Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded by Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, it was named in honor of the explorer Christopher Columbus. Serving as a mutual benefit society to working-class and immigrant Catholics in the United States, it developed into a fraternal benefit society dedicated to providing charitable services, including war and disaster relief defending Catholicism in various nations, promoting Catholic education; the Knights support the Catholic Church's positions on public policy issues, including various political causes, are participants in the new evangelization. The current Supreme Knight is Carl A. Anderson; as of 2018, there are 1,967,585 members around the world. Membership is older; the order consists of each exemplifying a different principle of the order. The nearly 15,000 councils, including over 300 on college campuses, are chartered in the United States, Mexico and around the world; the Knights' official junior organization, the Columbian Squires, has more than 5,000 circles, the order's patriotic arm, the Fourth Degree, has more than 2,500 assemblies.
Pope John Paul II referred to the order as the "strong right arm of the Church" for their support of the church, as well as for their philanthropic and charitable efforts. In 2018, The Knights gave US$185,682,989 directly to charity and performed over 75,640,244 man-hours of voluntary service; the Knights are well known for their insurance program with more than 2 million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force. This is backed by $21 billion in assets as of 2014; this places it on the Fortune 1000 list. The order owns the Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests in accordance with Catholic social teachings. Michael J. McGivney, an Irish-American Catholic priest, founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut, he gathered a group of men from St. Mary's Parish for an organizational meeting on October 2, 1881. Several months the order was incorporated under the laws of the state of Connecticut on March 29, 1882. Although its first councils were all in Connecticut, the order spread throughout New England and the United States.
The order was intended to be a mutual benefit society. These organizations, which combined social aspects and ritual, were flourishing during the latter third of the nineteenth century; as a parish priest in an immigrant community, McGivney saw what could happen to a family when the main income earner died. This was, he wanted to provide insurance to care for the orphans left behind. In his own life, he temporarily had to suspend his seminary studies to care for his family after his father died; because of religious and ethnic discrimination, Roman Catholics in the late 19th century were excluded from labor unions, popular fraternal organizations, other organized groups that provided such social services. Papal encyclicals issued by the Holy See prohibited Catholics from participating as lodge members within Freemasonry. McGivney intended to create an alternative organization; the original insurance system devised by McGivney gave a deceased Knight's widow a $1,000 death benefit. Each member was assessed $1 upon a death, when the number of Knights grew beyond 1,000, the assessment decreased according to the rate of increase.
Each member, regardless of age, was assessed equally. As a result, healthier members could expect to pay more over the course of their lifetimes than those men who joined when they were older. There was a Sick Benefit Deposit for members who fell ill and could not work; each sick Knight was entitled to draw up to $5 a week for 13 weeks. If he remained sick after that, the council to which he belonged determined the sum of money given to him. From the earliest days of the order, members wanted to create a form of hierarchy and recognition for senior members; as early as 1886, Supreme Knight James T. Mullen had proposed a patriotic degree with its own symbolic dress. About 1,400 members attended the first exemplification of the Fourth Degree at the Lenox Lyceum in New York on February 22, 1900. To prove that good Catholics could be good Americans, during World War I the Knights supported the war effort and the troops, it was hoped. Supreme Knight James A. Flaherty proposed to US President Woodrow Wilson that the order establish soldiers' welfare centers in the US and abroad.
The organization had experience, having provided similar services to troops encamped on the Mexican border during Pershing's expedition of 1916. With the slogan "Everyone Welcome, Everything Free," the "huts" became recreation/service centers for doughboys regardless of race or religion, they were staffed by "secretaries" referred to as "Caseys" who were men above the age of military service. The centers provided basic amenities not available, such as stationery, hot baths, religious services. After the war, the Knights became involved in education, occupational training, employment programs for the returning troops; as a result of this, the Order was infused with the self-confidence that it could respond with organizational skill and with social and political power to any need of Church and society. In this sense, the K. of C. reflected the passage of American Catholicism from an immigrant Church to a well-established and respected religious denomination which had proven its patriotic loyalty in the acid test of the
1990 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1990 was held on September 6, 1990, to elect members of the 35th Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. The governing Ontario Liberal Party led by Premier David Peterson. Although the Peterson government, Peterson himself, were popular, he was accused of opportunism in calling an election just three years into his mandate. In a shocking upset, the New Democratic Party, led by Bob Rae, won a majority government; this marked the first time the NDP had won government east of Manitoba, to date the only time the NDP formed the government in Ontario. Not the NDP expected to come close to winning power. However, the NDP managed to take many seats in the Greater Toronto Area from the Liberals, they did better than before in many other cities and rural areas. The NDP finished only five points ahead of the Liberals in the popular vote, but due to the nature of the first-past-the-post electoral system, which ignores the popular vote and awards power based on the number of ridings won, the NDP's gains in the GTA decimated the Liberal caucus.
