Piper PA-30 Twin Comanche
The Piper PA-30 Twin Comanche is an American twin-engined cabin monoplane designed and built by Piper Aircraft. It was a twin-engined development of the PA-24 Comanche single-engined aircraft. A variant with counter-rotating propellers was designated the Piper PA-39 Twin Comanche C/R; the Piper PA-30 Twin Comanche was designed as a twin-engined variant of the Piper PA-24 Comanche. A complex light twin, with retractable landing gear, seating 4 to 6, cruise speeds ranging from 160-210 mph on twin 150-160 horsepower engines, it competed with the more-powerful Cessna 310 and Beech Baron, with Piper's other light twins; the Twin Comanche was designed to replace the Piper Apache in the company's lineup of products. The Twin Comanche was developed from the single-engined Comanche by Ed Swearingen who at the time operated a facility that specialized in the modification of production aircraft; the aspirated aircraft was equipped with two 4-cylinder 160 hp Lycoming IO-320-B1A fuel injected engines, but 200 hp engines were available as a modification by Miller Aviation.
A version with turbocharged engines for higher altitude flight was developed, using IO-320-C1A engines of the same nominal power. All Twin Comanche engines have long times between overhaul and have developed a reputation for reliability. Following a string of accidents involving pilot loss-of-control in single-engine flight, Piper sought to alter the plane's single-engine behavior at low airspeeds; the resulting PA-39 Twin Comanche C/R was a modified version with counter-rotating engines. The PA-39 replaced the PA-30 in the early 1970s. At least one comparative study of U. S. crash rates for the PA-30 and PA-39 indicated that crash rates for the counter-rotating PA-39 were only one-third of those for the conventional PA-30. Piper subsequently expanded the counter-rotating engine development to its other light twins; the Twin Comanche was produced on the same Lock Haven, Pennsylvania production line as its single-engined cousin. Piper chose at that time to focus on its popular Cherokee 140/180/235/Arrow line, manufactured in Florida, its popular twin-engined Seneca, a Twin Cherokee Six.
The Piper PA-40 Arapaho had been scheduled to replace the PA-39 in the 1973-4 timeframe. Three were manufactured, the aircraft was fully certified when the decision was made not to proceed with the manufacture. One of the three Arapahos was destroyed in a flat spin accident in 1973. One was scrapped by Piper and none remain registered with the Federal Aviation Administration as of May 2016; the Twin Comanche is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear. With tip tanks, the aircraft holds 120 gallons of fuel. Fuel burn at typical cruise settings is 16 gph with a cruise speed of 165 kts, it climbs to 18,000 feet when desired. When compared with the Seminole, the Twin Comanche goes faster, carries more, burns less fuel, climbs more and higher, is quieter; when compared to the Seneca, quite a different aircraft, the more noticeable differences are in handling. Another contemporary competitor to the Twin Comanche was the Beechcraft Travel Air. A similar airplane in form and function was the Gulfstream American GA-7 Cougar, which went into production after the Twin Comanche's production run ended.
The Twin Comanche suffered a number of Vmc loss-of-control accidents in early 1970s. Focus was placed on the aircraft design and the FAA reacted by issuing an airworthiness directive changing the Vmc speed, though there was no change in the aerodynamics. At the time, well known aviation journalist, Richard Collins, was critical of the FAA's multiengine training standards which encouraged unsafe Vmc demonstrations at low altitude. Collins pointed out in another article that year that one FBO had suffered four fatal Vmc roll-over spins. Two were in One in a Beech Travel Air and one in a Beech Baron, it is not surprising that the Twin Comanche had a higher number of such accidents as it was used more as a training aircraft. The FAA performed a series of flight tests on the Twin Comanche and NASA conducted wind tunnel tests and found no unusual tendency to spin beyond what would be expected given the airflow of the rotating propellers. In the 1970s, the FAA changed its training standards and required flight instructors to obtain a separate rating to teach in multiengine aircraft.
The Vmc accidents dissipated dramatically. In 1997, the Aircraft Owners and Pilot's Association Air Safety Institute published a safety review of the Comanche series aircraft and concluded that the Twin Comanche showed no greater tendency for Vmc roll-over spins than comparable aircraft. Kristin Winter, a long time Twin Comanche instructor and trained accident investigator, reviewed the NTSB records for a ten-year period ending in 2014 and concluded that the Air Safety Institute's report was correct in its conclusions. Of the six single engine loss of control accidents, most resulted from inexperienced pilots and substandard training. Prince William of Gloucester bought a Twin Comanche and used it as his personal aircraft for several years in the 1960s, he flew it from the United Kingdom to Nigeria, where he
An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude. It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles. On Earth, the Equator is 21.3 % over land. Indonesia is the country straddling the greatest length of the equatorial line across both land and sea; the name is derived from medieval Latin word aequator, in the phrase circulus aequator diei et noctis, meaning ‘circle equalizing day and night’, from the Latin word aequare meaning ‘make equal’. The latitude of the Earth's equator is, by definition, 0° of arc; the Equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth. The Equator is the only line of latitude, a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe; the plane of Earth's equator, when projected outwards to the celestial sphere, defines the celestial equator.
