Mauretania Sitifensis was a Roman province in Africa Proconsulare. The capital was Setifis. In the division of the Roman Empire under the Emperor Diocletian, the eastern part of Mauretania Caesariensis, from Saldae to the river Ampsaga, was erected into a new province, called Mauretania Sitifensis from the inland town of Setifis. At the time of Constantine the Great, Mauretania Sitifensis was assigned to the administrative Diocese of Africa, in the praetorian prefecture of Italy; the new province had a huge economic development in the IV century, until the conquest by the Vandals. In this province the Donatism Christian denomination challenged the Roman Church, the main local religion after Constantine, while Setifis was a center of Mithraism. While in certain areas under Vandal and Byzantine control, most of Mauretania Sitifensis was ruled by Berber kingdoms like the Kingdom of Altava. Only the coastal area around Saldae and Setifis remained Romanized. Byzantine emperor Maurice in 585 AD created the province of "Mauretania Prima" and erased the old Mauretania Sitifensis.
Indeed, the emperor Maurice in that year created the office of "Exarch", which combined the supreme civil authority of a praetorian prefect and the military authority of a magister militum, enjoyed considerable autonomy from Constantinople. Two exarchates were established, one in Italy, with seat at Ravenna, one in Africa, based at Carthage and including all imperial possessions in the Western Mediterranean; the first African exarch was the Patricius Gennadius: he was appointed as magister militum Africae in 578 AD, defeated the Romano-Moorish kingdom of Garmul in Mauretania extending the territory of the Mauretania Sitifensis. Among the provincial changes done by emperor Maurice, Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis were merged to form the new province of "Mauretania Prima". Mauretania Sitifensis had an area of 17800 square miles and had a good agriculture, exported through the port of Saldae, but under Byzantine control the province was reduced to only the coastal section, with one third of the original area.
Arrowsmith, Aaron. A Compendium of Ancient and Modern Geography. Editor E. P. Williams, 1856 New York, 2007 Serge Lancel et Omar Daoud. L'Algérie antique: De Massinissa à saint Augustin, Place des Victoires, 2008 Martindale, John R.. H. M.. The Reign of the Emperor Maurikios. A reassessment. Athens. Setifis Saldae Mauretania Caesariensis
Saldae was an important port city in the ancient Roman Empire, located at today's Béjaïa. It was a crossroads between eastern and western segments of Northern Africa, from the time of Carthage to the end of the Byzantine Empire from the continent. Saldae was first inhabited by Numidian Berbers. A minor port in Carthaginian and in early Roman times, it was a border town between Rome and Juba, located to the east of the ancient Berber kingdoms, it was made a Roman colony -named Civitas Salditana- during the reign of Roman emperor Octavianus Augustus. It is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia; the Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites reports: The Roman period has left more abundant remains. Vestiges of the ramparts are visible at several places.... Of the monuments which have been preserved or noted interesting are the remains of a temple underneath the church, built on the site of a mosque; the temple was undoubtedly near the forum. In the immediate vicinity the public baths have produced a large ornamental mosaic.
Other public baths were on the site of the Civil Hospital. Two similar mosaics were found there. One is at the other at the town hall of Béjaïa. A third public bath was located near the high school. Cisterns and basins are still visible at several places in the upper town, they were fed by the Toudja aqueduct, which brought water from springs located 21 km to the West.... West of the middle town a rounded depression has been supposed variously to have been the site of a circus, an amphitheater, a theater. No ancient remains are known that settle the question. A single inscription mentions "ludi circenses". Many Roman sculptures have been found in the area around the town, some carved in the rock, some found in the ground, others as sarcophagi. A sarcophagus with strigils is at the Louvre. Few sculptures come from Saldae itself some capitals and votive stelae dedicated to Saturn; the city grew in size with new buildings and the emperor Vespasian settled the city with many Roman veterans, increasing its population and importance in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, when, divided, in the new Late Roman province of Mauretania Sitifensis.
