Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term
Great Migration (African American)
The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration, or the Black Migration, was the movement of six million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970. In every U. S. Census prior to 1910, more than 90 percent of the African-American population lived in the American South. In 1900, only one-fifth of African Americans living in the South were living in urban areas. By the end of the Great Migration, just over 50 percent of the African-American population remained in the South, while a little less than 50 percent lived in the North and West, the African-American population had become urbanized. By 1960, of those African Americans still living in the South, half now lived in urban areas, by 1970, more than 80 percent of African Americans nationwide lived in cities. In 1991, Nicholas Lemann wrote that: The Great Migration was one of the largest and most rapid mass internal movements in history—perhaps the greatest not caused by the immediate threat of execution or starvation.
In sheer numbers it outranks the migration of any other ethnic group—Italians or Irish or Jews or Poles—to. For blacks, the migration meant leaving what had always been their economic and social base in America, finding a new one; some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration, which saw about 1.6 million people move from rural areas in the south to northern industrial cities, a Second Great Migration, which began after the Great Depression and brought at least 5 million people—including many townspeople with urban skills—to the north and west. Since the Civil Rights Movement, a less rapid reverse migration has occurred. Dubbed the New Great Migration, it has seen a gradual increase of African American migration to the South to states and cities where economic opportunities are the best; the reasons include economic difficulties of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" and its lower cost of living and kinship ties, improved racial relations.
As early as 1975 to 1980, several southern states were net African-American migration gainers, while in 2014, African-American millennials moved in the highest numbers to Texas, Florida, North Carolina, California. African-American populations have continued to drop throughout much of the Northeast from the state of New York and northern New Jersey, as they rise in the South. James Gregory calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in The Southern Diaspora. Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade; the pace continued through the 1920s. By 1930, there were 1.3 million former southerners living in other regions. The Great Depression wiped out job opportunities in the northern industrial belt for African Americans, caused a sharp reduction in migration. In the 1930s and 1940s, increasing mechanization of agriculture brought the institution of sharecropping that had existed since the Civil War to an end in the United States causing many landless black farmers to be forced off of the land.
As a result 1.4 million black southerners moved north or west in the 1940s, followed by 1.1 million in the 1950s, another 2.4 million people in the 1960s and early 1970s. By the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. But, in a reflection of changing economics, as well as the end of Jim Crow laws in the 1960s and improving race relations in the South, in the 1980s and early 1990s, more black Americans were heading South than leaving that region. African Americans moved from the 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Georgia. Census figures show that African Americans went from 52.2% of the population in 1920 to 45.3% of the population in 1950 in Mississippi, from 41.7% in 1920 to 30.9% of the population in 1950 in Georgia, from 38.9% in 1920 to 32.9% of the population in 1950 in Louisiana, from 38.4% in 1920 to 32.0% of the population in 1950 in Alabama, 36.0% in 1920 to 31.0% of the population in Texas. Based on the total populations in each of the four states, only Georgia showed a net decrease in its African American population in 1950 compared to 1920.
Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi showed net increases in their African American populations in 1950 compared to 1920, with the percentage decreasing due to the white population increasing more. Big cities were the principal destinations of southerners throughout the two phases of the Great Migration. In the first phase, eight major cities attracted two-thirds of the migrants: New York and Chicago, followed in order by Philadelphia, St. Louis, Detroit and Indianapolis; the Second great black migration increased the populations of these cities while adding others as destinations, including the Western states. Western cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Phoenix and Portland attracted African Americans in large numbers. There were clear migratory patterns that linked particular states and cities in the South to corresponding destinations in the North and West. Half of those who migrated from Mississippi during the first Great Migration, for example, ended up in Chicago, while those from Virginia tended to move to Philadelphia.
For the most part, these patterns were related to geography, with the closest cities attracting the most migrants. When multiple destinations
Spring Hill, Tennessee
Spring Hill is a city in Maury and Williamson counties, located 30 miles south of Nashville. Spring Hill's population as of 2018 was 40,436; the first settlers of Spring Hill arrived in 1808 and the city was established in 1809. Albert Russell was the first person to build a home on the land. Spring Hill was the site of a Civil War battle, now known as the Battle of Spring Hill, on November 29, 1864. Spring Hill was the home of a preparatory school and Hughes Military Academy, the campus of which now serves as the main campus of Tennessee Children's Home, a ministry associated with the Churches of Christ. Spring Hill is located at 35°45′9″N 86°54′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.7 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. The official main street of Spring Hill is called US Highway 31, Columbia Pike or Nashville Highway; as of the 2000 census, there were 7,715 people, 2,634 households and 2,159 families residing in the city.
