Ducal Palace of Modena
The Ducal Palace of Modena is a Baroque palace in Modena, Italy. It was the residence of the Este Dukes of Modena between 1452 and 1859, it houses a portion of the Italian Military Academy. The palace occupies the site of the former Este Castle, once at the periphery of the city. Although credited to Bartolomeo Avanzini, it has been suggested that advice and guidance in the design process had been sought from Pietro da Cortona, Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini; the Palace has a Baroque façade from which the Honour Court and the Honour Staircase can be accessed. In 1696, Marcantonio Franceschini was commissioned to create a frescoed ceiling for the central Sala d'Onore for the marriage of Rinaldo d'Este to Princess Charlotte Felicity of Brunswick; the Salottino d'Oro, covered with gilded removable panels, was used by Duke Francis III as his main office. The Palace houses the Italian Military Academy, the Military Museum and a library. Military ceremonies are held in the Honour Court.
Being a residential palace, a significant number of Este family members were born or died at the palace including: Isabella d'Este - born at the palace. Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena - died at the palace. Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg - died at the palace in childbirth. Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este - born at the palace. Ercole III d'Este, Duke of Modena - born at the palace. Maria Fortunata d'Este Modena House of Este Santo Peranda - painted The defeat of the Saracens for the palace
Istria Histria, Ίστρια, is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf, it is shared by three countries: Croatia and Italy. Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its Istria County; the geographical features of Istria include the Učka mountain ridge, the highest portion of the Ćićarija mountain range. Istria lies in three countries: Croatia and Italy. By far the largest portion lies in Croatia. "Croatian Istria" is divided into the larger being Istria County in western Croatia. Important towns in Istria County include Pula/Pola, Poreč/Parenzo, Rovinj/Rovigno, Pazin/Pisino, Labin/Albona, Umag/Umago, Motovun/Montona, Buzet/Pinguente, Buje/Buie. Smaller towns in Istria County include Višnjan, Roč, Hum; the northwestern part of Istria lies in Slovenia: it is known as Slovenian Istria, includes the coastal municipalities of Piran/Pirano, Izola/Isola and Koper/Capodistria, the Karstic municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina.
Northwards of Slovenian Istria, there is a tiny portion of the peninsula. This smallest portion of Istria consists of the comunes of Muggia and San Dorligo della Valle, with Santa Croce lying farthest to the north; the ancient region of Histria extended over a much wider area, including the whole Kras plateau until the southern edges of the Vipava Valley, the southwestern portions of modern Inner Carniola with Postojna and Ilirska Bistrica, the Italian Province of Trieste, but not the Liburnian coast, part of Illyricum. Central Istria has a continental climate; the northern coast of Istria has a sub-Mediterranean climate. The western and southern coast has a Mediterranean climate; the eastern coast has a sub-Mediterranean climate with oceanic influences. The warmest places are Rovinj, while the coldest is Pazin. Precipitation is moderate, with between 640 and 1,020 mm falling in the coastal areas, up to 1,500 mm in the hills; the name is derived from the Histri tribes, which Strabo refers to as living in the region and who are credited as being the builders of the hillfort settlements.
The Histri are classified in some sources as a "Venetic" Illyrian tribe, with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians. The Romans described the Histri as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts, it took two military campaigns for the Romans to subdue them in 177 BC. The region was called together with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of "Venetia et Histria", the ancient definition of the northeastern border of Italy. Dante Alighieri refers to it as well, the eastern border of Italy per ancient definition is the river Arsia; the eastern side of this river was settled by people. Earlier influence of the Iapodes was attested there, while at some time between the 4th and 1st century BC, the Liburnians extended their territory and it became a part of Liburnia. On the northern side, Histria included the Italian city of Trieste; some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, or Danube. Ancient folktales reported—inaccurately—that the Danube split in two or "bifurcated" and came to the sea near Trieste as well as at the Black Sea.
The story of the "bifurcation of the Danube" is part of the Argonaut legend. There is a suspected link to the commune of Istria in Constanţa, named after the ancient city Histria, named after River Hister. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was pillaged by the Goths, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Avars, it was subsequently annexed to the Lombard Kingdom in 751, annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pepin of Italy in 789. In 804, the Placitum of Riziano was held in the Parish of Rižan, a meeting between the representatives of Istrian towns and castles and the deputies of Charlemagne and his son Pepin; the report about this judicial diet illustrates the changes accompanying the transfer of power from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Carolingian Empire and the discontent of the local residents. Afterwards it was successively controlled by the dukes of Carantania, Bavaria and by the patriarch of Aquileia, before it became the territory of the Republic of Venice in 1267; the medieval Croatian kingdom held only the far eastern part of Istria, but they lost it to the Holy Roman Empire in the late 11th century.
