Émile Goudeau was a French journalist and poet. He was the founder of the Hydropathes literary club, he was born in Périgueux, the son of Germain Goudeau, an architect, cousin of Léon Bloy. Goudeau studied at the seminary, was supervisor in different high schools before becoming an employee at the Ministry of Finance, which gave him the opportunity to devote most of his time to poetry. According to Maurice Donnay: Émile Goudeau was from Périgord, he had a brown complexion black hair and beard, a pronounced squint made him look fierce, but he was a brave man, he had much talent, original and tasty like wine... Émile Goudeau had genius, just like that of the Duc Soulografiesky, his thirst was that of the Danaïdes. Anyway, Émile Goudeau chaired the meetings of the Hydropathes with authority. Goudeau founded the Hydropathes society on 11 October 1878. According to Goudeau, the name came from the Hydropathen-valsh by the Hungarian-German musician Joseph Gungl; the purpose of the society was to promote the works of the members.
The Hydropathes Café in the rue Cujas was a large hall that could accommodate several hundred people. The society staged evening entertainments in the form of prose readings and songs; the society published a journal for about year, starting in January 1879, containing writings and pictures by members of the society. The Hydropathes drank in the bohemian way of that time green absinthe, rampant. Goudeau paid his collaborators in drink, this salary was fatal to the most gifted of them, Jules Jouy. At first the Hydropathes met on the Left Bank, but when Rodolphe Salis opened his cabaret, Le Chat Noir, in December 1881, he persuaded Goudeau to move the society there. Goudeau helped Salis to launch his journal Le Chat Noir, which first appeared on 14 January 1882, drawing on his experience with the Hydropathes journal. Goudeau was chief editor of Le Chat Noir from 1882 to 1884. 1878: Fleurs du bitume 1884: Poèmes ironiques 1884: La Revanche des bêtes 1885: La Vache enragée: novel 1886: Voyages et découvertes du célèbre A'Kempis à travers les États-Unis de Paris: Fantasy, with drawings by Henri Rivière 1887: Les Billets bleus: novel 1887: Le Froc: novel 1888: Dix ans de bohème: memoirs, The Illustrated Library, Paris, 1888.
It is on Montmartre hill just below the Place du Tertre. Upside-Down Stories. Compiled and translated by Doug Skinner Notes Citations Sources
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, best known by her nom de plume George Sand, was a French novelist and socialist. One of the most popular writers in Europe in her lifetime, being more popular than both Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s, Sand is recognised as one of the most notable writers of the European Romantic era. George Sand – known to her friends and family as "Aurore" – was born in Paris and was raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother, Marie-Aurore de Saxe, Madame Dupin de Francueil, at her grandmother's estate, Nohant, in the French province of Berry. Sand used the estate setting in many of her novels, her father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France, Comte de Saxe, an illegitimate son of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, a cousin to the sixth degree to Kings Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X of France. She was more distantly related to King Louis Philippe of France through common ancestors from German and Danish ruling families.
Sand's mother, Sophie-Victoire Delaborde, was a commoner. Sand was one of many notable 19th-century women. In 1800, the police issued an order requiring women to apply for a permit in order to wear male clothing; some women applied for health, occupational, or recreational reasons, but many women chose to wear pants and other traditional male attire in public without receiving a permit, they did so as well for practical reasons, but at times to subvert dominant stereotypes. Sand was one of the women who did not apply for a permit and did sport men's clothing, which she justified by the clothes being, firstly less expensive, far sturdier than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, Sand's male dress enabled her to circulate more in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, gave her increased access to venues from which women were barred women of her social standing. Scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public. While there were many contemporary critics of her comportment, many people accepted her behaviour until they became shocked with the subversive tone of her novels.
Those who found her writing admirable were not bothered by her ambiguous or rebellious public behaviour. As Victor Hugo commented, "George Sand can not determine whether she is female. I entertain a high regard for all my colleagues, but it is not my place to decide whether she is my sister or my brother.” In 1822, at the age of eighteen, Sand married Casimir Dudevant, illegitimate son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children: Solange. In 1825 she had an intense but platonic affair with the young lawyer Aurélien de Sèze. In early 1831, she left her husband and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was separated from Dudevant, took custody of their children. Sand had romantic affairs with Jules Sandeau, Prosper Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Louis-Chrysostome Michel, Pierre-François Bocage, Charles Didier, Félicien Mallefille, Louis Blanc, composer Frédéric Chopin. In her life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert, despite their differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they became close friends.
She engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumours of a romantic affair. Sand spent the winter of 1838-1839 with Chopin in Majorca at the Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa; the trip to Majorca was described in her Un hiver à Majorque, first published in 1841. Chopin was ill with incipient tuberculosis at the beginning of their relationship, spending a cold and wet winter in Majorca where they could not get proper lodgings exacerbated his symptoms, they separated two years before his death for a variety of reasons. In her novel Lucrezia Floriani, Sand used Chopin as a model for a sickly Eastern European prince named Karol, he is cared for by a middle-aged actress past her prime, who suffers a great deal through her affection for Karol. Though Sand claimed not to have made a cartoon out of Chopin, the book's publication and widespread readership may have exacerbated their antipathy towards each other; the tipping point in their relationship involved her daughter Solange.
Chopin continued to be cordial to Solange after she and her husband, Auguste Clésinger, had a falling out with Sand over money. Sand took Chopin's support of Solange to be disloyal, confirmation that Chopin had always "loved" Solange. Sand's son Maurice disliked Chopin. Maurice wanted to establish himself as the "man of the estate" and did not wish to have Chopin as a rival. Chopin was never asked back to Nohant. Chopin was penniless at that time; the funeral was attended by over 3,000 people, including Eugène Delacroix, Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo and other famous people. George Sand was notably absent. George Sand died at Nohant, near Châteauroux, in France's Indre département on 8 June 1876, at the age of 71, she was buried in the private grave
François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past, he was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were criticized during his lifetime, they clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the artistic community. From the unexpected realism of his first major figure – inspired by his 1875 trip to Italy – to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he sought, Rodin's reputation grew, he became the preeminent French sculptor of his time.
By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists, his students included Antoine Bourdelle, Camille Claudel, Constantin Brâncuși, Charles Despiau. He married Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives, his sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born in 1840 into a working-class family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin, a police department clerk, he was self-educated, began to draw at age 10. Between ages 14 and 17, he attended the Petite École, a school specializing in art and mathematics where he studied drawing and painting, his drawing teacher Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran believed in first developing the personality of his students so that they observed with their own eyes and drew from their recollections, Rodin expressed appreciation for his teacher much in life.
It was at Petite École that he met Alphonse Legros. In 1857, Rodin submitted a clay model of a companion to the École des Beaux-Arts in an attempt to win entrance. Entrance requirements were not high at the Grande École, so the rejections were considerable setbacks. Rodin's inability to gain entrance may have been due to the judges' Neoclassical tastes, while Rodin had been schooled in light, 18th-century sculpture, he left the Petite École in 1857 and earned a living as a craftsman and ornamenter for most of the next two decades, producing decorative objects and architectural embellishments. Rodin's sister Maria, two years his senior, died of peritonitis in a convent in 1862, Rodin was anguished with guilt because he had introduced her to an unfaithful suitor, he joined the Catholic order of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament. Saint Peter Julian Eymard and head of the congregation, recognized Rodin's talent and sensed his lack of suitability for the order, so he encouraged Rodin to continue with his sculpture.
Rodin returned to work as a decorator. The teacher's attention to detail and his finely rendered musculature of animals in motion influenced Rodin. In 1864, Rodin began to live with a young seamstress named Rose Beuret, with whom he stayed for the rest of his life, with varying commitment; the couple had a son named Auguste-Eugène Beuret. That year, Rodin offered his first sculpture for exhibition and entered the studio of Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, a successful mass producer of objets d'art. Rodin worked as Carrier-Belleuse' chief assistant until 1870, designing roof decorations and staircase and doorway embellishments. With the arrival of the Franco-Prussian War, Rodin was called to serve in the French National Guard, but his service was brief due to his near-sightedness. Decorators' work had dwindled because of the war, yet Rodin needed to support his family, as poverty was a continual difficulty for him until about the age of 30. Carrier-Belleuse soon asked him to join him in Belgium, where they worked on ornamentation for the Brussels Stock Exchange.
Rodin planned to stay in Belgium a few months. It was a pivotal time in his life, he had acquired skill and experience as a craftsman, but no one had yet seen his art, which sat in his workshop since he could not afford castings. His relationship with Carrier-Belleuse had deteriorated, but he found other employment in Brussels, displaying some works at salons, his companion Rose soon joined him there. Having saved enough money to travel, Rodin visited Italy for two months in 1875, where he was drawn to the work of Donatello and Michelangelo, their work had a profound effect on his artistic direction. Rodin said, "It is Michelangelo who has freed me from academic sculpture." Returning to Belgium, he began work on The Age of Bronze, a life-size male figure whose realism brought Rodin attention but led to accusations of sculptural cheating—its realism and scale was such that critics alleged he had cast the work from a living model. Much of Rodin's work was explicitly larger or smaller than life, in part to demonstrate the folly of such acc
Fresselines is a commune in the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France. A tourism and farming village situated some 20 miles northwest of Guéret, at the junction of the D76 and the D44 roads, where the river Petite Creuse joins the Creuse; the church of St. Julien, dating from the twelfth century; the two 15th-century châteaux of Puyguillon and Vervix Two 15th-century chapels. Maurice Rollinat, lived here. Gustave Geffroy, lived here. Claude Monet, spent much time here. Communes of the Creuse department INSEE Fresselines on the Quid website
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website