Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
International Psychoanalytical Association
The International Psychoanalytical Association is an association including 12,000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 70 constituent organizations. It was founded in 1910 on an idea proposed by Sándor Ferenczi. In 1902 Sigmund Freud started to meet every week with colleagues to discuss his work, so the Psychological Wednesday Society was born. By 1908 there were 14 regular members and some guests including Max Eitingon, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones, all future Presidents of the IPA. Society became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. In 1907 Jones suggested to Jung. Freud welcomed the proposal; the meeting took place in Salzburg on April 27, 1908. Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology", it is reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress. So, the IPA had not yet been founded; the IPA was established at the next Congress held at Nuremberg in March 1910. Its first President was Carl Jung, its first Secretary was Otto Rank. Sigmund Freud considered an international organization to be essential to advance his ideas.
In 1914 Freud published a paper entitled The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. The IPA is the world’s primary accrediting and regulatory body for psychoanalysis; the IPA's aims include creating new psychoanalytic groups, stimulating debate, conducting research, developing training policies and establishing links with other bodies. It organizes a large biennial Congress. There is a Regional Organisation for each of the IPA’s 3 regions: Europe—European Psychoanalytical Federation, which includes Australia, Israel, South Africa and Turkey, its administrative offices are at The Lexicon in Central London. Latin America—Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies of Latin America; each of these three bodies consists of Constituent Organisations and Study Groups that are part of that IPA region. The IPA has a close working relationship with each of these independent organisations and values them but they are not or part of the IPA; the IPA's members qualify for membership by being a member of a "constituent organisation".
Constituent Organisations Argentine Psychoanalytic Association Argentine Psychoanalytic Society Australian Psychoanalytical Society Belgian Psychoanalytical Society Belgrade Psychoanalytical Society Brasília Psychoanalytic Society Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of Rio de Janeiro Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of São Paulo Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Porto Alegre Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Ribeirão Preto British Psychoanalytic Association British Psychoanalytical Society Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association Canadian Psychoanalytic Society Caracas Psychoanalytic Society Chilean Psychoanalytic Association Colombian Psychoanalytic Association Colombian Psychoanalytic Society Contemporary Freudian Society Cordoba Psychoanalytic Society Czech Psychoanalytical Society Danish Psychoanalytical Society Dutch Psychoanalytical Association Dutch Psychoanalytical Group Dutch Psychoanalytical Society Finnish Psychoanalytical Society French Psychoanalytical Association Freudian Psychoanalytical Society of Colombia German Psychoanalytical Association German Psychoanalytical Society Hellenic Psycho-Analytical Society Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society Indian Psychoanalytical Society Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research Israel Psychoanalytic Society Italian Psychoanalytical Association Italian Psychoanalytical Society Japan Psychoanalytic Society Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies Madrid Psychoanalytical Association Mato Grosso do Sul Psychoanalytical Society Mendoza Psychoanalytic Society Mexican Assn for Psychoanalytic Practice, Training & Research Mexican Psychoanalytic Association Monterrey Psychoanalytic Association Northwestern Psychoanalytic Society Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society Paris Psychoanalytical Society Pelotas Psychoanalytic Society Peru Psychoanalytic Society Polish Psychoanalytical Society Porto Alegre Psychoanalytical Society Portuguese Psychoanalytical Society Psychoanalytic Center of California Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California Psychoanalytic Society of Mexico Psychoanalytical Association of The State of Rio de Janeiro Recife Psychoanalytic Society Rio de Janeiro Psychoanalytic Society Romanian Psychoanalytic Society Rosario Psychoanalytic Association Spanish Psychoanalytical Society Swedish Psychoanalytical Association Swiss Psychoanalytical Society Uruguayan Psychoanalytical Association Venezuelan Psychoanalytic Association Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Guadalajara Psychoanalytic Association Moscow Psychoanalytic Society Psychoanalytic Society for Research and Training Vienna Psychoanalytic Association American Psychoanalytic Association is a body which has in membership societies which cover around 75% of psychoanalysts in the United States of America.
"Study Groups" are bodies of analysts which have not yet developed sufficiently to be a freestanding society, but, their aim. Campinas Psychoanalytical Study Group Center for Psychoanalytic Education and Research Croatian Psychoanalytic Study Group Fortaleza Psychoanalytic Group Goiania Psychoanalytic Nucleus Korean Psychoanalytic Study Group Latvia and Estonia Psychoanalytic Study Group Lebanese Association for the Development of Psychoanalysis Minas Gerais Psychoanalytical Study Group Port
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.
Alfred Ernest Jones was a Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud from their first meeting in 1908, he became his official biographer. Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world; as President of both the International Psychoanalytical Association and the British Psycho-Analytical Society in the 1920s and 1930s, Jones exercised a formative influence in the establishment of their organisations and publications. Ernest Jones was born in Gowerton, Wales, an industrial village on the outskirts of Swansea, the first child of Thomas and Ann Jones, his father was a self-taught colliery engineer who went on to establish himself as a successful business man, becoming accountant and company secretary at the Elba Steelworks in Gowerton. His mother, Mary Ann, was from a Welsh-speaking Carmarthenshire family which had relocated to Swansea. Jones was educated at Swansea Grammar School, Llandovery College, Cardiff University in Wales.
Jones studied at University College London and meanwhile he obtained the Conjoint diplomas LRCP and MRCS in 1900. A year in 1901, he obtained an M. B. degree with honours in medicine and obstetrics. Within five years he received an MD degree and a Membership of the Royal College of Physicians in 1903, he was pleased to receive the University's gold medal in obstetrics from his distinguished fellow-Welshman, Sir John Williams. After obtaining his medical degrees, Jones specialised in neurology and took a number of posts in London hospitals, it was through his association with the surgeon Wilfred Trotter that Jones first heard of Freud's work. Having worked together as surgeons at University College Hospital, he and Trotter became close friends, with Trotter taking the role of mentor and confidant to his younger colleague, they had in common a wide-ranging interest in philosophy and literature, as well as a growing interest in Continental psychiatric literature and the new forms of clinical therapy it surveyed.
By 1905 they were sharing accommodation above Harley Street consulting rooms with Jones's sister, installed as housekeeper. Trotter and Elizabeth Jones married. Appalled by the treatment of the mentally ill in institutions, Jones began experimenting with hypnotic techniques in his clinical work. Jones first encountered Freud's writings directly in 1905, in a German psychiatric journal in which Freud published the famous Dora case-history, it was thus he formed "the deep impression of there being a man in Vienna who listened with attention to every word his patients said to him...a revolutionary difference from the attitude of previous physicians..."Jones's early attempts to combine his interest in Freud's ideas with his clinical work with children resulted in adverse effects on his career. In 1906 he was arrested and charged with two counts of indecent assault on two adolescent girls whom he had interviewed in his capacity as an inspector of schools for "mentally defective" children. At the court hearing Jones maintained his innocence, claiming the girls were fantasising about any inappropriate actions by him.
The magistrate concluded that no jury would believe the testimony of such children and Jones was acquitted. In 1908, employed as a pathologist at a London hospital, Jones accepted a colleague’s challenge to demonstrate the repressed sexual memory underlying the hysterical paralysis of a young girl’s arm. Jones duly obliged but, before conducting the interview, he omitted to inform the girl’s consultant or arrange for a chaperone. Subsequently, he faced complaints from the girl’s parents over the nature of the interview and he was forced to resign his hospital post. Jones's first serious relationship was with Loe Kann, a wealthy Dutch émigré referred to him in 1906 after she had become addicted to morphine during treatment for a serious kidney condition, their relationship lasted until 1913. It ended with Kann in analysis with Freud and Jones, at Freud's behest, undergoing analysis with Sándor Ferenczi. A tentative romance with Freud's daughter, did not survive the disapproval of her father. Before her visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which Jones chaperoned, Freud advised him: She does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man.
There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets 2 or 3 years older. In 1917 Jones married the Welsh musician Morfydd Llwyn Owen, they were holidaying in South Wales the following year when Morfydd became ill with acute appendicitis. Emergency surgery was carried out at her parents-in-law's Swansea home but Jones and the surgeon who operated were unable to save her from the effects of chloroform poisoning, she was buried in Oystermouth Cemetery on the outskirts of Swansea where her gravestone bears the inscription, chosen by Jones from Goethe's Faust, "Das Unbeschreibliche, hier ist's getan". Following some inspired matchmaking by his Viennese colleagues, in 1919 Jones met and married Katherine Jokl, a Jewish economics graduate from Moravia, she had been at school in Vienna with Freud's daughters. They had four children in what proved to be a long and happy marriage, though both struggled to overcome the loss of their eldest child, Gwenith, at the age of 7, during the interwar influenza epidemic.
