Casablanca, located in the central-western part of Morocco and bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco. It is the largest city in the Maghreb region, as well as one of the largest and most important cities in Africa, both economically and demographically. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers on the continent. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier.
Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy. The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic, Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although Arabic has its own version of Casablanca. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC.
It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD, he believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515.
The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration; as Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, the Arabic translation of the Spanish Casa Blanca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s.
Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in the town, at first administrators within a sovereign sultanate, in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns. In June 1907, the French attempted to build a light railway near the port and passing through a graveyard; as an act of resistance and protestation, the locals attacked the French, riots ensued, causing a few soldiers to be wounded and one general to be killed. In response, the French attacked by ship, bombarding the city from the coast, landing troops inside the town, which caused severe damage to the town and 15,000 dead and wounded bodies; the French claimed. This began the process of colonization, although French control of Casablanca was not formalised until 1910. Under the French rule, Muslim anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1908; the famous 1942 film Casablanca, although filmed in Los Angeles, is supposed to have been set in Casablanca.
The film underlined the city's colonial status at the time—depicting it as the scene of a power s
French Protectorate in Morocco
The French protectorate in Morocco known as French Morocco, was a territory established by the Treaty of Fez. It existed from 1912, when the protectorate was formally established, until independence and dissolution in 1956, it shared territory variously with the Spanish protectorate and dissolved the same years. Despite the weakness of its authority, the Alaouite dynasty distinguished itself in the 18th and 19th centuries by maintaining Morocco’s independence while other states in the region succumbed to French or British domination. However, in the latter part of the 19th century Morocco’s weakness and instability invited European intervention to protect threatened investments and to demand economic concessions; the first years of the 20th century witnessed a rush of diplomatic maneuvering through which the European powers and France in particular furthered their interests in North Africa. French activity in Morocco began during the end of the 19th century. In 1904 the French government was trying to establish a protectorate over Morocco, had managed to sign two bilateral secret agreements with Britain and Spain, which guaranteed the support of the powers in question in this endeavour.
France and Spain secretly partitioned the territory of the sultanate, with Spain receiving concessions in the far north and south of the country. The First Moroccan Crisis grew out of the imperial rivalries of the great powers, in this case, between Germany on one side and France, with British support, on the other. Germany took immediate diplomatic action to block the new accord from going into effect, including the dramatic visit of Wilhelm II to Tangier in Morocco on March 31, 1905. Kaiser Wilhelm tried to get Morocco's support if they went to war with France or Britain, gave a speech expressing support for Moroccan independence, which amounted to a provocative challenge to French influence in Morocco. In 1906 the Algeciras Conference was held to settle the dispute, Germany accepted an agreement in which France agreed to yield control of the Moroccan police, but otherwise retained effective control of Moroccan political and financial affairs. Although the Algeciras Conference temporarily solved the First Moroccan Crisis it only worsened international tensions between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.
In 1911, a rebellion broke out in Morocco against the Abdelhafid. By early April 1911, the Sultan was besieged in his palace in Fez and the French prepared to send troops to help put down the rebellion under the pretext of protecting European lives and property; the French dispatched a flying column at the end of April 1911 and Germany gave approval for the occupation of the city. Moroccan forces besieged the French-occupied city. One month French forces brought the siege to an end. On 5 June 1911 the Spanish occupied Ksar-el-Kebir. On 1 July 1911 the German gunboat Panther arrived at the port of Agadir. There was an immediate reaction from the French, supported by the British. France established a protectorate over Morocco with the Treaty of Fez, ending what remained of the country's de facto independence. From a legal point of view, the treaty did not deprive Morocco of its status as a sovereign state; the Sultan did not rule. Sultan Abdelhafid abdicated in favour of his brother Yusef after signing the treaty.
On April 17, 1912, Moroccan infantrymen mutinied in the French garrison in Fez, in the 1912 Fes riots The Moroccans were unable to take the city and were defeated by a French relief force. In late May 1912, Moroccan forces again unsuccessfully attacked the enhanced French garrison at Fez. In establishing their protectorate over much of Morocco, the French had behind them the experience of the conquest of Algeria and of their protectorate over Tunisia. There were, important differences. First, the protectorate was established only two years before the outbreak of World War I, which brought with it a new attitude toward colonial rule. Rejecting the typical French assimilationist approach to culture and education as a liberal fantasy, Morocco's conservative French rulers attempted to use urban planning and colonial education to prevent cultural mixing and to uphold the traditional society upon which the French depended for collaboration. Second, Morocco had a thousand-year tradition of independence and had never been subjected to Ottoman rule, though it had been influenced by the civilization of Muslim Iberia and there were periods during the Almoravid and Alhomad dynasties when areas on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar were under the same rulers.
These circumstances and the proximity of Morocco to Spain created a special relationship between the two countries. Morocco was unique among the North African countries in possessing a coast on the Atlantic, in the rights that various nations derived from the Conference of Algeciras, in the privileges that their diplomatic missions had acquired in Tangier, thus the northern tenth of the country, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, were excluded from the French-controlled area and treated as a Spanish protectorate. Although being under protectorate, Morocco retained -de jure- its personality as a state in international law, according to an International Court of Justice statement, thus remained a sovereign state, without discontinuity between pre-colonia
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Sephardi Jews known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim from Sepharad, Spain, or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division. They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North Africa, the Levant and Southern Europe, as well as the Americas, all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers, their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista and was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs in 1492, by the edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims by Portuguese king Manuel I in 1496, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.
More broadly, the term Sephardim has today come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition; the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been variants of either Spanish or Portuguese, though other tongues had been adopted and adapted throughout their history. The historical forms of Spanish or Portuguese that differing Sephardic communities spoke communally was determined by the date of their departure from Iberia, their condition of departure as Jews or New Christians. Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes called "Ladino Oriental", was a Romance language derived from Old Spanish, incorporating elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula and Aramaic, was spoken by what became the Eastern Sephardim, who settled in the Eastern Mediterranean, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492.
This dialect was further influenced by Ottoman Turkish, Levantine Arabic, Greek and Serbo-Croatian vocabulary in the differing lands of their exile. Haketia, an Arabic-influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms was spoken by North African Sephardim, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492; the main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco. Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portuguese, including in a mixture of the two was traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardim, taken with them during their migration out of Iberia between the 16th and 18th centuries as conversos, after which they reverted to Judaism. Modern Spanish and Modern Portuguese varieties, traditionally spoken by the Sephardic Bnei Anusim of Iberia and Ibero-America, including some recent returnees to Judaism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
In this latter case, these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the indigenous languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest. The name Sephardi means "Spanish" or "Hispanic", derived from a Biblical location; the location of the biblical Sepharad is disputed, but Sepharad was identified by Jews as Hispania, that is, the Iberian Peninsula. Sepharad still means "Spain" in modern Hebrew. In other languages and scripts, "Sephardi" may be translated as plural Hebrew: סְפָרַדִּים, Modern: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm. In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, the decree of 1496 in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. In Hebrew, the term "Sephardim Tehorim", derived from a misunderstanding of the initials ס"ט "Samekh Tet" traditionally used with some proper names, has in recent times come to be used in some quarters to distinguish Sephardim proper "who trace their lineage back to the Iberian/Spanish population" from Sephardim in the broader religious sense.
This distinction has been made in reference to genetic findings in research on Sephardim proper in contrast to other communities of Jews today termed Sephardi more broadly The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, in modern Israel, "Sephardim" is most used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, now an important part of Oxford Music Online. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians was first published in four volumes edited by George Grove with an Appendix edited by J. A. Fuller Maitland in the fourth volume. An Index edited by Mrs. E. Wodehouse was issued as a separate volume in 1890. In 1900, minor corrections were made to the plates and the entire series was reissued in four volumes, with the index added to volume 4; the original edition and the reprint are now available online. Grove limited the chronological span of his work to begin at 1450 while continuing up to the present day.
The second edition, in five volumes, was edited by Fuller Maitland and published from 1904 to 1910, this time as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The individual volumes of the second edition were reprinted many times. An American Supplement edited by Waldo Selden Pratt and Charles N. Boyd was added in 1920; this edition removed the first edition's beginning date of 1450, though important earlier composers and theorists are still missing from this edition. These volumes are now available online; the third edition in five volumes, was an extensive revision of the 2nd edition. Colles and published in 1927; the fourth edition edited by Colles, was published in 1940 in five volumes. In addition to the American Supplement, Macmillan published a Supplementary Volume edited by Colles; the fifth edition, in nine volumes, was edited by Eric Blom and published in 1954. This was the most thoroughgoing revision of the work since its inception, with many articles rewritten in a more modern style and a large number of new articles.
Many of the articles were written by Blom or translated by him. An additional Supplementary Volume, prepared for the most part by Eric Blom, followed in 1961. Blom died in 1959, the Supplementary Volume was completed by Denis Stevens; the fifth edition was reprinted in 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1975. The next edition was published in 1980 under the name The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians and was expanded to 20 volumes with 22,500 articles and 16,500 biographies, its senior editor was Stanley Sadie with Nigel Fortune serving as one of the main editors for the publication. It was reprinted with minor corrections each subsequent year until 1995, except 1982 and 1983. In the mid-1990s, the hardback set sold for about $2,300. A paperback edition was reprinted in 1995 which sold for $500. ISBN 0-333-23111-2 – hardback ISBN 1-56159-174-2 – paperback ISBN 0-333-73250-2 – British special edition ISBN 1-56159-229-3 – American special edition Some sections of The New Grove were issued as small sets and individual books on particular topics.