The coastal areas and cities of Istria came under Venetian Influence in the 9th century. On 15 February 1267, Parenzo was formally incorporated with the Venetian state. Other coastal towns followed shortly thereafter. Bajamonte Tiepolo was sent away from Venice in 1310, to start a new life in Istria after his downfall. A description of the 16th-century Istria with a precise map was prepared by the Italian geographer Pietro Coppo. A copy of the map inscribed in stone can now be seen in the Pietro Coppo Park in the center of the town of Izola in southwestern Slovenia; the Inner part of Istria around Mitterburg had been part of the Holy Roman Empire for centuries, more part of the domains of the Austrian Ha
Palazzo dei Diamanti
Palazzo dei Diamanti is a Renaissance palace located on Corso Ercole I d'Este 21 in Ferrara, region of Emilia Romagna, Italy. The main floor of the Palace houses the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Ferrara. To accommodate the growth of Ferrara, in 1492 the Duke Ercole I d'Este demolished the medieval walls of the city on the north, had the court architect, Biagio Rossetti, design an urban expansion known as the Addizione Erculea. Rosetti was commissioned by Sigismondo d'Este, brother of the Duke Ercole I, to build this palace at the prestigious intersection of what was to be the Decumanus Maximus and Cardo Maximus of the "urban addition", it was built between 1493 and 1503. Used as a residential home by the Este family and, starting in 1641, by the Villa marquis, in 1832 the palace was acquired by the municipality of Ferrara to house the National Gallery of Art and the Civic University; the most striking feature is the bugnato of the exterior walls: it consists of some 8,500 white marble blocks carved to represent diamonds, hence its name.
The positioning of the diamonds varies in order to maximize the light reflected off the building, creating quite the visual effect. The palace is well known for its candelabra and the phytomorphic corner motifs. Inside, it has a typical Renaissance courtyard with a marble well; the main floor of the Palace houses the National Art Gallery of Ferrara, with paintings from the Ferrara school from the Middle Ages up to the 18th century. The oldest paintings are large frescoes and wooden panels with gold-leaf backgrounds, such as the Madonna and Child by Gentile da Fabriano; the main artists from the 15th century in Ferrara represented in the museum are Cosmè Tura, Ercole de' Roberti, Vicino da Ferrara and Michele Pannonio. There are works including a work by Andrea Mantegna. There are two works by unidentified artists from the collection of the Marquis Leonello d'Este at the Belfiore Palace; the major 16th-century Ferrarese painter, Garofalo, is represented by a number of works, including Pala Costabili, done in collaboration with Dosso Dossi.
The period of mannerism is represented by Bastianino, who uses a technique similar to that of Michelangelo in his works. Among the other artists in the collection are Amerigo Aspertini, Giuseppe Avanzi, Baldassarre d'Este, Jacopo Bambini, Giovanni Bellini, Jacopo Bellini, il Ortolano, Carlo Bononi, Vittore Carpaccio, Girolamo da Carpi, Agostino Carracci, Ludovico Carracci, Francesco del Cossa, Lorenzo Costa, Giulio Cromer, Girolamo Domenichini, Battista Dossi, Francesco Francia, Gaetano Gandolfi, Ubaldo Gandolfi, Maestro degli Occhi Spalancati, Giovanni da Modena, Ludovico Mazzolino, Giacomo Parolini, Nicolò Pisano, Nicolò Roselli, Maurelio Scannavini, Simone de Crocifissi, Bartolomeo Vivarini, Giuseppe Zola. On the lower floor, there is the Civic Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art, which has hosted high level temporary shows since 1992, when the space was inaugurated by the show on Claude Monet and his friends; some of the most important shows held here have included: From Dahl to Edvard Munch and Alfred Sisley.
