Maverick (TV series)

Maverick is an American Western dramatic television series with comedic overtones created by Roy Huggins and starring James Garner. The show ran for five seasons from September 22, 1957, to July 8, 1962, on ABC. Maverick starred James Garner as Bret Maverick, an adroitly articulate cardsharp. Eight episodes into the first season, he was joined by Jack Kelly as his brother Bart Maverick, for the remainder of the first three seasons and Kelly alternated leads from week to week, sometimes teaming up for the occasional two-brother episode; the Maverick brothers were poker players from Texas who traveled the American Old West by horseback and stagecoach, on Mississippi riverboats getting into and out of life-threatening trouble of one sort or another involving money, women, or both. They would find themselves weighing a financial windfall against a moral dilemma, their consciences always trumped their wallets. When Garner left the series after the third season due to a legal dispute, after which Garner began a successful movie career, Roger Moore was added to the cast as cousin Beau Maverick.

As before, the two starring Mavericks would alternate as series leads, with an occasional "team-up" episode. Partway through the fourth season Robert Colbert replaced Moore and played a third Maverick brother, Brent. No more than two series leads appeared together in the same episode, most episodes featured only one. All two-Maverick episodes included Jack Kelly as Bart Maverick. For the fifth and final season, the show returned to a "single Maverick" format, as it had been in the first eight episodes, with all the remaining new episodes starring Kelly as Bart; the new episodes, alternated with reruns from earlier seasons starring Garner as Bret. Budd Boetticher directed several of the early episodes of the first season until disagreeing with Huggins about Maverick's philosophy, which resulted in Boetticher assigning Bret Maverick's scripted lines to supporting characters and filming the result, thereby attempting to change the whole series by making Maverick into a standard Western hero as found in the earlier Boetticher-directed series of theatrical films starring Randolph Scott.

Robert Altman wrote and directed the episode entitled "Bolt from the Blue", starring Roger Moore, in the fourth season, with a couple of scenes purloined for the subsequent Mel Gibson movie version. The show was part of the Warner Bros. array of TV Westerns, which included Cheyenne, Colt.45, Bronco, The Alaskans, Sugarfoot. James Garner portrayed both Bret Maverick and, in one episode, Beau "Pappy" Maverick. Bret Maverick is the epitome of a poker-playing rounder, always seeking out high-stakes games and remaining in one place for long; the show is credited with launching Garner's career, although he had appeared in several movies, including Shoot-Out at Medicine Bend with Randolph Scott, had filmed an important supporting role in Sayonara with Marlon Brando, which wasn't released until December 1957 but had been viewed by Huggins and the Warner Bros. staff casting their new television series. Maverick bested The Ed Sullivan Show and The Steve Allen Show in the television ratings. Huggins inverted the usual cowboy hero characteristics familiar to television and movie viewers of the time.

Bret Maverick was vocally reluctant to risk his life, though he ended up being courageous in spite of himself. He flimflammed adversaries, but only those who deserved it. Otherwise he was honest to a fault, in at least one case insisting on repaying a questionable large debt. None of the Mavericks were fast draws with a pistol. Bart once commented to a lady friend, "My brother Bret can outdraw me any day of the week, he's known as the Second Slowest Gun in the West." However, it was impossible for anyone to beat them in any sort of a fistfight the one cowboy cliché that Huggins left intact. Critics have referred to Bret Maverick as arguably the first TV anti-hero, have praised the show for its photography and Garner's charisma and subtly comedic facial expressions.. Jack Kelly played Uncle Bentley Maverick. Though Garner was supposed to be the only Maverick, the studio hired Jack Kelly to play brother Bart, starting with the eighth episode; the producers had realized that it took over a week to shoot a single episode, meaning that at some point the studio would run out of finished episodes to televise during the season, so Kelly was hired to rotate with Garner as the series lead, using two separate crews.

In Bart's first episode, "Hostage!", in order to engender audience sympathy for the new character, the script called for him to be tied up and beaten by an evil police officer. According to series creator Roy Huggins in his Archive of American Television interview, the two brothers were purposely written to be virtual clones, with no apparent differences inherent in the scripts whatsoever; this included being traveling poker players, loving money, professing to be cowards, spouting enigmatic words of advice their "Pappy" passed down to them, carrying a $1,000 bill pinned to the inside of a coat for emergency purposes. There was, one distinct—but accidental—difference between the two. Garner's episodes tended to be more comedic due to his obvious talent in that area, while Kelly's were inclined to be more dramatic. Huggins noted in the aforementioned Archive of American Television interview that Kelly

Filar micrometer

A filar micrometer is a specialized eyepiece used in astronomical telescopes for astrometry measurements, in microscopes for specimen measurements, in alignment and surveying telescopes for measuring angles and distances on nearby objects. The word filar derives from Latin filum, meaning'a thread', it refers to the fine wires used in the device. A typical filar micrometer consists of a reticle that has two fine parallel wires or threads that can be moved by the observer using a micrometer screw mechanism; the wires are placed in the focal image plane of the eyepiece so they remain superimposed over the object under observation, while the micrometer motion moves the wires across the focal plane. Other designs employ a fixed reticle, against which a second reticle moves. By rotating the eyepiece assembly in the eyetube, the measurement axis can be aligned to match the orientation of the two points of observation. At one time, it was common to use spider silk as a thread. By placing one wire over one point of interest and moving the other to a second point, the distance between the two wires can be measured with the micrometer portion of the instrument.

Given this precise distance measurement at the image plane, a trigonometric calculation with the objective focal length yields the angular distance between the two points seen in a telescope. In a microscope, a similar calculation yields the spatial distance between two points on a specimen. In an alignment telescope, the precise micrometric measurement of the eyepiece image directly indicates the real distance of a nearby observed point from the line of sight; this absolute measurement is independent of the distance to the object, due to the telecentricity principle. A common use of filar micrometers in astronomical telescopes was measuring the distance between double stars. Filar micrometers are little used in modern astronomy, having been replaced by digital photographic techniques where digital pixels provide a precise reference for image distance. However, filar eyepieces are still used in teaching astronomy and by some amateur astronomers; the precursor to the filar micrometer was the micrometer eyepiece, invented by William Gascoigne.

Earlier measures of angular distances relied on inserting into the eyepiece a thin metal sheet cut in the shape of a narrow, isosceles triangle. The sheet was pushed into the eyepiece until the two adjacent edges of the metal sheet occulted the two objects of interest. By measuring the position where the objects were extinguished and knowing the focal length of the objective lens, the angular distance could be calculated. Christiaan Huygens used such a device. Micrometer Photographs of the Filar micrometer circa 1930 used at the Lick Observatory from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collection


Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments; the philosophy of architecture is a branch of philosophy of art, dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture.

Many philosophers and theoreticians frome Plato to Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Robert Venturi and Ludwig Wittgenstein have concerned thesemselves with the nature of architecture and whether or not architecture is distingushed from building. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De re aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part.

For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths; the notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari. By the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure".

For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility".

"Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural. Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are Rationalism, Structuralism, Poststructuralism and Phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constru