These were enhanced with expanded and updated material and included individual and grouped composer biographies, a four-volume dictionary of American music, a three-volume dictionary of musical instruments, a four-volume dictionary of opera. The second edition under this title was published in 29 volumes, it was made available by subscription on the internet in a service called Grove Music Online. It was again edited by Stanley Sadie, the executive editor was John Tyrrell, it was to be released on CD-ROM as well, but this plan was dropped. As Sadie writes in the preface, "The biggest single expansion in the present edition has been in the coverage of 20th-century composers"; this edition has been subject to negative criticism owing to the significant number of typographical and factual errors that it contains. Two volumes were re-issued in corrected versions, after production errors caused the omission of sections of Igor Stravinsky's worklist and Richard Wagner's bibliography. ISBN 0-333-60800-3 – British ISBN 1-56159-239-0 – American Publication of the second edition of The New Grove was accompanied by a Web-based version, Grove Music Online.
It too, attracted some initial criticism, for example for the way in which images were not incorporated into the text but kept separate. The complete text of The New Grove is available to subscribers to the online service Grove Music Online. Grove Music Online includes a large number of additions of new articles. In addition to the 29 volumes of The New Grove second edition, Grove Music Online incorporates the four-volume New Grove Dictionary of Opera and the three-volume New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, second edition, The Grove Dictionary of American Music and The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, comprising a total of more than 50,000 articles; the current editor-in-chief of Grove Music, the name given to the complete slate of print and online resources that encompass the Grove brand, is University of Pittsburgh professor Deane Root. He assumed the editorship in 2009; the dictionary published by Macmillan, was sold in 2004 to Oxford University Press. Since 2008 Grove Music Online has served as a cornerstone of Oxford University Press's larger online
A pianist is an individual musician who plays the piano. Since most forms of Western music can make use of the piano, pianists have a wide repertoire and a wide variety of styles to choose from, among them traditional classical music, jazz and all sorts of popular music, including rock and roll. Most pianists can, to an extent play other keyboard-related instruments such as the synthesizer, harpsichord and the organ. Modern classical pianists dedicate their careers to performing, teaching and learning new works to expand their repertoire, they do not write or transcribe music as pianists did in the 19th century. Some classical pianists might specialize in accompaniment and chamber music, while others will perform as full-time soloists. Mozart could be considered the first "concert pianist" as he performed on the piano. Composers Beethoven and Clementi from the classical era were famed for their playing, as were, from the romantic era, Brahms, Chopin and Rachmaninoff. From that era, leading performers less known as composers were Hans von Bülow.
However, as we do not have modern audio recordings of most of these pianists, we rely on written commentary to give us an account of their technique and style. Jazz pianists always perform with other musicians, their playing is more free than that of classical pianists and they create an air of spontaneity in their performances. They do not write down their compositions. Well known jazz pianists include Art Tatum, Duke Ellington, Thelonious Monk, Oscar Peterson and Bud Powell. Popular pianists might work as live performers, session musicians, arrangers most feel at home with synthesizers and other electronic keyboard instruments. Notable popular pianists include Victor Borge. A single listing of pianists in all genres would be impractical, given the multitude of musicians noted for their performances on the instrument. Below are links to lists of well-known or influential pianists divided by genres: List of classical pianists List of classical pianists List of classical piano duos List of jazz pianists List of pop and rock pianists List of blues musicians List of boogie woogie musicians List of gospel musicians List of new-age music artists Many important composers were virtuoso pianists.
The following is an incomplete list of such musicians. Franz Schubert Ludwig van Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Johann Nepomuk Hummel Carl Maria von Weber Muzio Clementi Edvard Grieg Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Anton Arensky Sergei Rachmaninoff Anton Rubinstein Frédéric Chopin Felix Mendelssohn Johannes Brahms Camille Saint-Saëns Isaac Albéniz Nikolai Medtner Béla Bartók George Gershwin Sergei Prokofiev Dmitri Shostakovich Some people, having received a solid piano training in their youth, decide not to continue their musical careers but choose nonmusical ones; as a result, there are prominent communities of amateur pianists all over the world that play at quite a high level and give concerts not to earn money but just for the love of music. The International Piano Competition for Outstanding Amateurs, held annually in Paris, attracts about one thousand listeners each year and is broadcast on French radio, it is notable that Jon Nakamatsu, the Gold Medal winner of the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition for professional pianists in Fort Worth, Texas was at the moment of his victory technically an amateur: he never attended a music conservatory or majored in music, worked as a high school German teacher at the time.
The German pianist Davide Martello is known for traveling around conflict zones to play his moving piano. Martello has been recognised by the European parliament for his “outstanding contribution to European cooperation and the promotion of common values”. List of films about pianists
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog