The Syria–Lebanon campaign known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War. The French had ceded autonomy to Syria in September 1936, with the right to maintain armed forces and two airfields in the territory. On 1 April 1941, the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état had taken place and Iraq had come under the control of Iraqi nationalists led by Rashid Ali, who appealed for German support; the Anglo-Iraqi War led to the overthrow of the Ali regime and the installation of a British puppet government. The British invaded Syria and Lebanon in June, to prevent Nazi Germany from using the Vichy French-controlled Syrian Republic and French Lebanon as bases for attacks on the Kingdom of Egypt, during an invasion scare in the aftermath of the German victories in the Battle of Greece and the Battle of Crete. In the Western Desert Campaign in North Africa, the British were preparing Operation Battleaxe to relieve the Siege of Tobruk and were fighting the East African Campaign in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Vichy French made a vigorous defence of Syria. At one minute past midnight on 12 July, a ceasefire ended the campaign; the Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre was signed on 14 July at the Sidney Smith Barracks on the outskirts of the city. Time magazine referred to the fighting as a "mixed show" while it was taking place and the campaign remains little known in the countries that took part. There is evidence that the British censored reportage of the fighting because politicians believed that hostilities against French forces could have a negative effect on public opinion in English-speaking countries. In May 1941, Admiral François Darlan on behalf of Vichy France signed the Paris Protocols, an agreement with the Germans; the protocols granted Germany access to military facilities in Vichy-controlled Syria. The protocols remained unratified, but Charles Huntziger, the Vichy Minister of War, sent orders to Henri Dentz, the High Commissioner for the Levant, to allow aircraft of the German Luftwaffe and Italian Regia Aeronautica to refuel in Syria.
Marked as Iraqi aircraft, Axis aircraft under Fliegerführer Irak landed in Syria, en route to the Kingdom of Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War. The Germans requested permission from the Vichy authorities to use Syrian railways to send armaments to Iraqi nationalists in Mosul. General Archibald Percival Wavell, the Commander-in-Chief of Middle East Command, was reluctant to intervene in Syria, despite government prodding, because of the situation in the Western Desert, the imminent German attack on Crete and doubts about Free French pretensions. Dentz was Commander in Chief of the Armée du Levant, which had regular metropolitan colonial troops and troupes spéciales. There were seven infantry battalions of regular French troops at his disposal, which included the 6th Foreign Infantry Regiment of the French Foreign Legion, the 24th Colonial Infantry Regiment and eleven infantry battalions of "special troops", including at least 5,000 cavalry in horsed and motorized units, two artillery groups and supporting units.
The Vichy garrison numbered 35,000 troops, comprising 35,000 regulars including 8,000 French and 25,000 Syrian and Lebanese infantry. The French had 90 tanks, the Armée de l'Air de Vichy had 90 aircraft and the Marine Nationale had two destroyers, Guépard and Valmy, three submarines. On 14 May 1941, a British Bristol Blenheim bomber crew, flying a reconnaissance mission over Palmyra in central Syria, spotted a Junkers Ju 90 transport taking off, with more German and Italian aircraft seen that day. Attacks against German and Italian aircraft staging through Syria continued and the British claimed six Axis aircraft destroyed by 8 June. Vichy French forces claimed to have shot down a Blenheim on 28 May and to have forced down another on 2 June; the RAF shot down a Vichy Martin 167F bomber over the British Mandate of Palestine on 6 June. While German interest in the French mandates of Syria and Lebanon was limited, Adolf Hitler permitted reinforcement of the French troops, by allowing French aircraft en route from Algeria to Syria to fly over Axis-controlled territory and refuel at the German-controlled Eleusina air base in Greece.