In the cycle of Earth's seasons, the equatorial plane runs through the Sun twice per year: on the equinoxes in March and September. To a person on Earth, the Sun appears to travel above the Equator at these times. Light rays from the Sun's center are perpendicular to Earth's surface at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the shortest sunrises and sunsets because the Sun's daily path is nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year; the length of daylight is constant throughout the year. Earth bulges at the Equator. Sites near the Equator, such as the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, are good locations for spaceports as they have a faster rotational speed than other latitudes. Since Earth rotates eastward, spacecraft must be launched eastward to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed; the precise location of the Equator is not fixed. This effect must be accounted for in detailed geophysical measurements; the International Association of Geodesy and the International Astronomical Union have chosen to use an equatorial radius of 6,378.1366 kilometres.
This equatorial radius is in the 2003 and 2010 IERS Conventions. It is the equatorial radius used for the IERS 2003 ellipsoid. If it were circular, the length of the Equator would be 2π times the radius, namely 40,075.0142 kilometres. The GRS 80 as approved and adopted by the IUGG at its Canberra, Australia meeting of 1979 has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. The WGS 84, a standard for use in cartography and satellite navigation including GPS has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. For both GRS 80 and WGS 84, this results in a length for the Equator of 40,075.0167 km. The geographical mile is defined as one arc-minute of the Equator, so it has different values depending on which radius is assumed. For example, by WSG-84, the distance is 1,855.3248 metres, while by IAU-2000, it is 1,855.3257 metres. This is a difference of less than one millimetre over the total distance; the earth is modeled as a sphere flattened 0.336% along its axis. This makes the Equator 0.16% longer than a meridian.
The IUGG standard meridian is, to the nearest millimetre, 40,007.862917 kilometres, one arc-minute of, 1,852.216 metres, explaining the SI standardization of the nautical mile as 1,852 metres, more than 3 metres less than the geographical mile. The sea-level surface of the Earth is irregular, so the actual length of the Equator is not so easy to determine. Aviation Week and Space Technology on 9 October 1961 reported that measurements using the Transit IV-A satellite had shown the equatorial "diameter" from longitude 11° West to 169° East to be 1,000 feet greater than its "diameter" ninety degrees away; the Equator passes through the land of 11 countries. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Equator passes through: Despite its name, no part of Equatorial Guinea lies on the Equator. However, its island of Annobón is 155 km south of the Equator, the rest of the country lies to the north. Seasons result from the tilt of the Earth's axis compared to the plane of its revolution around the Sun.
Throughout the year the northern and southern hemispheres are alternately turned either toward or away from the sun depending on Earth's position in its orbit. The hemisphere turned toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. At the equinoxes, the Earth's axis
Casablanca, located in the central-western part of Morocco and bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco. It is the largest city in the Maghreb region, as well as one of the largest and most important cities in Africa, both economically and demographically. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers on the continent. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier.
Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy. The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic, Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although Arabic has its own version of Casablanca. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC.
It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD, he believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515.
The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration; as Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, the Arabic translation of the Spanish Casa Blanca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s.
Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in the town, at first administrators within a sovereign sultanate, in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns. In June 1907, the French attempted to build a light railway near the port and passing through a graveyard; as an act of resistance and protestation, the locals attacked the French, riots ensued, causing a few soldiers to be wounded and one general to be killed. In response, the French attacked by ship, bombarding the city from the coast, landing troops inside the town, which caused severe damage to the town and 15,000 dead and wounded bodies; the French claimed. This began the process of colonization, although French control of Casablanca was not formalised until 1910. Under the French rule, Muslim anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1908; the famous 1942 film Casablanca, although filmed in Los Angeles, is supposed to have been set in Casablanca.
The film underlined the city's colonial status at the time—depicting it as the scene of a power s
El Paso, Texas
El Paso is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2017 population estimate for the city from the U. S. Census was 683,577, its metropolitan statistical area covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, has a population of 844,818. El Paso stands on the Rio Grande across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with 1.4 million people. Las Cruces, in the neighboring U. S. state of New Mexico, has a population of 215,579. On the U. S. side, El Paso metropolitan area forms part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces CSA, with a population of 1,060,397. Bi-nationally, these three cities form a combined international metropolitan area sometimes referred to as the Paso del Norte or the Borderplex; the region of 2.5 million people constitutes the largest bilingual and binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. The city is home to three publicly traded companies, former Western Refining, now Andeavor. as well as home to the Medical Center of the Americas, the only medical research and care provider complex in West Texas and Southern New Mexico, the University of Texas at El Paso, the city's primary university.