Poet of Impressionism in 2002, Edgar Degas and the Italians in Paris in 2003, Cubism. Revolution and tradition in 2004, Corot. Nature, memory in 2006, André Derain and symbolism in 2007, Cosmè Tura and Francesco del Cossa; the art of Ferrara at the time of Borso d'Este and Joan Miró. The land in 2008, Turner and Italy in 2009, Giovanni Boldini in Paris during Impressionism, From Braque to Kandinsky to Chagall. Aimé Maeght and his artists in 2010 Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin; the painter of silence in 2010–2011, Gli anni folli. La Parigi di Modigliani, Dalì 1918–1933 in 2011–2012, Sorolla. Giardini di luce in 2012, Lo sguardo di Michelangelo Antonioni e le arti and Zurbarán in 2013, Matisse. La Figura. La forza della linea, l'emozione del colore in 2014. From 19 April to 19 July 2015 Gaudí's Barcelona. Casa dos Bicos Palace of Facets Media related to Palazzo dei Diamanti at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476, it served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751, after which it became the seat of the Kingdom of the Lombards. Although it is an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano Canal, it is known for its well-preserved late Roman and Byzantine architecture, with eight buildings comprising the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna". The origin of the name Ravenna is unclear; some have speculated that "ravenna" is related to "Rasenna", the term that the Etruscans used for themselves, but there is no agreement on this point. The origins of Ravenna are uncertain; the first settlement is variously attributed to the Etruscans and the Umbrians.
Afterwards its territory was settled by the Senones the southern countryside of the city, the Ager Decimanus. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of small islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later; the Romans ignored it during their conquest of the Po River Delta, but accepted it into the Roman Republic as a federated town in 89 BC. In 49 BC, it was the location. After his battle against Mark Antony in 31 BC, Emperor Augustus founded the military harbor of Classe; this harbor, protected at first by its own walls, was an important station of the Roman Imperial Fleet. Nowadays the city is landlocked, but Ravenna remained an important seaport on the Adriatic until the early Middle Ages. During the German campaigns, widow of Arminius, Marbod, King of the Marcomanni, were confined at Ravenna. Ravenna prospered under Roman rule. Emperor Trajan built a 70 km long aqueduct at the beginning of the 2nd century. During the Marcomannic Wars, Germanic settlers in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city.
For this reason, Marcus Aurelius decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but banished those, brought there. In AD 402, Emperor Honorius transferred the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Milan to Ravenna. At that time it was home to 50,000 people; the transfer was made for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes, was perceived to be defensible. However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths bypassed Ravenna, went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II. Ravenna enjoyed a period of peace, during which time the Christian religion was favoured by the imperial court, the city gained some of its most famous monuments, including the Orthodox Baptistery, the misnamed Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, San Giovanni Evangelista; the late 5th century saw the dissolution of Roman authority in the west, the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West was deposed in 476 by the general Odoacer.
Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theoderic the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. After losing the Battle of Verona, Odoacer retreated to Ravenna, where he withstood a siege of three years by Theoderic, until the taking of Rimini deprived Ravenna of supplies. Theoderic took Ravenna in 493 slew Odoacer with his own hands, Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. Theoderic, following his imperial predecessors built many splendid buildings in and around Ravenna, including his palace church Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, an Arian cathedral and Baptistery, his own Mausoleum just outside the walls. Both Odoacer and Theoderic and their followers were Arian Christians, but co-existed peacefully with the Latins, who were Catholic Orthodox. Ravenna's Orthodox bishops carried out notable building projects, of which the sole surviving one is the Capella Arcivescovile. Theoderic allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system.
The Goths, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theoderic ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense. Theoderic died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theoderic's line was represented only by Amalasuntha's daughter Matasuntha. Various Ostrogothic military leaders took the Kingdom of Italy, but none were as successful as Theoderic had been. Meanwhile, the orthodox Christian Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, opposed both Ostrogoth rule and the Arian variety of Christianity. In 535 his general Belisarius in 540 conquered Ravenna. After the conquest of Italy was completed in 554, Ravenna became the seat of Byzantine government in Italy. From 540 to 600, Ravenna'
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich aphanitic matrix or groundmass. The larger crystals are called phenocrysts. In its non-geologic, traditional use, the term porphyry refers to the purple-red form of this stone, valued for its appearance; the term porphyry is from Ancient Greek and means "purple". Purple was the color of royalty, the "imperial porphyry" was a deep purple igneous rock with large crystals of plagioclase; some authors claimed. "Imperial" grade porphyry was thus prized for monuments and building projects in Imperial Rome and later. Porphyry has hardness 7 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, corresponding to steel and quartz. Subsequently, the name was given to any igneous rocks with large crystals; the adjective porphyritic now refers to a certain texture of igneous rock regardless of its chemical and mineralogical composition. Its chief characteristic is a large difference in size between the tiny matrix crystals and the much larger phenocrysts.
