Prime Minister of Italy
The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election, prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943, Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power, the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office, as the President of the Council of Ministers the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a political party and generally commands the majority in the Parliament.
Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister directs, the Prime Ministers activity has often consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The office was first established in 1848 in Italys predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, from 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the Unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, in fact the candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, who was appointed on 23 March 1861, from 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a patriot and statesman. He led the country for six years, from 1887 until 1891, Crispi was internationally famous and often mentioned along with world statesmen such as Bismarck and Salisbury.
Originally an enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, he went on to become a bellicose authoritarian prime minister and admirer of Bismarck. His career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a banking scandal. He is often seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1892 Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was elected Prime Minister by king Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903 after a period of instability he was appointed head of the government. Giolitti was the Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Mussolini, under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party. They were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no links to political constituencies
Constitutional Court of Italy
The Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic is the highest court of Italy in matters of constitutional law. Sometimes, the name Consulta is used as a metonym for it, because its sessions are held in Palazzo della Consulta in Rome. The Court was established by the republican Constitution of Italy in 1948, but it became operative only in 1955 after the enactment of the Constitutional Law n.1 of 1953 and it held its first hearing in 1956. Candidates need to be either lawyers with twenty years or more experience, full professors of law, or judges of the Supreme Administrative, the members elect the President of the Court, since 12 November 2014 this has been Alessandro Criscuolo. The President is elected from among its members in a secret ballot, if no person gets that many votes, a runoff election between the two judges with the most votes occurs. One or two vice-presidents, appointed by the President of the Court, stand in for the president in the event of his absence for any reason, the constitutional court passes on the constitutionality of laws with no right of appeal.
The court is a post-World War II innovation, since 12 October 2007, when reform of the Italian intelligence agencies approved in August 2007 came into force, the pretext of state secret cannot be used to deny access to documents by the Court. Appointed by President of Italy Courts of Italy Parliament of Italy List of Presidents of the Constitutional Court of Italy Official website
Nicola Bombacci was born near Forlì on 24 October 1879. Anyway the following year Bombacci resigned as Secretary of the Socialist Party, in 1921 he became one of the founding fathers of the Italian Communist Party. Bombacci was a friend of future Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Several stands already taken had to be rectified, we have nothing of which to ask pardon for as both in present and past we are impelled by the ideal, the triumph of work. ”He was the author of the economic theory of socialization in 1943. Nicknamed “the Red Pope”, Bombacci told a crowd in Genoa in 1945 that “Stalin will never make socialism and he was summarily shot alongside Mussolini. Before his execution, Bombacci shouted out “Long live Mussolini, after his death, he was hung upside down at Piazzale Loreto in a public display, along with Mussolini, Clara Petacci, the head of the Republican Fascist Party Alessandro Pavolini, and others
Italian resistance movement
It was formed by pro-Allied Italians, following the Allied invasion of the country, the armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, and German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans. The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War or as the Italian Civil War, the modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the resistance. The periods best-known battle broke out in Rome the day the armistice was announced, outnumbered German Fallschirmjäger and Panzergrenadiere were initially repelled and endured heavy losses, but slowly gained the upper hand, aided by their experience and superior Panzer component. The Italian Centauro II Divisions absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat given its German-made tanks and it was composed primarily of ex-Blackshirts and was not trusted. By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown Rome and the Granatieri made their last stand at Porta San Paolo, at 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the order of surrender, the Italian divisions were disbanded, and their members taken prisoner.
Generals Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. and Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo joined the underground, one of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany. Battle broke out at 21,15 on 10 September, between the German landing forces and the Italian coastal batteries and civilian population and Carbet were scuttled because of the damage they had suffered. The German attack was repelled, by the dawn of 11 September,120 Germans had been killed, Italian casualties had been 4 killed and a dozen wounded, four Italian submarine chasers were sunk during the fightning. Later in the morning, however, De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, many of the sailors and citizens who had fought in the battle of Piombino retreated to the surrounding woods and formed the first partisan formations in the area. In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without orders from higher echelons, were disarmed and shipped to POW camps in the Third Reich, some garrisons stationed in occupied Greece, Albania and Italy fought the Germans.