The city hosts the annual Sun Bowl college football post-season game, the second oldest bowl game in the country. El Paso has a strong military presence. William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Biggs Army Airfield, Fort Bliss call the city home. Fort Bliss is one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army and the largest training area in the United States. Headquartered in El Paso are the DEA domestic field division 7, El Paso Intelligence Center, Joint Task Force North, United States Border Patrol El Paso Sector, the U. S. Border Patrol Special Operations Group. In 2010 and 2018, El Paso received an All-America City Award. El Paso ranked in the top three safest large cities in the United States between 1997 and 2014, including holding the title of safest city between 2011 and 2014; the El Paso region has had human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks. The evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation.
The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. When the Spanish arrived, the Manso and Jumano tribes populated the area; these were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, genízaros of various ethnic groups. The Mescalero Apache were present. Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was born in 1550 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas and was the first New Spain explorer known to have observed the Rio Grande near El Paso, in 1598, celebrating a Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598. However, the four survivors of the Narváez expedition, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, his enslaved Moor Estevanico, are thought to have passed through the area in the mid-1530s. El Paso del Norte was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte, in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco. In 1680, the small village of El Paso became the temporary base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, until 1692 when Santa Fe was reconquered and once again became the capital.
The Texas Revolution was not felt in the region, as the American population was small. However, the region was claimed by Texas as part of the treaty signed with Mexico and numerous attempts were made by Texas to bolster these claims. However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in 1846. During this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region; as early as the mid-1840s, alongside long extant Hispanic settlements such as the Rancho de Juan María Ponce de León, Anglo settlers such as Simeon Hart and Hugh Stephenson had established thriving communities of American settlers owing allegiance to Texas. Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844: the Republic of Texas, which claimed the area, wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made the settlements on the north bank of the river part of the US, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850. El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico as part of the Republic of Mexico until its cession to the U. S. in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the border was to run north of El Paso De Norte around the Ciudad Juárez Cathedral which became part of the state of Chihuahua. El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat; the United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus ignoring history and topography. A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" was established in 1849 on Coons' Rancho beside the settlement of Franklin, which became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas.
Port of Spain
Port of Spain the City of Port of Spain, is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's second-largest city after San Fernando and the third largest municipality after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a municipal population of 37,074, an urban population of 81,142 and a transient daily population of 250,000, it is located on the Gulf of Paria, on the northwest coast of the island of Trinidad and is part of a larger conurbation stretching from Chaguaramas in the west to Arima in the east with an estimated population of 600,000. The city serves as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757, it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, which united the Caribbean. Caricom was established in Chaguaramas, west of Port of Spain; the city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean, exporting both agricultural products and manufactured goods.
Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city. The pre-lenten Carnival is tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a leading city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange; the iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as other skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the city's skyline; some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the area today known as Mucurapo, west of the city centre; the name Conquerabia is recorded for an Amerindian settlement in this area. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, which today form the city's eastern boundary.
The part of today's downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, interspersed between large silk cotton trees and other trees; the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleigh's expedition in April 1595; the Caribs were transient, travelling up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte D'Estrées visited in 1680, reported that there was no Port of Spain, but in 1690, Spanish governor Don Sebastien de Roteta reported in writing to the King of Spain: In 1699, the alcalde of Trinidad reported to the king that the natives "were in the habit of showering scorn and abuse upon the Holy Faith and ridiculed with jests the efforts of the Holy Fathers". By 1757, the old capital, San José de Oruña, about 11 kilometres inland, had fallen into disrepair, Governor Don Pedro de la Moneda transferred his seat to Port of Spain, which thus became Trinidad's de facto capital.
The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón, devoted much of his time to developing the new capital. He compelled the island's Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, he limited its powers to the municipality; the 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a rapid increase in the town's population and its geographical extension westwards. From the small cluster of buildings at the foot of the Laventille Hills, eleven streets were laid out west to the area bounded by the St. Ann's River, thus establishing the grid pattern which has survived in downtown Port of Spain to the present day. Along the sea shore was the Plaza de la Marina, a parade ground. By 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000. Realising that the St. Ann's River, prone to flooding, was impeding the expansion of the town, Chacón had its course diverted in 1787 so that it ran to the east of the city, along the foot of the Laventille Hills. Port of Spain was now able to continue spreading northwards and westwards, encroaching on the surrounding sugar-cane plantations.