The Liberals lost the second-worst defeat for a governing party in Ontario. At the time, it was the Liberals' worst showing in an Ontario election. Peterson himself was defeated in London Centre by NDP challenger Marion Boyd, losing by 8,200 votes—one of the few times a provincial premier has lost their own seat. Although Mike Harris's Progressive Conservative Party was unable to overcome voter distrust of the federal Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney, his party did manage to make a net gain of four seats. Although Harris was from northern Ontario, the Tories were weak in that region, placing fourth, behind the Liberals, NDP and the right-wing, Confederation of Regions Party in six northern Ontario ridings; the CoR Party placed ahead of the PC Party in the Renfrew North and Cornwall ridings in eastern Ontario. Although they received only 1.9% of the vote provincewide, they managed 7.8% in the 33 ridings in which they fielded a candidate. The Green Party of Ontario placed third, ahead of the NDP, in Parry Sound riding, where former Liberal leadership candidate Richard Thomas was the party's candidate.
On September 1, it was reported that an Angus Reid-Southam poll had put the NDP with 38% support, with the Liberals at 34% and the PCs at 24% and others at 4%, with 18% undecided and a margin of error of 3.3%. This was following an August 28 Star-CFTO poll 34% for the NDP, 40% for the Liberals, 23% for the PCs with 3% undecided. Tony Rizzo became an independent MPP on October 10, 1990, after questions were raised about labour practices in his bricklaying firms, he would rejoin the NDP caucus. Dennis Drainville became an independent MPP on April 28, 1993, as a protest against the Rae government's plans to introduce casinos to the province, he resigned his seat in the legislature, resulting in a by-election. Will Ferguson became an independent MPP on April 30, 1993, following accusations relating to the Grandview scandal, he rejoined the NDP caucus on June 21, 1994, having been cleared of all charges. John Sola became an independent MPP on May 11, 1993, after making comments about Canadian Serbs that most regarded as racist.
Peter North became an independent MPP on October 27, 1993, claiming he had lost confidence in the Rae government. He was rebuffed. Due to resignations, five by-elections were held between the 1995 elections. In addition, four seats were vacant in the final months of the legislature, as the sitting members resigned and by-elections were not held to replace them before the 1995 election: Bruce — Murray Elston resigned October 31, 1994 Kitchener — Will Ferguson resigned October 8, 1994 Markham — Don Cousens resigned September 30, 1994 St. Andrew—St. Patrick — Zanana Akande resigned August 31, 1994 Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Ontario Libertarian Party candidates, 1990 Ontario provincial election Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a federal political party in Canada. In 2003, the party membership voted to dissolve the party and merge with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada. One member of the Senate of Canada, Elaine McCoy, sat as an "Independent Progressive Conservative" until 2016; the conservative parties in most Canadian provinces still use the Progressive Conservative name. Some PC Party members formed the Progressive Canadian Party, which has attracted only marginal support. Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, belonged to the Liberal-Conservative Party, but in advance of confederation in 1867, the Conservative Party took in a large number of defectors from the Liberals who supported the establishment of a Canadian Confederation. Thereafter, the Conservative Party became the Liberal-Conservative Party until the turn of the twentieth century; the federal Tories governed Canada for over forty of the country's first 70 years of existence.
However, the party spent the majority of its history in opposition as the nation's number-two federal party, behind the Liberal Party of Canada. From 1896 to 1993 the Tories formed a government only five times—from 1911 to 1921, from 1930 to 1935, from 1957 to 1963, from 1979 to 1980 and from 1984 to 1993, it stands as the only Canadian party to have won more than 200 seats in an election—a feat it accomplished twice: in 1958 and 1984. The party suffered a decade-long decline following the 1993 federal election and formally dissolved on 7 December 2003, when it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada; the last meeting of the Progressive Conservative federal caucus was held in early 2004. The Conservative Party of Canada took power in 2006 and governed under the leadership of Stephen Harper until 2015, when it was defeated by the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau. Between the party's founding in 1867, its adoption of the "Progressive Conservative" name in 1942, the party changed its name several times.
It was most known as the Conservative Party. Several loosely associated provincial Progressive Conservative parties continue to exist in Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador; as well, a small rump of Senators opposed the merger, continued to sit in the Parliament of Canada as Progressive Conservatives. The last one of them rescinded their party status in 2016; the Yukon association of the party renamed itself as the Yukon Party in 1990. The British Columbia Progressive Conservative Party changed its name to the British Columbia Conservative Party in 1991. Saskatchewan's Progressive Conservative Party ceased to exist in 1997, when the Saskatchewan Party formed – from former PC Members of the Legislative Assembly with a few Saskatchewan Liberal MLAs joining them; the party adopted the "Progressive Conservative" party name in 1942 when Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a long-time leader of that province's Progressive Party, agreed to become leader of the federal Conservatives on condition that the party add Progressive to its name.
Despite the name change, most former Progressive supporters continued to support the Liberal Party of Canada or the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Bracken's leadership of the Conservative Party came to an end in 1948. Many Canadians continued to refer to the party as "the Conservatives". A major weakness of the party since 1885 was its inability to win support in Quebec, estranged by that year's execution of Louis Riel; the Conscription Crisis of 1917 exacerbated the issue. Though the Conservative Party of Quebec dominated politics in that province for the first 30 years of Confederation at both the federal and provincial levels, in the 20th century the party was never able to become a force in provincial politics, losing power in 1897, dissolving in 1935 into the Union Nationale, which took power in 1936 under Maurice Duplessis. In 20th-century federal politics, the Conservatives were seen as insensitive to French-Canadian ambitions and interests and succeeded in winning more than a handful of seats in Quebec, with a few notable exceptions: the 1930 federal election, in which Richard Bedford Bennett led the party to a thin majority government victory by securing 24 seats in rural Quebec.
The party never recovered from the fragmentation of Mulroney's broad coalition in the late 1980s resulting from Anglophone Canada's failure to ratify the Meech Lake Accord. Prior to its merger with the Canadian Alliance, it held only 15 of 301 seats in the House of Commons of Canada; the party did not hold more than 20 seats in Parliament between 1993 and 2003. The party pre-dates confederation in 1867, when it accepted many conservative-leaning former members of the Liberal Party into its ranks. At confederation, the Liberal-Conservative Party of Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, for years was either the governing party of Canada or the largest opposition party; the party changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada following the election as leader of Progressive Party of Manitoba Premier John Bracken in December 1942, who insisted on the name change as a condition of becoming leader. The Progressive Conservative Party was on the
1984 Canadian federal election
The 1984 Canadian federal election was held on September 4 of that year to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 33rd Parliament of Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Brian Mulroney, won the largest landslide majority government in Canadian history, while the Liberals suffered what at that time was the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level. Only the Progressive Conservatives faced a larger defeat, when cut to two seats in 1993; the election marked the end of the Liberals' long dominance of federal politics in Quebec, a province, the bedrock of Liberal support for a century. This election was the last time that the winning party received over 50% of the national popular vote; the 6.3 million votes won by the Conservatives remained a record until the Liberals' victory in 2015. The election was fought entirely on the record of the Liberals, in power for all but one year since 1963. Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister from 1968 to 1979 and since 1980, retired from politics in early 1984 after polls indicated that the Liberals would certainly be defeated at the next election had he remained in office.