The city was under the Roman ius and its citizens were endowed with full civil rights. Saldae was a center of a Mauretania Caesariensis area Romanised, that in the late third century was fully Christian. In the 3rd century AD, Gaius Cornelius Peregrinus, a decurion of Saldae, was a tribunus of the auxiliary garrison at Alauna Carvetiorum, in northern Britain. An altar dedicated by him was discovered shortly before 1587 in the north-west corner of the fort, where it had been re-used in a late-Roman building. In the 5th century, Saldae became the capital of the short-lived Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic Vandals, which ended in about 533 with the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and the Exarchate of Carthage. After the 7th-century Arab conquest, Saldae declined and had disappeared by the end of the first millennium. In the 11th century, it was refounded as Béjaïa by the Berber Hammadid dynasty, which made it their capital, it became an important port and centre of culture.
With the spread of Christianity, Saldae became a bishopric. Its bishop Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric summoned to the Council of Carthage and exiled. Christianity survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old city of Saldae, the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter of Pope Gregory VII exists, addressed to clero et populo Buzee, in which he writes of the consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian north Africa. No longer a residential bishopric, Saldae is today listed by the Catholic Church, it has had a long list of incumbents of the lowest rank, a few of intermediate rank: Albertus, Friars Minor Johannes Frey, O. F. M. Erasmus Perchinger, O. F. M. Mathias Schach, Carthusians Konrad Mair Hieronim Antoni Szeptycki Ignatius Krzyzanowski Bernard-Claude Panet Titular Archbishop Daniel O’Connell, O. E. S. A. Joseph-Henri-Jean-Marie Prud’homme Hélder Pessoa Câmara Titular Archbishop Titular Archbishop Henri-Martin-Félix Jenny Marie-Joseph Lemieux bishop and still Archbishop Sylvester Carmel Magro, O.
F. M. Apostolic Vicar of BenghaziThis titular see has, for a long time concurrently had a counterpart called Bugia, the Italian form of Béjaïa, the modern name of former Saldae, thus Bugia was the alternative title borne lastly by George Hilary Brown, titular bishop from 5 June 1840 until 22 April 1842, when he became residential bishop of Liverpool. Bugia, concurrent Italian modern name as a separate Catholic titular see Caesarea of Mauretania Icosium Geoff Crowther & Hugh Finlay. Béjaïa & the Corniche Kabyle, Algeria & Tunisia: a travel survival kit. Lonely Planet, 2nd Edition, April 1992 Serge Lancel et Omar Daoud. L'Algérie antique: De Massiniss
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family, his father was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian; when Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor before his death. Rome's military and Senate approved Hadrian's succession, but four leading senators were unlawfully put to death soon after, they had opposed Hadrian or seemed to threaten his succession, the senate held him responsible for it and never forgave him. He earned further disapproval among the elite by abandoning Trajan's expansionist policies and territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria and parts of Dacia. Hadrian preferred to invest in the development of stable, defensible borders and the unification of the empire's disparate peoples.
He is known for building Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian energetically pursued personal interests, he visited every province of the Empire, accompanied by an Imperial retinue of specialists and administrators. He encouraged military preparedness and discipline, he fostered, designed, or subsidised various civil and religious institutions and building projects. In Rome itself, he constructed the vast Temple of Venus and Roma. In Egypt, he may have rebuilt the Serapeum of Alexandria, he was an ardent admirer of Greece and sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire, so he ordered the construction of many opulent temples there. His intense relationship with Greek youth Antinous and Antinous' untimely death led Hadrian to establish a widespread cult late in his reign, he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea. Hadrian's last years were marred by chronic illness, he saw the Bar Kokhba revolt as the failure of his panhellenic ideal. He executed two more senators for their alleged plots against him, this provoked further resentment.
His marriage to Vibia Sabina had been childless. Hadrian died the same year at Baiae, Antoninus had him deified, despite opposition from the Senate. Edward Gibbon includes him among the Empire's "Five good emperors", a "benevolent dictator", he has been described as enigmatic and contradictory, with a capacity for both great personal generosity and extreme cruelty and driven by insatiable curiosity, self-conceit, ambition. Modern interest was revived thanks to Marguerite Yourcenar's novel Mémoires d'Hadrien. Hadrian was born on 24 January 76 in Italica in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, he was named Publius Aelius Hadrianus. His father was Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a senator of praetorian rank and raised in Italica but paternally linked, through many generations over several centuries, to a family from Hadria, an ancient town in Picenum; the family had settled in Italica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Hadrian's mother was Domitia Paulina, daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman senatorial family from Gades.
His only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina. Hadrian's great-nephew, Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino would become Hadrian's colleague as co-consul in 118; as a senator, Hadrian's father would have spent much of his time in Rome. In terms of his career, Hadrian's most significant family connection was to Trajan, his father's first cousin, of senatorial stock, had been born and raised in Italica. Hadrian and Trajan were both considered to be – in the words of Aurelius Victor – "aliens", people "from the outside". Hadrian's parents died in 86, he and his sister became wards of Publius Acilius Attianus. Hadrian was physically active, enjoyed hunting. Hadrian's enthusiasm for Greek literature and culture earned him the nickname Graeculus. Trajan married Paulina off to the three-times consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Hadrian's first official post in Rome was as a judge at the Inheritance court, one among many vigintivirate offices at the lowest level of the cursus honorum that could lead to higher office and a senatorial career.
He served as a military tribune, first with the Legio II Adiutrix in 95 with the Legio V Macedonica. During Hadrian's second stint as tribune, the frail and aged reigning emperor Nerva adopted Trajan as his heir, he was transferred to Legio XXII Primigenia and a third tribunate. Hadrian's three tribunates gave him some career advantage. Most scions of the older senatorial families might serve one, or at most two military tribunates as a prerequisite to higher office; when Nerva died in 98, Hadrian is said to have hastened to Trajan, to inform him ahead of the official envoy sent by the go
The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman, appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces. A province was the basic and, until the tetrarchy, the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy; the word province in Modern English has its origins in the Latin term used by the Romans. Provinces were governed by politicians of senatorial rank former consuls or former praetors. A exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra; this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of the kings of the earlier Hellenistic period.
The Latin term provincia had a more general meaning of "jurisdiction". The Latin word provincia meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Roman Senate to an individual who held imperium, a military command within a specified theater of operations. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command; the territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, in some cases entailing complete subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a province, in the modern sense of an administrative unit, geographically defined. Republican-period provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium. Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War.
The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicilia in 241 BC and Corsica et Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts, good people; the terms of provincial governors had to be extended for multiple years, on occasion the senate awarded imperium to private citizens, most notably Pompey the Great. Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, the amassing of disproportionate wealth and military power by a few men through their provincial commands was a major factor in the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy. 241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa home territory of Carthage. It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia.
67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae. However, it was not organised as a province, it was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete was annexed in 67 BC. 63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC. 63 BC – Syria. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War – 73–63 BC; the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Cyprus was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC. 46 BC – Africa Nova, Julius Caesar annexed eastern Numidia and the new province called Africa Nova to distinguish it from the older province of Africa, which become known as Africa Vetus. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit.
During Rome's expansion in the Italian peninsula, the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of militar
The Maghreb known as Northwest Africa or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb, Arab Maghreb or Greater Maghreb, or by some sources the Berber world and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists of the countries Algeria, Tunisia and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta; as of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. In historical English and European literature, the region was known as the Barbary Coast or the Barbary States, derived from the native Berbers. Sometimes it was referred to as the Land of the Atlas, derived from the Atlas Mountains. In current Berber language media and literature, the region is part of; the region is defined as much or most of northern Africa, including a large portion of Africa's Sahara Desert, excluding Egypt, part of Mashriq. The traditional definition of the region that restricted it to the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plains of Morocco, Algeria and Libya was expanded by the inclusion of Mauritania and of the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
During the era of Al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula, the Maghreb's inhabitants, the Muslim Berbers or Maghrebis, were known by Europeans as "Moors", or as "Afariqah". Morocco transliterates into Arabic as "al-Maghreb". Before the establishment of modern nation states in the region during the 20th century, Maghreb most referred to a smaller area, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains in the south, it also included the territory of eastern Libya, but not modern Mauritania. As as the late 19th century, Maghreb was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa in general, to Algeria and Tunisia, in particular; the region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, followed by the Roman Empire's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the brief re-establishment of a weak Roman rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimid Caliphate.
The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Hammadid dynasty, Zirid dynasty, Marinid dynasty, Zayyanid dynasty, Wattasid dynasty - from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Empire for a period controlled parts of the region. Mauritania, Tunisia and Libya established the Arab Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market, it was envisioned by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate. The union included Western Sahara implicitly under Morocco's membership, putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria to a rest. However, this progress was short-lived, the union is now dormant. Tensions between Algeria and Morocco over Western Sahara re-emerged, reinforced by the unsolved border dispute between the two countries; these two main conflicts have hindered progress on the union's joint goals and made it inactive as a whole. However, the instability in the region and growing cross-border security threats revived the calls for regional cooperation, with foreign ministers of the Arab Maghreb Union declaring a need for coordinated security policy in May 2015 at the 33rd session of the follow-up committee meeting, which revived hope of some form of cooperation.
In classical antiquity, the Maghreb or portions of the region were known by various toponyms, including Barbary, Mauretania, Libya and the Land of the Atlas. The toponym maghrib is a geographical term that the Muslim Arabs gave to the region extending from Alexandria in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Etymologically it means both the place where the sun sets, it is composed of the prefix m−, which makes a noun out of the verb root, غرب. Muslim historians and geographers divided the region into three areas: al-Maghrib al-Adna, which included the lands extending from Alexandria to Tarabulus in the west, they disagreed, over the start of the eastern boundary. Some authors extend it as far as the sea of Kulzum and thus include Egypt and the country of Barca in the Maghrib. Ibn Khaldun does not accept this definition because, he says, the inhabitants of the Maghreb do not consider Egypt and Barca as forming part of Maghrib; the latter commences only at the province of Tripoli and includes the districts of which the country of the Berbers was composed in former times.
Maghribi writers repeated the definition of Ibn Khaldun, with a few variations in details. As of 2017 the term Maghrib is still used in opposition to Mashriq in a sense near to that which it had in medieval times, it denotes only Morocco when the full al-Maghrib al-Aksa is abbreviated. Certain politicians seek a political union of the North African countries, which they call al-Maghrib al-Kabir or al-Maghrib al-Arabi. Berber-language speakers now call this region Tamazɣa or Tama
The 1st century was the century AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar. It is written as the 1st century AD or 1st century CE to distinguish it from the 1st century BC which preceded it; the 1st century is considered part of epoch, or historical period. During this period, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continued expanding, most notably conquering Britain under the emperor Claudius; the reforms introduced by Augustus during his long reign stabilized the empire after the turmoil of the previous century's civil wars. In the century the Julio-Claudian dynasty, founded by Augustus, came to an end with the suicide of Nero in AD 68. There followed the famous Year of Four Emperors, a brief period of civil war and instability, brought to an end by Vespasian, ninth Roman emperor, founder of the Flavian dynasty; the Roman Empire experienced a period of prosperity and dominance in this period and the First Century is remembered as part of the Empire's golden age.