Admirals Inigo Campioni and Luigi Mascherpa led an attempt to defend Rhodes, Leros, with reinforcements from SAS, SBS and British Army troops under the command of Generals Francis Gerrard, Russell Brittorous and Robert Tilney, the defenders held on for a month. However, the Wehrmacht took the islands air and sea landings by infantry. Both Campioni and Mascherpa were captured and executed at Verona for high treason, on 13 September 1943, the Acqui Division stationed in Cefalonia was ordered by Italian High Command to attack the Germans, despite ongoing negotiations. After a ten-day battle, the Germans executed thousands of officers and those killed in the massacre of the Acqui Division included division commander General Antonio Gandin. Other Italian forces remained trapped in Yugoslavia following the armistice and some decided to fight alongside the local resistance, when the unit finally returned to Italy at the end of the war, half its members had been killed or were listed as missing in action.
Bastia, in Corsica, was the setting of a battle between Italian torpedo boats and an attacking German flotilla. Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around 650, 000-700,000, most refused cooperation with the Third Reich despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the King
Giuseppe Saragat was an Italian politician who was the fifth President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. Saragat was born in Turin, from Sardinian parents and he died in Rome on 11 June 1988. He is said to have been an atheist, member of the Unitary Socialist Party since 1922, he moved to Vienna in 1926 and to France in 1929 and joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1930. He was to be the paramount leader for the rest of his life. Subsequently he was nominated as Foreign minister from 1963 to 1964 and his election was the result of one of the rare instances of unity in the Italian left, and followed rumours of a possible neo-fascist coup during Antonio Segnis presidency
The Fasci Siciliani, short for Fasci Siciliani dei Lavoratori, were a popular movement of democratic and socialist inspiration, which arose in Sicily in the years between 1889 and 1894. The Fasci gained the support of the poorest and most exploited classes of the island by channeling their frustration, the leaders of the movement were not able to keep the situation from getting out of control. Some reforms followed, including compensation and pension schemes. The suppression of the strikes led to an increase in emigration. The immediate demands of the movement were fair land rents, higher wages, lower local taxes, between 1889 and 1893 some 170 Fasci were established in Sicily. According to some sources the movement reached a membership of more than 300,000 by the end of 1893, the Fasci constituted autonomous organizations with their own insignia and sometimes even musical bands, and their own local halls for reunions and congresses. They were called Fasci because everyone can break a single stick, while many of the leaders were of socialist or anarchist leanings, few of their supporters were true revolutionaries.
Nevertheless, the peasants who assembled into the Fasci were eager for social justice, a crucifix hung beside the red flag in many of their meeting-places, and portraits of the King beside those of the revolutionaries Garibaldi and Marx. Cheers for the King were often heard in their marches that almost resembled quasi-religious processions, many of the Fasci were part of the Italian Workers Party that had been founded at a conference in Genoa on August 14,1892. The rural Fasci in particular were a phenomenon, both ancient and modern. They combined millenarian aspirations with urban intellectual leadership often in contact with workers’ organizations, the Fasci, which included many women, were encouraged by the messianic belief that the start of a new reign of justice was looming and the movement spread like an epidemic. The agrarian crisis between 1888 and 1892 led to a decrease in wheat prices. The island’s main sources of wealth – wine and sulphur – suffered a heavy blow, the dominant landowning class channeled most of the economic burden on to the peasantry, in the form of higher rents and discriminatory local taxation.
As social tension rose, a handful of young and hitherto quite unknown socialist intellectuals – many of them recent graduates of Palermo University – seized their opportunity. The movement grew under the first government of Prime minister Francesco Crispi and coincided with unpopular tax increases, the Italian economy had been sliding into a deep recession since the late 1880s. The first official Fascio was founded on May 1,1891, other leaders included Rosario Garibaldi Bosco in Palermo, Nicola Barbato in Piana dei Greci, Bernardino Verro in Corleone, and Lorenzo Panepinto in Santo Stefano Quisquina. While the ruling elite depicted the men of the Fasci as treasonous socialists and anarchists seeking to overthrow the monarchy, in fact many were devout Catholics and monarchists. The movement sometimes had a nature, characterised by statements as Jesus was a true socialist
Francesco De Martino
Francesco de Martino was an Italian jurist, lifetime senator and former Vice President of the Council of Ministers. He was considered by many to be the conscience of Italian Socialist Party and he graduated from the law school Federico II in Naples, under the guidance of Enrico De Nicola, embarked on the study of law and economics and became a distinguished scholar of Roman law. He first joined the Action Party in 1943, and joined the reconstituted Socialist party in 1945, at the first elections of the new Italian Republic in 1948, he was elected to Parliament with the Popular Front alliance of communists and socialists. He soon won the confidence of party leader Pietro Nenni, to whom he became vice secretary. When, in 1963, Nenni became Vice President of the Council of Ministers, or Deputy Prime Minister in the first centre-left government of Aldo Moro, De Martino was, in two times, the PSIs candidate to the presidential elections, in 1971 and 1978. This time, the popular socialist, the former Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies.
De Martino candidacy was tarnished when the family paid a 1bn lire ransom for his release his son Guido who was kidnapped by the Camorra, the kidnappers were eventually captured, but those behind them were never discovered. In 1976, he was ousted as party secretary by Bettino Craxi when the PSI lost in the elections falling below 10% for the first time, De Martino became the scapegoat, and Craxi became Italys first socialist Prime Minister in 1983. He was dismayed by the demise of the historical socialist party after the corruption under Craxi and he resumed his academic career at the law school Federico II, where his secular funeral was celebrated in the presence of the President of Italy, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. He is survived by his children, Guido, Elisa, media related to Francesco De Martino at Wikimedia Commons
Naval Air Station Sigonella
Naval Air Station Sigonella, is a U. S. Navy installation at NATO Base Sigonella and an Italian Air Force base in Sicily, Italy. Although a tenant of the Italian Air Force, NAS Sigonella acts as landlord to more than 40 other U. S. commands and it is located 15 km west and 11 km south of the city of Catania, and some 40 km south of Mount Etna. Because of its location near the center of the Mediterranean Sea, NASSIG is well placed to support operations by the U. S. 6th Fleet, other U. S. military units and it serves as an Italian base for the 41º Stormo Antisom. It is one of the most frequently used stops for U. S. airlift aircraft bound from the continental United States to Southwest Asia, NAS Sigonella has the best claim to be hub of U. S. naval air operations in the Mediterranean. The base command is landlord to more than 40 other U. S. units, among the largest are a rotating P-3C patrol squadron, a Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, and a U. S. Naval Hospital. The hospital was built in 1992, there was only a clinic and the closest U. S.
Naval Hospital was at Naples. Sigonella is home to more than 4,000 troops, civilian personnel, NAS Sigonella is the Navys second largest security command, second only to that located at Naval Support Activity Bahrain. NAS Sigonella has a support of security personnel from NR NSF Sigonella. The base comprises two sections, NAS I was the site of the original U. S. base but is now a support facility, NAS I is host to other facilities, mainly for entertainment. NAS II is now used as a service base. The United States Naval Air Facility, was established 15 June 1959, the facility was conceived in the early 1950s, when plans to base U. S. Navy P2V Neptunes at Hal Far, Malta began to outgrow the facility. When there was no room for expansion at Malta, the U. S. Navy obtained NATO backing to be hosted by Sicilians, Italy made land available under a temporary agreement signed 25 June 1957. Six days later, Landing Ship Tank began to deliver equipment from the Malta base, Ground was broken in September, and construction on the administrative area at NAF I was started in 1958.
It was built on top of an airfield where damaged fighters and bombers of the German Air Force had once landed during the Second World War. By the end of August 1959, the NAF II airfield was available for flights under visual flight rules,24 flights were logged by 31 August. One of Sigonellas first buildings was what is now the American Forces Network building, in 1958, that building was Sigonellas vector control center, where rat poison was stored. The Army Corps of Engineers next used the building for their offices, sharing it with Special Services, or what is now called Morale and Recreation. Around 1966, AFN came to Sigonella and joined Special Services, Sigonellas first flood occurred mid-September 1959