In 1797, Trinidad was invaded by a British force under General Sir Ralph Abercromby. The British landed west of Port of Spain, at what is still called Invaders Bay, marched towards the town. Realising his military resources were inadequate to defend the colony and wishing to avoid unnecessary destruction, Governor Chacón capitulated and was able to negotiate generous terms with Abercromby. Port of Spain remained the capital. In 1803, Port of Spain began growing southwards, with the re
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmatha and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal and China runs across its summit point; the current official elevation of 8,848 m, recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m. There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height or the snow height. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m. In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India; as there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.
Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall; as of 2017, nearly 300 people have died on Everest. The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers; as Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m, marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m. Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col; the 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top.
They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition; the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. The history of this area dates back to 800 BCE, when the ancient Kirati had their Kirata Kingdom in the Himalayan mountains; the Mahalangur range of the Himalaya is known as Kirat area of eastern Nepal. In 1715, the Qing Empire of China surveyed the mountain while mapping its territory and depicted it as Mount Qomolangma no than 1719. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as as possible.
They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down; the British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal, parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult because of malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria. Nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made several observations from the Sawajpore station at the east end of the Himalayas. Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, with interest, he noted a peak beyond it, about 230 km away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's subordinates saw the peak from a site farther west and called it peak "b".
Waugh would write that the observations indicated that peak "b" was higher than Kangchenjunga, but given the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak "b", but clouds thwarted his attempts. In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area, who made two observations from Jirol, 190 km away. Nicolson took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being 174 km from the peak. Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations, his raw data gave an average height of 9,200 m for peak "b", but this did not consider light refraction, which distorts heights. However, the number indica
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is an unincorporated part of and the county seat of the City and County of Honolulu along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu; the city is the main gateway to a major portal into the United States. The city is a major hub for international business, military defense, as well as famously being host to a diverse variety of east-west and Pacific culture and traditions. Honolulu is the most remote city of its size in the world and is the westernmost and southernmost major U. S. city. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau recognizes the approximate area referred to as "City of Honolulu" as a census county division. Honolulu is a major financial center of the islands and of the Pacific Ocean; the population of the Honolulu census designated place was 359,870 as of the 2017 population estimate, while the Honolulu CCD was 390,738 and the population of the consolidated city and county was 953,207. Honolulu means "sheltered harbor" or "calm port".
The old name is Kou, a district encompassing the area from Nuʻuanu Avenue to Alakea Street and from Hotel Street to Queen Street, the heart of the present downtown district. The city has been the capital of the Hawaiian Islands since 1845 and gained historical recognition following the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan near the city on December 7, 1941; as of 2015, Honolulu was ranked high on world livability rankings, was ranked as the 2nd safest city in the U. S, it is the most populated Oceanian city outside Australasia and ranks second to Auckland as the most-populous city in Polynesia. Evidence of the first settlement of Honolulu by the original Polynesian migrants to the archipelago comes from oral histories and artifacts; these indicate. However, after Kamehameha I conquered Oʻahu in the Battle of Nuʻuanu at Nuʻuanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiʻi to Waikīkī in 1804, his court relocated in 1809 to. The capital was moved back to Kailua-Kona in 1812. In 1794, Captain William Brown of Great Britain was the first foreigner to sail into what is now Honolulu Harbor.
More foreign ships followed, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia. In 1845, Kamehameha III moved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Maui to Honolulu, he and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, ʻIolani Palace, Aliʻiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu. Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, such as the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawaiʻi's subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remained the capital, largest city, main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands. An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiʻi.
Modern air travel brings, as of 2007, 7.6 million visitors annually to the islands, with 62.3% entering at Honolulu International Airport. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiʻi, with thousands of hotel rooms; the UK consulting firm Mercer, in a 2009 assessment "conducted to help governments and major companies place employees on international assignments", ranked Honolulu 29th worldwide in quality of living. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Urban Honolulu Census-designated place has a total area of 68.4 square miles. 60.5 square miles of it is land, 7.9 square miles of it is water. Honolulu is the most remote major city in the world; the closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the Point Arena Lighthouse in California, at 2,045 nautical miles. However, islands off the Mexican coast, part of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska are closer to Honolulu than the mainland. Downtown Honolulu is the financial and governmental center of Hawaiʻi.
On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaiʻi. The tallest building is the 438-foot tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets; the downtown campus of Hawaiʻi Pacific University is located there. The Arts District Honolulu in downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown, it is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street – home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District, which includes the former Hotel Street Vice District; the Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaiʻi's state government, incorporating the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale, State Library, the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings. Kakaʻako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopmen