, Nancy and Maureen. In November 2017, son Ed Flynn was elected to the Boston City Council. In 1998, Flynn had a role as a radio host on WRKO in Boston. In September 2014, Flynn became a regular contributor to The Pilot, the official newspaper of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston.
In February 2017, Flynn became a columnist for the Boston Herald. In 1999, Flynn became president of a nonpartisan Catholic advocacy group. In this role, while remaining a Democrat, he and the Catholic Alliance endorsed George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election. Flynn became president of another Catholic political advocacy organization, Your Catholic Voice, he started Catholic Citizenship, serving as its national chairman from 2004 until 2008. Since 2004, Flynn has served on the advisory board of Catholics for the Common Good, a lay apostolate for evangelization of culture. In February 2016, the Boston Marine Industrial Park was renamed the Raymond L. Flynn Marine Park. A nearby bridge was renamed in Flynn's honor. In May 2017, Governor of Massachusetts Charlie Baker dedicated Flynn Cruiseport Boston, located in the Port of Boston. Flynn is the co-author of two books: Ray; the Accidental Pope: A Novel. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312268017. Flynn, Ray. John Paul II: A Personal Portrait of the Pope and the Man.
St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312266812. Boston mayoral election, 1983 Boston mayoral election, 1987 Boston mayoral election, 1991 Timeline of Boston, 1980s–1990s Connolly, Ceci. "It's In The Blood". The Washington Post. Appearances on C-SPAN Guide to the Mayor Raymond L. Flynn records at cityofboston.gov Ray Flynn biography at the Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology
Boston City Council
The Boston City Council is the legislative branch of government for the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is made up of 13 members: 4 at-large members. Councillors are elected to two-year terms and there is no limit on the number of terms an individual can serve. Boston uses a strong-mayor form of government in which the city council acts as a check against the power of the executive branch, the mayor; the Council is responsible for approving the city budget. The leader of the City Council is elected each year by the Council. A majority vote is necessary to elect a councillor to president; when the Mayor of Boston travels out of state or is removed from office, the City Council president serves as acting mayor. The president appoints councillors to committees. By law, Boston municipal elections are nonpartisan in that candidates do not represent a specific political party. However, most city councillors have been members of the Democratic party. John W. Sears was the first Republican elected to the Council, in 1980.
Chuck Turner, a previous councillor for District 7, was a member of the Green-Rainbow Party. As of February 2018, the City Council has the following committees: Standing committees Special committeesSpecial committee on Charter Reform As of 2018, councillors are paid an annual salary of $99,500; the salary for councillors is half of the mayor's salary, $199,000. Every four years, the Council votes on whether or not to raise the mayor's salary, thereby raising its own salaries or not. City Council salaries since 1980: 1980: $20,000 1981–86: $32,500 1987–94: $45,000 1995–98: $54,500 1999–2002: $62,500 2003–06: $75,000 2006–15: $87,500 2016–present: $99,500In June 2018, the Council voted to increase the salary of the mayor to $207,000, effective after the next mayoral election of November 2021. Prior to 1909, Boston's legislative body consisted of an eight-member Board of Aldermen and a Common Council made up of three representatives from each of the 25 wards in the city; when the Boston city charter was rewritten in 1909, the Board of Aldermen and the Common Council were replaced by a nine-member City Council.
All nine councillors were elected at-large for terms lasting two years. The new charter gave the Mayor the power to veto all acts of the City Council; the first council meeting as a unicameral body occurred on February 7, 1910. The procedure for electing city councillors was changed by Chapter 479 of the Acts of 1924, which provided for the election of 22 city councillors, one from each ward, beginning with the biennial election in 1925; the procedure was changed again by Chapter 356 of the Acts of 1951, which provided for the election of nine city councillors, all at large, for two-year terms. In November 1981, Boston voters approved again changing the composition of the Council, to 13 members: 9 district representatives and 4 at-large members. However, the referendum did not indicate how the district lines would be drawn, only that the districts be of equal population and district lines not cut across city precincts; the Council created a districting committee to propose several different possible district maps and hold public hearings before presenting one plan to the Council to approve.
State law required the City Council to make a final decision on the districts within 90 days of being notified that the referendum had passed, meaning that the Council voting on the districts would be the 1982 Council, not the 1981 Council creating them. Then-president Patrick McDonough, who opposed district representation, appointed Rosemary Sansone, a major advocate of district representation, as chair of the districting committee, but chose Frederick C. Langone, Dapper O'Neil, John W. Sears as the other three members, all of whom opposed district representation. Both Langone and O'Neil would be returning to the Council in 1982, but Sansone did not run for re-election in 1981 and would not be able to vote on the district boundaries if the committee did not work to present a plan to the Council before the end of the year. Public hearings over possible district boundaries were full of heated debate between advocates of drawing lines to protect neighborhood unity and advocates of drawing lines to create two predominantly minority districts and give minorities a voice in local government.
Contention centered around the South End. Dorchester, Boston's largest neighborhood, needed to be split into at least two districts. A simple split in half would create either a north and a south district or an east and a west district. An east district would be White and a west district would be African-American. North and south districts would have less extreme majorities. Many residents were opposed to both divisions, stating that they would increase racial segregation in Dorchester and continue the political powerlessness of minorities. A more complicated split taking into account areas with large minority populations would create one predominantly minority district and one predominantly white district but treat Dorchester as several smaller neighborhoods to be divvied up among surrounding neighborhoods rather than as one community. In various proposals, the South End, due to its location, was grouped with either South Boston or Back Bay/Beacon Hill by advocates of neighborhood unity, or Roxbury by advocates of minority-dominated districts.
Two days before the 90-day deadline, freshman counci