São Paulo (state)
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. As the richest Brazilian state and a major industrial complex dubbed the "locomotive of Brazil", the state is responsible for 33.9% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo has the second highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita, the fourth lowest infant mortality rate, the third highest life expectancy, the third lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil, being by far, the safest state in the country; the homicide rate is 3.8 per 100 thousand as of 2018 1/4 of the Brazilian rate. São Paulo alone is richer than Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia combined. If São Paulo were an independent country, its nominal GDP would be ranked among the top 20 in the world; the economy of São Paulo State is the most developed in Brazil. With more than 45 million inhabitants in 2017, São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state, the most populous national subdivision in the Americas, the third most populous political unit of South America, surpassed only by the rest of the Brazilian Federation and Colombia.
The local population is one of the most diverse in the country and descended from Italians, who began immigrating to the country in the late 19th century. In addition, Germans, Japanese and Greeks are present in the ethnic composition of the local population; the area that today corresponds to the state territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples from 12,000 BC. In the early 16th century, the coast of the region was visited by Portuguese and Spanish explorers and navigators. In 1532 Martim Afonso de Sousa would establish the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas—the village of São Vicente, in the Baixada Santista. In the 17th century, the paulistas bandeirantes intensified the exploration of the interior of the colony, which expanded the territorial domain of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire in South America. In the 18th century, after the establishment of the Province of São Paulo, the region began to gain political weight. After independence in 1820, São Paulo began to become a major agricultural producer in the newly constituted Empire of Brazil, which created a rich regional rural oligarchy, which would switch on the command of the Brazilian government with Minas Gerais's elites during the early republican period in the 1880s.
Under the Vargas Era, the state was one of the first to initiate a process of industrialization and its population became one of the most urban of the federation. The city of São Paulo, the homonymous state capital, is ranked as the world's 12th largest city and its metropolitan area, with 20 million inhabitants, is the 9th largest in the world and second in the Americas, after Greater Mexico City. Regions near the city of São Paulo are metropolitan areas, such as Campinas, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos; the total population of these areas coupled with the state capital—the so-called "Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo"—exceeds 30 million inhabitants, i.e. 75 percent of the population of São Paulo statewide, the first macro-metropolis in the southern hemisphere, joining 65 municipalities that together are home to 12 percent of the Brazilian population. In pre-European times, the area, now São Paulo state was occupied by the Tupi people's nation, who subsisted through hunting and cultivation.
The first European to settle in the area was João Ramalho, a Portuguese sailor who may have been shipwrecked around 1510, ten years after the first Portuguese landfall in Brazil. He became a settler. In 1532, the first colonial expedition, led by Martim Afonso de Sousa of Portugal, landed at São Vicente. De Sousa added Ramalho's settlement to his colony. Early European colonisation of Brazil was limited. Portugal was more interested in Asia, but with English and French raiding privateer ships just off the coast, the territory had to be protected. Unwilling to shoulder the burden of naval defence himself, the Portuguese ruler, King Joao III, divided the coast into "captaincies", or swathes of land, 50 leagues apart, he distributed them among well-connected Portuguese. The early port and sugar-cultivating settlement of São Vicente was one rare success connected to this policy. In 1548, João III brought Brazil under direct royal control. Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior.
Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town in 1553; the history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga. In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades. By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 household
1997 Copa América
Bolivia hosted the Copa América for the second time in its 38th edition. It was held from June 11 to 29, it was organized by South America's football governing body. There is no qualifying for the final tournament. All South American countries participate, along with two more invited countries, making a total of 12 teams competing in the tournament. In the 1997 edition, Costa Rica and Mexico were the invitees; the tournament was won by Brazil, who became the first team to hold the Copa América and the World Cup at the same time, a feat they would repeat in 2004. For a complete list of participating squads: 1997 Copa América squads The teams were divided into three groups of four teams each; the formation of the groups was made by CONMEBOL, in a public drawing of lots that took place on December 17, 1996. Each team plays one match against each of the other teams within the same group. Three points are awarded for one point for a draw and zero points for a defeat. First and second placed teams, in each group, advance to the quarter-finals.
The best third placed team and the second best third placed team advance to the quarter-finals. Tie-breaker If teams finish leveled on points, the following tie-breakers are used:greater goal difference in all group games. At the end of the first stage, a comparison was made between the third-placed teams of each group; the two best third-placed teams advanced to the quarter-finals. With six goals, Luis Hernández is the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 67 goals were scored with two of them credited as own goals. 6 goals Luis Hernández5 goals Ronaldo3 Goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Rónald González Camilo Romero 1997 Copa América at RSSSF
The Campeonato Nacional de Liga de Primera División known as La Liga, is the men's top professional football division of the Spanish football league system. Administered by the Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional known as the Liga de Fútbol Profesional, La Liga is contested by 20 teams, with the three lowest-placed teams at the end of each season relegated to the Segunda División and replaced by the top three teams in that division. A total of 62 teams have competed in La Liga since its inception. Nine teams have been crowned champions, with Real Madrid winning the title a record 33 times and Barcelona 25 times. Barcelona won the inaugural La Liga in 1929 with Athletic Bilbao claiming several titles in the league's early years. Barcelona and Real Madrid dominated the championship in the 1950s, winning four La Liga titles each throughout the decade. Real Madrid dominated La Liga from the 1960s through the 1980s, when Barcelona, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad won the league twice in those years.
From the 1990s onward, Barcelona has dominated winning 15 titles. Although Real Madrid has been prominent, winning 8 titles, La Liga has seen other champions, including Atlético Madrid and Deportivo de La Coruña. In the 2010s, Atlético Madrid has become an strong team, forming a trio alongside Real Madrid and Barcelona. According to UEFA's league coefficient, La Liga has been the top league in Europe over the last five years and has led Europe for more years than any other country, it has produced the continent's top-rated club more times than any other league, more than double that of second-placed Serie A. Its clubs have won the most UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup, FIFA Club World Cup titles, its players have accumulated the highest number of Ballon d'Or awards, The Best FIFA Men's Player including FIFA World Player of the Year and UEFA Men's Player of the Year including UEFA Club Footballer of the Year. La Liga is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 26,983 for league matches in the 2017–18 season.
This is the sixth-highest of any domestic professional sports league in the world and the third-highest of any professional association football league in the world, behind the Bundesliga and the Premier League. The competition format follows the usual double round-robin format. During the course of a season, which lasts from August to May, each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, for 38 matchdays. Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, no points for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, with the highest-ranked club at the end of the season crowned champion. A system of promotion and relegation exists between the Segunda División; the three lowest placed teams in La Liga are relegated to the Segunda División, the top two teams from the Segunda División promoted to La Liga, with an additional club promoted after a series of play-offs involving the third, fourth and sixth placed clubs. Below is a complete record of; these are: yellow card, 1 point doubled yellow card/ejection, 2 points direct red card, 3 points suspension or disqualification of coach, executive or other club personnel, 5 points misconduct of the supporters: mild 5 points, serious 6 points serious 7 points stadium closure, 10 points if the Competition Committee removes a penalty, the points are removed If the tie is still not broken, it will be resolved with a tie-break match in a neutral stadium.
The top 4 teams in La Liga qualify for the subsequent season's UEFA Champions League Group Stage. The winners of the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League qualify for the subsequent season's UEFA Champions League Group Stage. If this means 6 La Liga teams qualify the 4th place team in La Liga instead plays in the UEFA Europa League, as any single nation is limited to a maximum of 5 teams; the 5th place team in La Liga qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League Group Stage. The winner of the Copa del Rey qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League Group Stage, but if the winner finished in the top 5 places in La Liga this place reverts to the team that finished 6th in La Liga. Furthermore the 6th place team qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League 2nd Qualifying Round; the number of places allocated to Spanish clubs in UEFA competitions is dependent upon the position a country holds in the UEFA country coefficients, which are calculated based upon the performance of teams in UEFA competitions in the previous 5 years.
The ranking of Spain is 1st. In April 1927, José María Acha, a director at Arenas Club de Getxo, first proposed the idea of a national leagu
1999–2000 La Liga
The 1999–2000 La Liga season, the 69th since its establishment, began on 21 August 1999 and ended on 20 May 2000. Deportivo La Coruña won their first league title with 69 points, the lowest for a champion since three points for a win was introduced in 1995. Teams promoted from 1998–99 Segunda División Málaga Numancia Sevilla Rayo VallecanoTeams relegated to 1999–2000 Segunda División Extremadura Villareal Tenerife Salamanca 1999–2000 season was composed of the following clubs: Athletic Bilbao Atlético Madrid FC Barcelona Betis Celta de Vigo Deportivo Alavés Deportivo de La Coruña RCD Espanyol Málaga CF RCD Mallorca CD Numancia Racing de Santander Rayo Vallecano Real Madrid Real Oviedo Real Sociedad Sevilla FC Valencia CF Real Valladolid Real Zaragoza Most wins - Deportivo La Coruña Fewest wins - Sevilla Most draws - Racing Santander Fewest draws - Deportivo La Coruña Most losses - Sevilla Fewest losses - Zaragoza Most goals scored - Barcelona Fewest goals scored - Betis Most goals conceded - Sevilla Fewest goals conceded - Alavés Source: BDFutbol Rayo Vallecano was the winner of the Fair-play award with 102 points, moreover it was elected on 8 June 2000 in Brussels as one of the two entries by UEFA to enter UEFA Cup in the qualifying round by the same condition of Fair Play.
Source: El Mundo Deportivo Alfonso Pérez Muñoz, footballer Source: http://www.bdfutbol.com/es/t/t1999-00.html 1999–2000 Segunda División 1999–2000 Copa del Rey
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean and South America. Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship.
In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, had cash reserves of over US$930 million. Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively; these allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups; those among these officials who were indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.
On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed; the need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association was founded in the rear of the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym are used outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland; that same day, the German Football Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin. Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by a member of the association; the first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, the United States in 1914. During World War II, with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures limited, the organization's survival was in doubt. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann, it was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations resumed their membership; the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in England. The first World Cup was held in 1930 in Uruguay. FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, is an association established under the law of Switzerland. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association; each national football association has one vote, regardless of footballing strength.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes; the congress approves the annual report, decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its general secretary, the other members of the FIFA Council in the year following the FIFA World Cup. FIFA Council — called the FIFA Executive Committee and chaired by the president — is the main decision-making body of the organisation in the intervals of congress; the council is composed of 37 people: the president. The Executive Committee is the body that decides w
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i