The population density was 435.6 people per square mile. There were 2,819 housing units at an average density of 159.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.33% White, 7.80% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.98% of the population. There were 2,634 households out of which 50.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.3% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present and 18.0% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.8% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 42.0% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64 and 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,872 and the median income for a family was $62,643. Males had a median income of $50,819 versus $29,821 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,688. About 3.1% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. The population was 7,715 at the 2000 census. Rapid growth has taken place in recent years with a population of 23,462 in 2007 and a 2010 census population of 29,036 and a population of 31,140 in 2012. In 2018, Spring Hill hit 40,000 residents. In November, 2015, the Spring Hill Board of Mayor and Aldermen approved the ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’ comprehensive plan; the plan outlines ways to accomplish that vision. In 2016, the city hired Chicago-based planning and zoning consultant, Camiros Ltd, to oversee the creation of a new zoning code to implement the vision described in ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’.
The resulting'Spring Hill Unified Development Code', updates the previous code created in 1987. The number of building permits issued has climbed since a sharp decline that started in 2007 and hit a low in 2009. In 2017, permits were issued at a rate of 2.2 per day totaling 812 for the year. 2018 is on pace to match the previous year. Spring Hill was the site of the Saturn Corporation production facility, which operated from 1990 to 2007; the Saturn S-Series, Saturn ION, Saturn VUE were produced there. In 2007, General Motors Corporation, the parent company of Saturn, shut down the facility to retool it for production of other GM vehicles and renamed it Spring Hill Manufacturing; the plant became the assembly point for the new Chevrolet Traverse. However, after a battle among plants in Spring Hill, Orion Township and Janesville, Wisconsin, GM announced on June 26, 2009 that they had chosen to build a new small car in Orion Township. Nearly 2,500 Spring Hill auto workers were faced with buy-out and early retirement.
The vehicle assembly part of the Spring Hill plant was idled in late 2009 when production of the Traverse was moved to Lansing, while production of power trains and metal stamping continued. In November 2011, GM announced plans for retooling of the vehicle assembly portion of the plant for use as an "ultra-flexible" plant which will be used to build the Chevy Equinox and GMC Terrain but will be designed for rapid retooling to other vehicles of similar size. Spring Hill has gone through rapid development and growth in recent years, causing General Motors to reopen their auto plant and begin hiring locally again, which will hire 1,000 new people. In Addition to this, companies such as Ryder and Goodwill have announced new facilities in the Spring Hill area. Mars, Inc. has opened a facility in nearby Thompson's Station, TN. Rippavilla Plantation, located at 5700 Main Street, offers educational activities and an annual corn maze among other attractions. Columbia Academy Marvin Wright Elementary School Spring Hill Elementary School Spring Hill High School Spring Hill Middle School Allendale Elementary Bethesda Elementary Chapmans Retreat Elementary Heritage Elementary Heritage Middle Hillsboro Elementary Middle Independence High Longview Elementary Spring Hill Academy Spring Station Middle Summit High Thompson's S
Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Born in Baltimore, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933, he established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General.
In 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, was succeeded by Clarence Thomas. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908, he was descended from enslaved peoples on both sides of his family. His original name was Thoroughgood, his father, William Canfield Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, his mother Norma Arica, as a teacher. Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; the family debated current events after dinner. Marshall said, he did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made."Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, placed in the top third of the class, he went to Lincoln University, a black university in Pennsylvania.
It is reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University, Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes and musician Cab Calloway, he did not take his studies and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students. He was not politically active at first. In his first year Marshall opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university. Hughes described Marshall as "rough and ready and wrong". In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater; that year he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks. In September 1929 he married Vivien Buster Burey and began to take his studies graduating from Lincoln with honors Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy. Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy.
Marshall attended Howard University School of Law. His views on discrimination were influenced by the dean, Charles Hamilton Houston. In 1933, Marshall graduated first in his law class at Howard. After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore, he began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP. In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College graduate with excellent credentials, denied admission to the University of Maryland Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.
The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now." At the age of 32, Marshall won U. S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U. S. 227. That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; as the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U. S. 649. S. 1. S. 629. S. 637. His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U. S. 483, the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established b
A funeral home, funeral parlor or mortuary, is a business that provides interment and funeral services for the dead and their families. These services may include a prepared wake and funeral, the provision of a chapel for the funeral. Funeral homes arrange services in accordance with the wishes of surviving friends and family, whether immediate next of kin or an executor so named in a legal will; the funeral home takes care of the necessary paperwork and other details, such as making arrangements with the cemetery, providing obituaries to the news media. The funeral business has a history that dates to the age of the Egyptians who mastered the science of preservation. In recent years many funeral homes have started posting obituaries online and use materials submitted by families to create memorial websites. There are certain common types of services in North America. A traditional funeral service consists of a viewing, a funeral service in a place of worship or the funeral home chapel and a graveside committal service.
Direct cremation consists of the funeral home receiving the body, preparing it for the crematory and filing the necessary legal paperwork. Direct/immediate burial is the forgoing of a funeral ceremony for a simple burial. Moving a body between mortuaries involves preparing it for shipment in a coffin strapped into an arbitrary or a combination unit; this is common. When a body is brought to a funeral home, it is sometimes embalmed to delay decomposition or to make the viewing of the body more pleasant; the procedure involves removing sufficient blood material to accommodate the preservative chemicals and dyes, aspirating the internal organs and setting the facial features. Cosmetics are used with the consent of the family to improve the appearance of face and hands for a more natural look. If the face or hands are disfigured by accident, illness or decomposition, the embalmer may utilize restorative techniques to make them presentable for an "open casket" service. If this is not possible, or the family wishes, the funeral home can perform a "closed casket" service.
The funeral home sets aside one or more large areas for people to gather at a visitation. This area may contain a space to display the body in a casket to visitors who may pay their respects. Funeral and memorial services may take place at the funeral home. Many funeral homes offer prearrangement options for those. Several large multi-national corporations in this service field have received exposure from high-profile litigation; the Loewen Group, Inc. received a large jury verdict in the State of Mississippi, found to be in error as the allegations against Loewen Group proved false. The Canadian-based company brought suit against the United States alleging violations under N. A. F. T. A.. Houston based Service Corporation International has had their share of legal troubles with the operations of both their funeral homes and cemeteries. In 2009 a class-action lawsuit was filed against SCI and Eden Memorial Park, one of the cemeteries the corporation manages, based on allegations that remains were being moved around to create additional space for future internments.
A settlement of $80 million was reached in 2014. Funeral Consumers Alliance
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period; the laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, were upheld in 1896, by the U. S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War; the legal principle of "separate, but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were inferior and underfunded, compared to the facilities for white Americans.
As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic and social disadvantages for African Americans, other people of color living in the south. Legalized racial segregation principally existed in the Southern states, while Northern and Western racial segregation was a matter of fact — enforced in housing with private covenants in leases, bank lending-practices, employment-preference discrimination, including labor-union practices. Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, public transportation, the segregation of restrooms and drinking fountains for whites and blacks; the U. S. military was segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, initiated segregation of federal workplaces in 1913; these Jim Crow laws revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education.
In some states it took many years to implement this decision. The remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination; the phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892 in the title of a New York Times article about Louisiana requiring segregated railroad cars. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832 and was used to satirize Andrew Jackson's populist policies; as a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these statutes became known as Jim Crow laws. In January 1865 an amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery in the United States was proposed by Congress, on December 18, 1865, it was ratified as the Thirteenth Amendment formally abolishing slavery.
During the Reconstruction period of 1865–1877, federal laws provided civil rights protections in the U. S. South for freedmen, the African Americans, slaves, the minority of blacks, free before the war. In the 1870s, Democrats regained power in the Southern legislatures, having used insurgent paramilitary groups, such as the White League and the Red Shirts, to disrupt Republican organizing, run Republican officeholders out of town, intimidate blacks to suppress their voting. Extensive voter fraud was used. Gubernatorial elections were close and had been disputed in Louisiana for years, with increasing violence against blacks during campaigns from 1868 onward. In 1877, a national Democratic Party compromise to gain Southern support in the presidential election resulted in the government's withdrawing the last of the federal troops from the South. White Democrats had regained political power in every Southern state; these Southern, Democratic Redeemer governments legislated Jim Crow laws segregating black people from the white population.
Blacks were still elected to local offices throughout the 1880s, but their voting was suppressed for state and national elections. Democrats passed laws to make voter registration and electoral rules more restrictive, with the result that political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease. Between 1890 and 1910, ten of the eleven former Confederate states, starting with Mississippi, passed new constitutions or amendments that disenfranchised most blacks and tens of thousands of poor whites through a combination of poll taxes and comprehension tests, residency and record-keeping requirements. Grandfather clauses temporarily permitted some illiterate whites to vote but gave no relief to most blacks. Voter turnout dropped drastically through the South as a result of such measures. In Louisiana, by 1900, black voters were reduced to 5,320 on the rolls, although they comprised the majority of the state's population. By 1910, only 730 blacks were registered, less than 0.5% of eligible black men.
"In 27 of the state's 60 parishes, not a single black voter was registered any longer. The cumulative effect in North Carolina meant that black voters were eliminated from voter rolls during the period fro
Lawrence County, Tennessee
Lawrence County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,869, its county seat and largest city is Lawrenceburg. Lawrence County comprises the Lawrenceburg, TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro, TN Combined Statistical Area. Created by an act of the Tennessee General Assembly on October 21, 1817, Lawrence County was formed from lands part of Hickman and Giles counties, it was named in honor of Captain James Lawrence, who while commanding the USS Chesapeake in an 1813 battle with the Royal Navy frigate HMS Shannon, issued his famous command: "Don't give up the ship! Blow her up." His men did anyway and Lawrence died of wounds. Lawrenceburg was chosen as the county seat in 1819 as it was near the center of the county and because Jackson's Military Road ran just east of the town. In April 1821, the road was redirected through the center of the Lawrenceburg; the military road, the main route from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Nashville, played a significant role in the county's development.
An early resident was David Crockett, who served as one of the county's first commissioners and justices of the peace. Crockett lived in the county for several years and ran a water-powered grist mill, powder mill and distillery on Shoal Creek, where David Crockett State Park is now located. In the early 1870s, many German Catholics moved including skilled tradesmen. After the arrival of the railroad in 1883, the county became a major source of iron ore. Between 1908 and 1915, there was an influx of settlers from Alabama. Most worked in the timber industry. Logging soon declined. In 1944, Amish people established a community in the north of the county; the Old Order Amish community has now become a tourist attraction. The county has been struck by two killer tornadoes. On May 18, 1995 a F4 tornado struck the county. On April 16, 1998, an F5 tornado hit part of the 1998 Nashville tornado outbreak. In June 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs gave official recognition to six Native American groups, including the Central Band of Cherokee known as the Cherokee of Lawrence County.
The recognition of these tribes at a state level has stirred much controversy among federally recognized Indian tribes, who claim the recognition by a state is unconstitutional and threatens the status of existing tribes. In July 2017, the Hope Botanical Garden was formed in the Leoma community. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 618 square miles, of which 617 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. U. S. Route 43 U. S. Route 64 Tennessee State Route 6 Tennessee State Route 15 Natchez Trace Parkway Tennessee Southern Railroad Lewis County Maury County Giles County Lauderdale County, Alabama Wayne County Natchez Trace Parkway David Crockett State Park Laurel Hill Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 39,926 people, 15,480 households, 11,362 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 16,821 housing units but as of 2010 that had jumped to over 19,000 at an average density of 27 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.83% White, 1.47% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,480 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,498, the median income for a family was $35,326.
Males had a median income of $27,742 versus $20,928 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,848. About 10.70% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.20% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. Lawrence County's chief executive officer is the County Executive. Along with the County Executive, the county has a total of 18 county commissioners which control the County's finances; every fiscal year the Board must adopt a budget which appropriates funds to the many departments and agencies of the Lawrence County Government. The Board of County Commissioners serves as the legislative and policy setting body of Lawrence County; as such, the Board enacts all legislation and authorizes programs and expenditures within Lawrence County. For the term starting in 2014, the officials for Lawrence County are: County Executive T. R. Williams District 1 Wayne Yocom District 2 Chris D. Jackson District 3 Denny Gillespie District 4 Brandon Brown District 5 Phil Hood District 6 Bobby Clifton District 7 Aaron Story District 8 Mark Niedergeses D