Porphyries may be aphanites or phanerites, that is, the groundmass may have invisibly small crystals as in basalt, or crystals distinguishable with the eye, as in granite. Most types of igneous rocks display some degree of porphyritic texture. Porphyry deposits are formed. In the first stage, the magma is cooled deep in the crust, creating the large crystal grains with a diameter of 2 mm or more. In the second and final stage, the magma is cooled at shallow depth or as it erupts from a volcano, creating small grains that are invisible to the unaided eye; the term porphyry is used for a mineral deposit called a "copper porphyry". The different stages of cooling that create porphyritic textures in intrusive and hypabyssal porphyritic rocks lead to a separation of dissolved metals into distinct zones; this process, which occurs when fluids are driven off the cooling magma, is one of the main reasons for the existence in the world of rich, localized metal ore deposits such as those of gold, molybdenum, tin, zinc and tungsten.
This enrichment occurs in the porphyry itself, or in other related igneous rocks or surrounding country rocks carbonate rock. Collectively, these type of deposits are known as "porphyry copper deposits". Rhomb porphyry is a volcanic rock with gray-white large porphyritic rhomb- shaped phenocrysts embedded in a fine-grained red-brown matrix; the composition of rhomb porphyry places it in the trachyte–latite classification of the QAPF diagram. Rhomb porphyry lavas are only known from three rift areas: the East African Rift, Mount Erebus near the Ross Sea in Antarctica, the Oslo graben in Norway, it is intrusive. Pliny's Natural History affirmed that the "Imperial Porphyry" had been discovered at an isolated site in Egypt in AD 18, by a Roman legionary named Caius Cominius Leugas. Ancient Egyptians used other decorative porphyritic stones of a close composition and appearance, but remained unaware of the presence of the Roman grade although it was located in their own country; this particular Imperial grade of porphyry came from a single quarry in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, from 600 million-year-old andesite of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.
The road from the quarry westward to Qena on the Nile, which Ptolemy put on his second-century map, was first described by Strabo, it is to this day known as the Via Porphyrites, the Porphyry Road, its track marked by the hydreumata, or watering wells that made it viable in this utterly dry landscape. Porphyry was extensively used in Byzantine imperial monuments, for example in Hagia Sophia and in the "Porphyra", the official delivery room for use of pregnant Empresses in the Great Palace of Constantinople. After the fourth century the quarry was lost to sight for many centuries; the scientific members of the French Expedition under Napoleon sought it in vain, it was only when the Eastern Desert was reopened for study under Muhammad Ali that the site was rediscovered by James Burton and John Gardiner Wilkinson in 1823. As early as 1850 BC on Crete in Minoan Knossos there were large column bases made of porphyry. All the porphyry columns in Rome, the red porphyry togas on busts of emperors, the porphyry panels in the revetment of the Pantheon, as well as the altars and vases and fountain basins reused in the Renaissance and dispersed as far as Kiev, all came from the one quarry at Mons Porpyritis, which seems to have been worked intermittently between 29 and 335 AD.
Porphyry was used for the blocks of the Column of Constantine in Istanbul. In countries where many cars have studded winter tires such as Sweden and Norway, it is common that highways are paved with asphalt made of porphyry aggregate to make the wearing course withstand the extreme wear from the spiked tires. List of rock textures – A list of rock textural and morphological terms Quartz-porphyry – A type of volcanic rock containing large porphyritic crystals of quartz Sarcophagi of Helena and Constantina Tyrian purple – Natural dye extracted from Murex sea snails Pictures of the Mons Porphyrites, Red Sea, Egypt. Rhomb porphyry lavas at the Wayback Machine Flash showing rhomb porphyry formation at the Wayback Machine
Piacenza Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Piacenza, Italy. It was built between 1122 and 1233 and is one of the most valuable examples of a Romanesque cathedral in northern Italy; the dedication is to Saint Justina. It is the seat of the diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio; the cathedral has a total external length of 85 m, a façade height of 32 m, dimensions which make it the largest Romanesque church in Emilia-Romagna. The façade, in Veronese pink marble and gilded stone, is horizontally divided by a gallery that dominates the three portals, decorated with capitals and Romanesque statues; the interior has two aisles, divided by twenty-five massive pillars. Its noteworthy frescoes were made in the 14th-16th centuries by Camillo Procaccini and Ludovico Carracci, while the frescos inside the dome are by Pier Francesco Mazzucchelli, "il Morazzone", Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, best known as "Guercino"; the presbytery has a wooden sculpture from 1479, wooden choirstalls by Giangiacomo da Genova and 15th-century statues of the Lombard school.
Few remains can be traced of the earlier paleochristian basilica, as Piacenza was razed by Totila in 546, during the Gothic War. The crypt, on the Greek cross plan, has 108 Romanesque small columns and is home to the relics of Santa Giustina, Saint Justina of Padua, co-patron of Piacenza from the ninth century. During its history the cathedral was host to several minor composers as maestro di cappella including Francesco Maria Bazzani, Giuseppe Nicolini. History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Official website