The 1st century saw the appearance of Christianity. China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty, despite a fourteen-year interruption by the Xin dynasty under Wang Mang. Han rule was restored in AD 23; the capital was moved from Chang'an to Luoyang. Western Europe: Celtic, Germanic and Finnic tribal chiefdom and the Roman Empire Eastern Europe: Roman Empire, Sarmatian and Balt tribal chiefdoms North Africa: Roman Empire, Mauri and Gaetulian tribal chiefdoms West Africa: Gur, Kwa and Mande tribal chiefdoms Central Africa: Bantu tribes, collapsing Nok culture Nok civilization East Africa: Kingdom of Kush, Kingdom of Blemmyes, Kingdom of Aksum Southern Africa: Bantu tribes, Khoisan. Western Asia: Roman and Parthian Empires and Arabian Kingdoms, smaller tribes. Central Asia: Kushan Empire, Sarmatian and other Iranian tribal chiefdoms South Asia: Kushan Empire, Western Satraps, Satavahana Empire, Dravidian Kingdoms, Kingdom of Kalinga, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Zhangzhung. Southeast Asia: Mandala of city-states, Kingdom of Funan East Asia: Han Dynasty, Yamatai and Xianbei tribal chiefdoms, Three Kingdoms of Korea.
North America: Central America: Mayan and Zapotec civilizations. Caribbean: South America: Nazca, Moche civilizations, Tairona tribal chiefdoms. Early 1st century – Augustus of Primaporta, is made, it is now kept in Braccio Nuovo, Rome. Early 1st century – Gemma Augustea is made, it is now kept at Vienna. Early 1st century – House of the Silver Wedding, Pompeii, is built. Excavated in 1893, the year of the silver wedding anniversary of Italy's King Humbert and his wife, Margherita of Savoy, who have supported archaeological fieldwork at Pompeii. Early 1st century - Inner shrine, Mie, Mie Prefecture, is built. Yayoi period. AD 1: Lions became extinct in Western Europe. AD 2: First census of China, the census is one of the most accurate in Chinese history. AD 6: Census of Quirinius. AD 7: Prince Cunobeline of Catuvellauni defeats the Trinovantes in England and establishes his capital at Camulodunum. AD 9: Three Roman legions were ambushed and destroyed at Teutoberg Forest by Germans under the leadership of Arminius.
AD 9: Prince Cunobeline is crowned King of Catuvellauni, his Kingdom dominates Southern England. AD 9 – 23: Wang Mang temporarily overthrew the Han dynasty of China. AD 9 – 23: Xin dynasty. AD 14: Augustus Caesar, first emperor of Rome, dies, his adopted son and son-in-law Tiberius is his successor. AD 25: The Han dynasty is restored by Liu Xiu who proclaims himself Emperor Guangwu of Han. AD 28 – 75: Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism reaches China. Humans establish the Bunlap tribe, among others. C. AD 29: Jesus begins his ministry. C. AD 33: The Crucifixion of Jesus. C. AD 33 – 36: Conversion of Paul the Apostle. AD 40: Succession crisis erupts at King Cunobeline's court and his exiled younger son Prince Adminius flees to the court of Caligula in Rome. AD 40: Emperor Caligula plans to invade Britain, but forgets to bring an army, he instead declares war upon the sea, whipping it and taking shells as prisoners. AD 40 – 43: Revolts erupts in Vietnam by the Trung sisters. AD 42: King Cunobeline dies, his son Caratacus becomes King.
He and his brother conquer much of South-Eastern England, expanding territory into Atrebates, driving out King Verica. King Verica travels to Rome to the court of Claudius to help reclaim his throne. AD 43: Roman conquest of Britain begins. London is founded. AD 44: Death of Herod Agrippa. AD 41 – 54: Rachias, an ambassador sent from Sri Lanka to the court of Claudius. Buddhist monks in Sri Lanka first write down Buddha's teachings, creating the Pali canon; the regions of present-day Afghanistan and North India come under the control of the Kushans, a nomadic people forced out of northwest China by the Han Dynasty. Tacitus mentions the Suiones. Kaundinya, an Indian brahmin establishes the pre-Angkor Cambodian Kingdom of Funan; the Goths settle in northern Poland, which they called Gothiscandza, shape the Wielbark culture. C. AD 50: Christian Council of Jerusalem. Mid-1st century – Wall niche, from garden in Pompeii, is made, it is now kept at University of Cambridge, England. Mid-1st century – Detail of a wall painting in the House of M. Lucretius Fronto, Pompeii
Igilgili was a Berber town and a Phoenician and Roman colony in located in present-day Jijel, Algeria. Igilgili was a small Carthaginian colony and trading port; this name seems to combine ʾY with a suffix that might be either Berber. After the Punic Wars, Igilgili was given to Rome's allies in North Africa. After the defeat of Jugurtha by Rome and its allies in 105 BC, the city came under direct Roman rule, it was turned into a Roman colony under Augustus in 33 BC. Once the Romans occupied the whole of North Africa, the city of Igilgili was administratively attached to the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and to Mauretania Setifensis. In those years, Igilgili grew to nearly 6,000 inhabitants and was rich, with commerce to Italy and Spain; the site is on a low peninsula and a small coastal plain enclosed by a ring of hills, about half-way between Bône and Algiers. The Roman colony, founded by Augustus, is mentioned by Ptolemy, in the Antonine Itinerary, the Peutinger Table, in the Ravenna Geographer.
It was a important port until the Byzantine period. Six roads went out from it... The remains of town walls belonged to the Roman period. An aqueduct comes from the S. To the SE of the knoll of St. Ferdinand were public baths, they have produced Dionysiac and ornamental mosaics, now at the Skikda Museum, sculptures. Other artifacts include statuettes and votive stelae. M. Leglay Igilgili population and its surroundings became massively Christian in the fourth century, with the formalization of this religion under Emperor Constantine, although the first conversions date back to two centuries earlier; when emperor Valentinian I sent his magister militum Theodosius to attack Firmus, he landed in Igilgili in 374 AD. With the support of the indigenous local African tribes, Firmus obliged Theodosius to a bloody and hopeless campaign in which Igilgili region was devastated for a couple of years. In the end, Firmus was betrayed by one of his supporters, chose suicide over capture; the Roman city remained rich until the attack and partial destruction by the Vandals in 429 AD.
Subsequently, the city was taken in 533 AD by the Byzantine and their Romano-African supporters from the Vandals. Catholicism and the Roman way of life were restored under the Byzantines, while the remaining Vandals took refuge in the surrounding mountains. At the time of arrival of the Umayyads and Islam in the region in the late seventh century, Byzantine officials with troops and some Roman Catholic and Latinized Berbers lived in the city of Igilgili. While nearby of the city the camps were populated by peasants Berber "Kutama", not Christians. Around 650 AD the first riders of Islam appeared. Queen Kahina was defeated in 698 AD by the Muslim troops of Hassan Ibn Numan and the city of Igilgili was renamed "Jijel", it was incorporated into the Umayyad empire. The population of the region, mainly Christian, converted to Islam, by the end of the eighth century it had become overwhelmingly Muslim; the Arabic language there diffused and replacing Latin in Jijel city only in the early eighth century.
Mauretania Caesariensis Caesarea Auzia Cirta Chullu Milevum Lipiński, Itineraria Phoenicia, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, No. 127, Studia Phoenicia, Vol. XVIII, Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters. Maldonado López, Las Ciudades Fenicio Púnicas en el Norte de África.... Laffi, Umberto. Colonie e municipi nello Stato romano Ed. di Storia e Letteratura. Roma, 2007 ISBN 8884983509 Mommsen, Theodore; the Provinces of the Roman Empire Section: Roman Africa. Barnes & Noble. New York, 1996 Vereker, Charles Smyth. Scenes in the Sunny South: Including the Atlas Mountains and the Oases of the Sahara in Algeria. Volume 2. Publisher Longmans and Company. University of Wisconsin. Madison,1871