The activity of German aircraft based in Greece and the Dodecanese Islands was interpreted by the British as support for Vichy troops, but although Dentz considered accepting German assistance, he rejected the offer on 13 June. The British-led invasion of Syria and Lebanon aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using the Vichy French-controlled Syrian Republic and French Lebanon for attacks on Egypt as the British fought the Western Desert Campaign against Axis forces in North Africa; the concerns were that attacks by Nazi Germany from Syria and Lebanon could eventuate if the Nazis had access to the airfields there and if German troops fighting at the time on the Eastern Front could link up with Vichy forces, in the event of Nazi success against Russia, by advancing south through the Caucasus. Both of these contingencies would have exposed Allied forces in Egypt from the north at a time when all available resources needed to focus on halting the Nazi advances from the west. Although the French had ceded autonomy to Syria in September 1936, they had retained treaty rights to maintain armed forces and two ai
Inverell is a large town in northern New South Wales, situated on the Macintyre River, close to the Queensland border. It is the centre of Inverell Shire. Inverell is located on the Gwydir Highway on the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands, it has a temperate climate. In the 2016 census, the population of Inverell was 11,660 and the Inverell Shire population was 16,483. Prior to white settlement, the Gamilaroi Nation of Aboriginal peoples lived in and occupied this region. In 1848, Alexander Campbell held the 50,000-acre Inverell Station on the Macintyre River; the name derives from the name of Mr. MacIntyre's estate; the word is of Gaelic origin, signifies "meeting place of the swans". The MacIntyre River and Swanbrook Creek join here; the area was known as "Green Swamp" in the 1850s. Wheat growers and Rosanna Ross established a store there in 1853, when he asked that a town be surveyed. In 1858, this was done and in the following years the plan was approved and the first land sale was held.
Byron Post Office was replaced by the Inverell Post Office on 15 September 1859. The municipality was proclaimed in March 1872; the last section of the Inverell branchline, from Delungra to Inverell, was opened on 10 March 1902. The last train ran to Inverell on 22 June 1987, the Delungra to Inverell section of the line was closed on 2 December 1987. In 1871, the population of Inverell was 509, this increased to 1,212 in 1881. After Federation, the population of Inverell was 1,230 in 1911, grew to 6,530 and 8,209. Diamonds were discovered at Copes Creek in 1875 and were mined at Copeton from 1883-1922. Commercial sapphire mining was commenced in 1919 at Frazers Creek near Inverell. Rich alluvial deposits in streams were worked by hand miners but there was little recorded production up until 1960. Inverell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 56 Byron Street: Inverell Shire Council Building 97 Otho Street: Inverell Post Office The Inverell district is in a fertile agricultural region which produces a wide range of crops, including wheat, oats, wine grapes and maize.
There are some mining activities with tin, sapphires and diamonds being found. Inverell is known as the ‘Sapphire City’ because of the sapphires that found throughout the local district, contributing to a major part of Australia's sapphire production. Copeton Dam, the region's main water supply, was completed in 1976. While being smaller than Sydney Harbour, it can hold nearly 2 times the capacity of Port Jackson; the Inland Fishing Festival is held there every year. The Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic is an annual one day cycling race. Beginning in Grafton, passing through Glen Innes and finishing in Inverell, the Classic is a 230 km ride over the demanding Gibraltar Range; the race starts at 23 metres above sea level and climbs to 1260 metres, before finishing in Inverell at 630 metres. The race is six to seven hours long, depending on weather conditions. Inverell is home to an Anabaptist community who share all their possessions, they run a publishing business. The National Transport Museum comprises more than 120 vehicle exhibits ranging from vintage, veteran and motorcycles in a purpose-built structure on Rifle Range Road.
There are two primary schools in Inverell. The two local high schools are Macintyre High School. Holy Trinity School is a Roman Catholic School in Inverell which caters for students from Kindergarten to Year Ten. Inverell is served by Inverell Airport. Inverell lies on the Gwydir Highway, one of the primary east-west routes through New South Wales. Thunderbolts Way terminates at Copes Creek, 16 km south of the Gwydir Highway intersection at Inverell. Bus services in Inverell are provided by Inverell Bus Service, which operates two town loops, to the east and west. Interurban bus service is provided by Symes Coaches to Glen Innes. NSW Trainlink operates three Coach services in and out of Inverell: between Moree and Grafton, between Inverell and Tamworth via Manilla, between Inverell and Armidale via Tingha Over the years, Inverell has had three weather stations run by government astronomers or the Bureau of Meteorology, or both; these stations are: Inverell Comparison Inverell Research Centre Inverell The highest maximum temperature recorded at Inverell was 43.7C on 4 January 1903 at the Inverell Comparison site.
