The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
World Heritage Committee
The World Heritage Committee is a committee which selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 41 states parties that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term. According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years, however many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their term to four years, in order to give other States Parties an opportunity to serve. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly voluntarily chose to reduce their term of office from six to four years; the World Heritage Committee meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage sites, accept nominations by countries. Members of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee Lists of World Heritage sites UNESCO World Heritage portal – official website The World Heritage List – official searchable list of all Inscribed Properties
Castello di Montecuccolo
The Castello di Montecuccolo is a castle in Pavullo nel Frignano, Italy. The castle's primary tower was built in the 11th century as a watchtower for the protection of the surrounding town. A defensive wooden palisade was constructed at its base. In the 12th century, an adjoining fortified house was built along with stone walls to replace the palisade. Over the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, new buildings were constructed and the walls were extended to encompass them, creating an enclosed piazza. During the 15th and 16th centuries a church - the Church of San Lorenzo - was built enclosing a second, piazza at a lower level than the older castle buildings, it was the birthplace of the 17th century condottiero Raimondo Montecuccoli. List of castles in Italy Il Castello di Montecuccolo Locanda del Condottiero Visit Modena - Pavullo nel Frignano - Il castello di Montecuccolo
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Palazzo Schifanoia is a Renaissance palace in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna built for the Este family. The name "Schifanoia" is thought to originate from "schivar la noia" meaning to "escape from boredom" which describes the original intention of the palazzo and the other villas in close proximity where the Este court relaxed; the highlights of its decorations are the allegorical frescoes with details in tempera by or after Francesco del Cossa and Cosmè Tura, executed ca 1469–70, a unique survival of their time. This palace forms part of a catalogue of pleasure palaces for the Este family, including the following: Delizia di Belriguardo a Voghiera Delizia del Verginese a Portomaggiore Castello di Mesola a Mesola Villa della Mensa a Sabbioncello San Vittore Delizia di Benvignante ad Argenta, ItalyThe Palace of Belfiore which once held the Studiolo of the Palazzo Belfiore, no longer exists; the palace had its origins in a single-storey structure without wings built for Alberto V d'Este, a small retreat intended for suppers and diversions, as a sort of banqueting house, with an urban front and a garden front.
As the equivalent of a Roman villa suburbana, the Palazzo Schifanoia long predated the first such pleasure villa built in Renaissance Rome, the Belvedere built for Nicholas V. In 1452 Borso d'Este received the title of Duke for the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio Emilia that he held from Emperor Frederick III; the occasion for the cycle of frescoes was the expected investiture of Borso d'Este as Duke of Ferrara in 1471 by Pope Paul II. The subtext of the festivities embodied in the fresco cycle is the right ordering of mankind and nature under the good government of the Duke, the guarantor of peace and prosperity in the Este dominions. Under the commissions of Borso d'Este, the architect Pietro Benvenuto degli Ordini was called upon to develop a ducal apartment on an upper level, providing the building with a salone suitable for presentations of ambassadors and delegations, a counterpart of the governing structure of Ferrara housed in the former Palazzo della Ragione, destroyed in World War II.
The palace was used by Marfisa d'Este, a great patron of the arts. There, in the Salone dei Mesi, Cosimo Tura's purely pagan cycle of the months presents the cycle of the year as an allegorical pageant with the appropriate Olympian gods presiding on their fanciful cars drawn by the beasts proper to each deity, with appropriate personifications of the constellations of the zodiac; the frescoes were realized circa 1469–70 by artisans of the d'Este household, the larger figures based on cartoons by Cosmé Tura, the vignettes of the labors of the year and the activities of the Ferrarese court under the benevolent eye of Borso d'Este, flanked by astrological figures to designs by Francesco del Cossa and Ercole de' Roberti. The learned and elaborate scheme of the allegorical presentations must have come from the immediate circle of Borso d'Este from the court astrologer, Pellegrino Prisciani, with some details drawn from Boccaccio's Genealogia deorum. In the Sala delle Virtù nearby, the sculptor Domenico di Paris painted the stucco reliefs in a frieze of putti and symbols of the Cardinal and Theological Virtues, under a painted compartmented ceiling.
The façade was decorated with a cornice of feigned battlements, its surface smoothly stuccoed and decorated with geometric designs of colorful imitation marbles, which have been lost, lending a somewhat dour public face to Palazzo Schifanoia, not what Borso d'Este intended. The rich white marble entrance door survives, though its tinted colors have weathered away and art historians disagree whether it is to be attributed to the painter-designer Francesco del Cossa or to Biagio Rossetti. Above the arched door, flanked by pilasters, the Este arms are displayed and the unicorn, a symbol of ducal benevolence and the source of patronage. In 1493 the terracotta cornice was added to designs by Biagio Rossetti, commissioned by Ercole I d'Este to extend the palace. From the Salone dei Mesi the visitor once passed directly into the gardens reached by a monumental stair from the summer loggia, structures that were demolished in the 18th century. After the Este left Ferrara in 1598, the palazzo was inherited through successive heirs by the Tassoni family, its frescoes whitewashed over.