Their son Mervyn Jones became a writer. Whilst attending a congress of neurologists in Amsterdam in 1907, Jones met Carl Jung, from whom he received a first-hand account of the work of Freud and his circle in Vienna. Confirmed in his judgement of the importance of Freud's work, Jones joined Jung in Zurich to plan the inaugural P
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus mountains. Bad Homburg is part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area; the town's formal name is Bad Homburg vor der Höhe to distinguish it from other places named Homburg. The name is abbreviated as Bad Homburg v. d. Höhe, it is known best for its medically used mineral waters and spa, for its casino. Presently, Bad Homburg is again one of the wealthiest towns in Germany; as of 2004, the town's marketing slogan is Champagnerluft und Tradition. Local tradition holds that Bad Homburg's documented history began with the mention of the Villa Tidenheim in the Lorsch codex, associated with the year 782; this Villa Tidenheim was equated with the Old Town, named "Dietigheim". Local historian Rüdiger Kurth doubted this traditional story based on his study of written sources and local factors. During 2002 Kurth initiated archaeological excavations, by the University of Frankfurt, managed by Professor Joachim Henning.
The excavations showed that there was not any evidence of settlement between the beginning of the Christian Era and the 13th century. It seems that the historical record which mentions Wortwin von Hohenberch as Homburg's founder, as a documentary witness in Eberbach, about 1180 is the first good evidence of the town's existence; as early as 1962, in an excavation under the Hirschgangflügel of Bad Homburg's Schloss, two burnt layers were discovered, which the man conducting the dig, Günther Binding, accepted as evidence of two former castles having been built on the site, one after the other, but each having burnt down later. Further digs by the University of Frankfurt at Bad Homburg's Schloss during April 2006, once again initiated by Kurth and managed by Professor Henning, resulted in the discovery that it was only one burnt layer, from a half-timbered building—- a castle with towers—- which from ceramic finds could be dated to the 12th or 13th century. Most this building had an association with Wortwin's "castle".
Quite though, a further cultural layer from an earlier time lies underneath these remains. Investigations using methods from natural science will show whether the dating can be made more precise. Homberg acquired market rights about 1330, but the document granting these rights is said to have been lost; the town's name, "Homburg", is from the Hohenberg Castle. The postfix "vor der Höhe" was first recorded in a document of 1399; the designation "Bad" was not conferred until 1912. The Hessen-Homburg noble family of landgraves was initiated by Friedrich I of Hessen-Homburg. Friedrich II attained fame as Prince of Homburg. During 1866, as a result of the Austro-Prussian War, Homburg became Prussian territory. With the beginning of the spa industry in the town during the mid-19th century, which profited from its casino, the town became an internationally famous spa town. Bad Homburg was favoured by Russian nobility for its baths; the spa industry began with the discovery of the Elisabethenbrunnen during 1834.
The first spa building and the first casino in Homburg were built during 1841–1842 by the brothers François and Louis Blanc, who owned the Monte Carlo Casino. During 1860, the town was connected with Frankfurt by the Homburger Bahn. During 1888, Homburg became known throughout the German Empire because Kaiser Wilhelm II declared Homburg's Schloss an Imperial summer residence, financed the building of the Church of the Redeemer nearby, his mother, lived there for several years. Edward VII of the UK was often a guest, it was he. He experienced fasting cures at Homburg 32 times; the "Bad Homburger Golf Club 1899 e. V." in the Röderweisen in Dornholzhausen—nowadays part of Bad Homburg—- is Germany's oldest golf club. It had its beginnings in the Bad Homburg Spa Park, where the old clubhouse and playable parts of the old golf course may still be found. Not far away stands the Russian Chapel—- more properly called All Hallows' Church—- an Eastern Orthodox church the first stone of, laid in the Russian Imperial couple's presence on 16 October 1896, although they did not attend when it was consecrated three years later.
King Chulalongkorn of Siam sent a Thai garden pavilion in gratitude for a successful cure. It was erected during 1914. Horex was a well known German motorcycle brand of the "Horex—Fahrzeugbau AG", founded during 1923 in Bad Homburg by Fritz Kleemann. During 1335, permission was given by Emperor Louis IV to Gottfried von Eppstein to settle 10 Jews in each of the localities of Eppstein and Steinheim. Evidence for the existence of a permanent Jewish settlement in Homburg is found only at the beginning of the 16th century; until 1600 it consisted of 2 or 3 families, by 1632 these had increased to 16. The first Jewish cemetery was purchased during the 17th century; the community continued to grow so that during 1703 the landgrave Frederick II of Hesse decided on the construction of a special Judengasse. A synagogue, built during 1731, was replaced by a new one during 1867; the Jewish community of Homburg was part of the jurisdiction of the rabbinate of Friedberg but began to appoint
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of Russian SFSR, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country.
They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.
Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.
ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.
During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against the state'. The Gulag population swelled by 685,201 under Yezhov, nearly tripling in size in just two years, with
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It