The lowest maximum temperature for any of the Inverell weather sites was 3.0C on 3 July 1984 at Inverell Research Centre. In September 1892, the town had its biggest snowfall, with 4 to 5 inches falling. On 5 August 1923, snow fell in parts of the Inverell district. Notable people from or who have lived in Inverell include: Chris Bailey, a professional rugby league footballer that has played for Newcastle Knights, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, London Broncos and Huddersfield Giants. Owen Craigie former professional rugby league footballer for the Newcastle Knights, Wests Tigers, South Sydney Rabbitohs and Widnes Vikings. Lucien Lawrence Cunningham and politician Steve Elkington, professional golfer, 1995 US PGA Champion. Susan Hampton, winner of the Judith Wright Award Heinrich Haussler, professional cyclist George Kneipp, a judge of t
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
8th Brigade (Australia)
8th Brigade is an Australian Army Reserve training formation. It is headquartered in Sydney, has subordinate units in various locations around New South Wales and the rest of Australia; these units are tasked with delivering initial employment training to Reserve soldiers. The brigade was first formed in 1912, before being re-raised in Egypt as part of the First Australian Imperial Force in early 1916, for service during World War I; as part of the 5th Division, the brigade subsequently fought in numerous battles on the Western Front in France and Belgium between 1916 and 1918. During the interwar years, the brigade was re-raised within the part-time Militia, headquartered in Sydney. During World War II, the brigade undertook garrison duties in Australia during 1942–1944, before taking part in the Huon Peninsula campaign, during which they helped to capture Madang. In the post-war period, the brigade was re-formed as a combined arms formation as part of the 2nd Division until it was converted into a training brigade in 2017–2018.
The 8th Brigade traces its origins to 1912, when it was formed as a Militia brigade as part of the introduction of the compulsory training scheme, assigned to the 2nd Military District. At this time, the brigade's constituent units were located around Glebe, Forest Lodge, East Balmain, Annandale, Leichhardt and Drummoyne. Just prior to the outbreak of the war, the brigade consisted of the 25th, 26th, 29th and 31st Infantry Battalions. During World War I, the brigade was re-raised as part of the First Australian Imperial Force, being formed in 1916, when the AIF was being expanded in Egypt prior to its deployment to the Western Front. Assigned to the 5th Division, the brigade was formed from unassigned personnel that had arrived in Egypt as reinforcements following the Gallipoli Campaign. During this time, the brigade consisted of four infantry battalions: the 30th, 31st and 32nd, it was an all-states brigade with the 29th being recruited from Victoria, the 30th being drawn from New South Wales, the 31st from Queensland and 32nd from South Australia and Western Australia.
Fire support was provided by the 8th Machine Gun Company, the 8th Light Trench Mortar Battery, the 8th Field Ambulance. Under the command of Brigadier General Edwin Tivey for most of the war, the brigade took part in numerous battles including: the Battle of Fromelles, the First Battle of Bullecourt, the Third Battle of Ypres, the Spring Offensive, the Battle of Amiens and the Hundred Days Offensive. In the final stages of the war, due to heavy casualties, one of the brigade's infantry battalions – the 29th – was disbanded to provide reinforcements for the other three infantry battalions. Following the conclusion of hostilities, the brigade's constituent units were demobilised in early 1919 and the soldiers repatriated to Australia, although the AIF would not be formally disbanded until 1921. During the interwar years, the brigade was re-raised as Militia formation in 1921, headquartered in North Sydney and assigned to the 1st Division; the brigade's role at this time was to defend the Newcastle area.
In 1922, the brigade consisted of five infantry battalions: the 2nd, 17th, 18th, 30th, 51st. By 1928, the 51st Battalion had been removed from the brigade's order of battle; the Sydney Scouts was assigned to the brigade around this time. In World War II, the 8th Brigade was employed in defence of the Australian mainland for the majority of the war. After being called up for full time service in December 1941, the brigade concentrated at Wallgrove and began training. In March 1942, the 8th Brigade relieved the 9th Brigade, defending the northern beaches area around Sydney. In July 1942, the brigade was transferred to Western Australia; the 8th Brigade was based around Gingin, to defend the coastline between Lancelin and Trigg, but they were redeployed to Geraldton. Throughout 1943, the brigade moved several times, firstly to Moora and Dandaragan and to Mingenew. Jungle training was undertaken a Collie, before the brigade returned to Wallgrove in September 1943. In October 1942, the brigade took part in the largest anti-invasion exercise undertaken by the Army during the war, playing the role of a Japanese division that landed around Dongara, in Western Australia.
A period of leave followed, after which the brigade concentrated on the Atherton Tablelands prior to its assignment to the 3rd Division with which it would be committed to the fighting in the New Guinea in January 1944. Under the command of Brigadier Claude Cameron, the brigade landed at Finschhafen and helped to secure the Huon Peninsula, during which time it was involved in the Battle of Sio and the capture Madang in 1944–1945. During this time, the brigade contained three infantry battalions: the 4th, 30th and 35th, all from New South Wales. Following the capture of Madang, the 8th Brigade carried out patrolling operations from there out to Sepik, including the Watam – Hansa Bay – Ramu River area in support of the 6th Division, operating around Aitape–Wewak. In June, the brigade moved to Wewak, the following month relieved the 19th Brigade in the Wirui Creek – Mandi area, they carried out patrols in this area until the end of the war. Throughout the war, the brigade was assigned to a number of different divisions including the 1st, 4th, 2nd, 5th and the 6th.