During administration of the duchy as part of the Papal States, with a Habsburg garrison, it became a tobacco warehouse and manufactory. When Palazzo Schifanoia came into the possession of the comune of Ferrara in the aftermath of World War I, only seven of the months in the Salone remained legible. Palazzo Schifanoia forms part of the heritage of Ferrara conserved under the umbrella of the Musei Civici d'Arte Antica di Ferrara; the 14th and 15th century rooms contain collections of antiquities, a numismatic collection and medals cast by Pisanello and other Quattrocento artists to commemorate members of the Este family. Palazzo Schifanoia Gallery: details of the frescoes after Cossa's designs
San Petronio Basilica
The Basilica of San Petronio is a minor basilica and church of the Archdiocese of Bologna located in Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. It dominates Piazza Maggiore; the basilica is dedicated to the patron saint of the city, Saint Petronius, the bishop of Bologna in the fifth century. Construction began in 1390 and its main facade has remained unfinished since; the building was transferred from the city to the diocese in 1929. It has been the seat of the relics of Bologna's patron saint only since 2000. In 1388, the Consiglio Generale dei Seicento prepared the construction of the church as a civic temple. To make room for the church, the adjacent Curia of Sancti Ambrosii was demolished, together with the majority of one of the city's burgs, including at least eight churches and towers; the first stone of construction was laid on 7 June 1390 under the supervision of architect Antonio di Vincenzo. Works lasted for several centuries: after the completion of the first version of the facade, in 1393 the first pair of side chapels were begun.
The series were completed only in 1479. The third bay was built in 1441–1446, its construction was delayed by the cardinal Baldassarre Cossa sold the construction material of the basilica and kept the money. In 1514, Arduino degli Arriguzzi was chosen as the architect to construct the dome, his proposal included a large dome resting upon the width between the side aisles, which necessitated larger transepts and apses. This led to a form of a Latin cross, said to outdo St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; the project was considered too complicated, after building the first two pillars and two triangular pylons for the dome, the work was halted. According to legend, Pope Pius IV halted the "megalomaniac dream" and instead encouraged the construction of the Archiginnasio of Bologna. In 1530, the basilica was chosen by Pope Clement VII for the coronation of Charles V. Elisa Bonaparte was buried here. In 2002, five men who it was believed were connected to Al Qaeda and were planning to blow up the building, were arrested.
Again in 2006, plans by Muslim terrorists to destroy the Basilica were thwarted by Italian police. The terrorists claimed; the fresco, painted by Giovanni da Modena, depicts Muhammad in Hell being devoured by demons. The basilica is a large church measuring 132 metres long, 66 metres wide, 47 metres tall, is described as the "most imposing" church in Bologna; the facade was started in 1538 by Giacomo Ranuzzi. However, it remains unfinished; the main doorway was decorated by Jacopo della Quercia of Siena with scenes from the Old Testament on the pillars, eighteen prophets on the archivolt, scenes from the New Testament on the architrave, a Madonna and Child, Saint Ambrose and Saint Petronius on the tympanum. It is flanked by two side doors, with Alfonso Lombardi's Resurrection on the left and Amico Aspertini's Deposition on the right; the central nave covering and apse shooting were completed in 1663, designed by Girolamo Rainaldi and directed by Francesco Martini. The lower naves are enclosed by rectilinear walls.
The first two windows were designed by Antonio with the assistance of Francesco di Simone, Domenico da Milano, Pagno di Lapo Portigiani and Antonio di Simone. The bell tower was designed by Giovanni da Brensa and built between 1481 and 1487. Details of the decoration of the main doorway by Jacopo della Quercia, photographed by Paolo Monti The interior houses a Madonna with Saints by Lorenzo Costa the Younger, a Pietà by Amico Aspertini; the altar contains a 15th-century wooden crucifix. At the back, a fresco of the Madonna with St. Petronio by Marcantonio Franceschini and Luigi Quaini, cartoons by Cignani; the ciborium of the main altar was built in 1547 by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. The fifteenth-century wooden choir was completed by Agostino de'Marchi; the vaulting and decoration of the central nave is by Girolamo Rainaldi, who completed them in 1646-1658. The nave contains twenty-two side chapels: Chapel of St. Abbondio of the Dieci di Balia - restored in neo-Gothic style in 1865. In this chapel, in the year 1530, Emperor Charles V was crowned by Pope Clement VII.
Chapel of St. Petronio, once of the Cospi and Aldrovandi families, designed by Alfonso Torreggiani, designed to contain the relic of the head of San Petronio. Chapel of St. Ivo, Formerly of the family of San Brigida dei Foscherari: it has statues of Angelo Piò and the paintings of the Madonna of St. Luke and Saints Emidio and Ivo by Gaetano Gandolfi and Apparition of the Virgin to St. Francesca Romana by Alessandro Tiarini. On the pillar, two clocks, one of the first made in Italy with the correction of the pendulum. Chapel of the Magi, once of Bolognini family: its marble Gothic balustrade designed by Antonio di Vincenzo; the walls were painted by Giovanni di Pietro Falloppi/Giovanni da Modena with a cycle depicting the Episodes in the life of San Petronio, the back wall, right wall, Stories of the Three Kings. Chapel of St. Sebastian, once of Vaselli family.. Chapel of St. Vincent Ferrer of the Griffoni, Cospi-Ranuzzi families: bronze monument of Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro made by Giacomo Manzù.
Chapel of St. James of the Rossi and Baciocchi families: the Madonna Enthroned on the altar was painted by Lorenzo Costa, to the same author attributed the designs