He was succeeded by a former Cabinet minister under both Trudeau and Lester Pearson. Turner had been out of politics since 1975. Upon assuming the leadership, he made immediate changes in an attempt to rebuild the Liberals' tattered reputation. For example, he announced that he would not run in a by-election to return to the House of Commons, but would instead run in the next general election as the Liberal candidate in Vancouver Quadra, British Columbia; this was a sharp departure from usual practice, in which the incumbent in a safe seat resigns to allow a newly elected party leader a chance to get into Parliament. The Liberal Party had lost favour with western Canadians, policies such as the National Energy Program only aggravated this sentiment. Turner's plans to run in a western Canada riding were in part an attempt to rebuild support in that region. Going into the election, the Liberals held only one seat west of Ontario—that of Lloyd Axworthy, from Winnipeg—Fort Garry, Manitoba. More there was great disaffection in Quebec with the Liberal government, despite their traditional support for the party.
Conflict between the provincial and federal parties, a series of scandals, the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution without the approval of the Quebec provincial government had damaged the Liberal brand in the province. Hope for success there led leader Joe Clark to begin courting soft nationalist voters in the province, was one of the main reasons businessman Brian Mulroney, a fluently bilingual Quebecker, was chosen as Clark's replacement. Although Turner was not required to call an election until 1985, internal polls showed that the Liberals had regained the lead in opinion polls. Turner and his advisers were mindful of the fact that Trudeau had missed an opportunity to take advantage of favourable opinion polls in the latter half of the 1970s, when he waited the full five years to call an election only to go down to an defeat; the new Prime Minister requested that Queen Elizabeth II delay her tour of Canada, asked Governor-General Jeanne Sauvé to dissolve Parliament on July 4. In accordance with Canadian constitutional practice, Sauvé granted the request and set an election for September 4.
The initial Liberal lead began to slip. In particular, he spoke of creating new "make work programs", a concept from earlier decades, replaced by the less patronizing sounding "job creation programs", he was caught on camera patting Liberal Party President Iona Campagnolo on her posterior. Turner defended this action as being a friendly gesture, but it was seen by many women as condescending. Other voters turned against the Liberals due to their mounting legacy of corruption. An important issue was Trudeau's recommendation that Sauvé appoint over 200 Liberals to patronage posts just before he left office; the appointments enraged Canadians on all sides. Although Turner had the right to advise that the appointments be withdrawn, he didn't do so. In fact, he himself appointed more than 70 Liberals to patronage posts despite a promise to bring a new way of politics to Ottawa, he cited a written agreement with Trudeau, claiming that if Trudeau had made the appointments, the Liberals would have certainly lost the election.
However, the fact that Turner dropped the writ a year early hurt his argument. Turner found out that Mulroney was setting up a patronage machine in anticipation of victory. At the English-language televised debate between Mulroney and New Democratic Party leader Ed Broadbent, Turner started to attack Mulroney on his patronage plans, comparing them to the patronage machine run by old Union Nationale in Quebec. However, Mulroney turned the tables by pointing to the raft of patronage appointments made on the advice of Trudeau and Turner. Claiming that he'd gone so far as to apologize for making light of "these horrible appointments," Mulroney demanded that Turner apologize to the country for not cancelling the appointments advised by Trudeau and for recommending his own appointments. Turner was visibly surprised, could only reply that "I had no option" except to let the appointments stand. Mulroney famously responded: You had an option, sir. You could have said,'I am not going to do it; this is wrong fo
Secretary of State for Canada
The Secretary of State for Canada was a Canadian Cabinet position with a corresponding department. It was established in 1867 as the official channel of communication between Canada and the Imperial government in London; as Canada became independent after World War I and with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 this role fell into disuse. The department was maintained and was used to administer various aspects of government which did not have their own ministry; as well, the Secretary of State for Canada was Registrar General of Canada, responsible as such for the Great Seal of Canada and various functions of state associated with it. At various times the Secretary of State for Canada was responsible for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the civil service, the Queen's Printer for Canada, administration of Crown lands, governance of Canadian Indians as well as various ceremonial and state duties. Any government role and responsibility, not assigned to a cabinet minister would be the de facto responsibility of the Secretary of State.
The department was eliminated in 1993. The position of Secretary of State for Canada was not eliminated until 1996 when its remaining responsibilities were assigned to other cabinet positions and departments the newly created position of Minister of Canadian Heritage; the position of Secretary of State for Canada had no relation to that of Secretary of State for External Affairs except for the period from 1909 until 1912 when the Secretary of State for Canada was responsible for the newly created Department of External Affairs. Secretary of State for the Provinces - post preceding the Minister of Interior Minister of the Interior