In the brigade's final campaign it was commanded by Brigadier Maurice Fergusson, who assumed command in August 1944. Following the war, the wartime military was demobilised and the part-time Citizens Military Force was formed in 1948. Around this time, the brigade was re-raised and assigned to the 2nd Division as part of Eastern Command, consistin
The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers and other ranks of the British Armed Forces, awarded to officers of other Commonwealth countries. The MC is granted in recognition of "an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land" to all members of the British Armed Forces of any rank. In 1979, the Queen approved a proposal that a number of awards, including the Military Cross, could be recommended posthumously; the award was created on 28 December 1914 for commissioned officers of the substantive rank of Captain or below and for Warrant Officers. The first 98 awards were gazetted on 1 January 1915, to 71 officers including one jamadar and three subadars, 27 warrant officers. Although posthumous recommendations for the Military Cross would be unavailable until 1979, the first awards included seven posthumous awards, with the word ‘deceased’ after the name of the recipient, from recommendations, raised before the recipients died of wounds or lost their lives from other causes.
Awards are announced in the London Gazette, apart from most honorary awards to allied forces in keeping with the usual practice not to gazette awards to foreigners. From August 1916, recipients of the Cross were entitled to use the post-nominal letters MC, bars could be awarded for further acts of gallantry meriting the award, with a silver rosette worn on the ribbon when worn alone to denote the award of each bar. From September 1916, members of the Royal Naval Division, who served alongside the army on the Western Front, were made eligible for military decorations, including the Military Cross, for the war's duration. Naval officers serving with the division received eight second award bars. In June 1917, eligibility was extended to temporary majors, not above the substantive rank of captain. Substantive majors were made eligible in 1953. In 1931, the award was extended to equivalent ranks in the Royal Air Force for actions on the ground. After the Second World War, most Commonwealth countries created their own honours system and no longer recommended British awards.
The last Military Cross awards for the Canadian Army were for Korea. The last four Australian Army Military Cross awards were promulgated in the London Gazette on 1 September 1972 for Vietnam as was the last New Zealand Army Military Cross award, promulgated on 25 September 1970. Canada and New Zealand have now created their own gallantry awards under their own honours systems. Since the 1993 review of the honours system, as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in awards for bravery, the Military Medal the third-level decoration for other ranks, has been discontinued; the MC now serves as the third-level award for all ranks of the British Armed Forces for gallantry on land, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross. The Military Cross has the following design: 44 mm maximum width. Ornamental silver cross with straight arms terminating in broad finials, suspended from a plain suspension bar. Obverse decorated with the Royal Cypher in centre.
Reverse is plain. From 1938 until 1957 the year of award was engraved on lower limb of cross, since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient; the ribbon width is 32 mm and consists of three equal vertical moire stripes of white and white. Ribbon bar denoting a further award is plain silver, with a crown in the centre. Since 1914 over 52,000 Military Crosses and 3,717 bars have been awarded; the dates below reflect the relevant London Gazette entries: In addition 375 MCs have been awarded since 1979, including awards for Northern Ireland, the Falklands and the wars in the Persian Gulf and Afghanistan. The above table includes awards to the Dominions:In all, 3,727 Military Crosses have been awarded to those serving with Canadian forces, including 324 first bars and 18 second bars. A total of 2,930 were awarded to Australians, in addition to four second bars. Of these, 2,403 MCs, 170 first Bars and four second Bars were for World War I. Over 500 MCs were awarded to New Zealanders during World War I and over 250 in World War II.
The most recent awards were for service in Vietnam. The honorary MC awards were made to servicemen from fifteen Allied countries in World War I, nine in World War II. During World War I, Acting Captain Francis Wallington of the Royal Field Artillery was the first person to be awarded the MC and three bars when he was invested with his third bar on 10 July 1918. Three other officers were subsequently awarded a third bar, Percy Bentley, Humphrey Arthur Gilkes and Charles Gordon Timms, all of whose awards appeared in a supplement to the London Gazette on 31 January 1919. For their key roles during World War I, the cities of Verdun and Ypres were awarded the Military Cross, in September 1916 and February 1920 respectively. In May 1920, Field Marshall French presented the decoration to Ypres in a special ceremony in the city. During World War II Captain Sam Manekshaw, Indian Army, was leading a counter-offensive operation against the invading Japanese Army in Burma. During the course of the offensive, he was hit by a burst of machine-gun fire and wounded in the stomach.
Major General D. T. Cowan spotted Manekshaw holding on to life and was aware of his valour in face of stiff resistance from the Japanese. Fearing the worst, Major General Cowan pinned his own Military Cross ribbon on to Manekshaw saying, "A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross." The first posthumous Military Cross was that awarded to Captain H
Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, of other parts of the Commonwealth, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime in actual combat. Since 1993 all ranks have been eligible. Instituted on 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria in a Royal Warrant published in The London Gazette on 9 November, the first DSOs awarded were dated 25 November 1886; the order was established to reward individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war. It was a military order, until for officers only, awarded to officers ranked major or higher, with awards to ranks below this for a high degree of gallantry, just short of deserving the Victoria Cross. While given for service under fire or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy, a number of awards made between 1914 and 1916 were under circumstances not under fire to staff officers, causing resentment among front-line officers.
After 1 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire. From 1916, ribbon bars could be authorised for subsequent awards of the DSO, worn on the ribbon of the original award. In 1942, the award was extended to officers of the Merchant Navy who had performed acts of gallantry while under enemy attack. A requirement that the order could be given only to someone mentioned in despatches was removed in 1943. Since 1993, reflecting the review of the British honours system which recommended removing distinctions of rank in respect of operational awards, the DSO has been open to all ranks, with the award criteria redefined as'highly successful command and leadership during active operations'. At the same time, the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross was introduced as the second highest award for gallantry. Despite some fierce campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan, the DSO has yet to be awarded to a non-commissioned rank; the DSO had been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by the 1990s most, including Canada and New Zealand, were establishing their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.
Recipients of the order are known as Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSO". All awards are announced in the London Gazette; the medal signifying the award of the DSO is a silver-gilt cross with curved ends, 1.6 in wide, enamelled white and edged in gilt. It is manufactured by the Crown Jewellers. In the centre of the obverse, within a green enamelled laurel wreath, is the imperial crown in gold upon a red enamelled background; the reverse has the royal cypher of the reigning monarch in gold within a similar wreath and background. A ring at the top of the medal attaches to a ring at the bottom of a gilt suspension bar, ornamented with laurel. Since 1938 the year of award engraved on the back of the suspension bar. At the top of the ribbon is a second gilt bar ornamented with laurel; the medals are issued unnamed but some recipients have had their names engraved on the reverse of the suspension bar. The red ribbon is 1.125 in wide with narrow blue edges.
The bar for an additional award is plain gold with an Imperial Crown in the centre. Since about 1938, the year of the award has been engraved on the back of the bar. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress uniform to signify the award of each bar. From 1918 to 2017 the insignia of the Distinguished Service Order has been awarded 16,935 times, in addition to 1,910 bars; the figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette: In addition, between 1980 and 2017 90 DSOs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf and Afghanistan, in addition to three second-award bars. The above figures include awards to the Commonwealth:In all, 1,220 DSOs have gone to Canadians, plus 119 first bars and 20 second bars. From 1901 to 1972, when the last Australian to receive the DSO was announced, 1,018 awards were made to Australians, plus 70 first bars and one second bar; the DSO was awarded to over 300 New Zealanders during the two World Wars.
Honorary awards to members of allied foreign forces include at least 1,329 for World War I, with further awards for World War II. The following received the DSO and three bars: Archibald Walter Buckle, rose from naval rating in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve to command the Anson Battalion of the Royal Naval Division during the First World War William Denman Croft, First World War army officer William Robert Aufrere Dawson, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment during the First World War, wounded nine times and mentioned in despatches four times Basil Embry, Second World War Royal Air Force officer Bernard Freyberg awarded the Victoria Cross Edward Albert Gibbs, Second World War destroyer captain Arnold Jackson, First World War British Army officer and 1500 metres Olympic gold medal winner in 1912 Douglas Kendrew, served as a brigade commander in Italy and the Middle East between 1944 and 1946. Subsequently appointed Governor of Western Australia. Robert Sinclair Knox, First World War British Army officer Frederick William Lumsden, British First World War Army officer awarded the Victoria Cross Paddy Mayne, Special Air Service commander in the Second World War and Irish rugby player Sir Richard George Onslow, Second World War destroyer captain and admiral Alastair Pearson, a British Army officer who received his four awards within the space of two years during the Second World War James Brian Tait, RAF pilot awarded the DFC and bar, completed