Kevin Michael Rudd is an Australian former politician, the 26th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from December 2007 to June 2010 and again from June to September 2013. He held office as the leader of the Australian Labor Party. Rudd was born in Queensland, he has a degree in Chinese studies from the Australian National University, is fluent in Mandarin. Before entering politics, he worked as a diplomat, political staffer, public servant. Rudd was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1998 election, running in the Division of Griffith, he was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet in 2001 as Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs. In December 2006, he challenged Kim Beazley to become the Leader of the Labor Party. Under Rudd, Labor overtook the incumbent Coalition government led by John Howard in the polls, making a number of policy announcements in education, industrial relations, climate change. Labor won the 2007 election with a 23-seat swing in its favour; the Rudd Government's first acts included signing the Kyoto Protocol and delivering an apology to Indigenous Australians for the Stolen Generations.
Its signature policies included the National Broadband Network, the Digital Education Revolution, Building the Education Revolution. It largely dismantled WorkChoices, withdrew Australia's remaining Iraq War combat personnel, organised the Australia 2020 Summit; the government provided economic stimulus packages in response to the global financial crisis, Australia was one of the few developed countries to avoid the late-2000s recession. Despite a long period of popularity in opinion polls, a significant fall in Rudd's personal ratings in the middle of 2010 was blamed on a proposed Resource Super Profits Tax and the deferral of the Senate-rejected Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. With the next election drawing near, there was growing dissatisfaction with Rudd's leadership within the Labor Party. Rudd's deputy Julia Gillard announced on 23 June 2010 that she would challenge him for the leadership the following day, he chose not to contest, knowing he would be defeated if he contested the leadership, on the morning of the ballot he resigned as Prime Minister.
However, he remained in politics and re-contested his seat at the 2010 election, after which Labor formed a minority government. In September 2010, Rudd was promoted back to cabinet as Minister for Foreign Affairs, he remained in that post until his resignation on 22 February 2012, Gillard called a leadership spill the following day, which Rudd lost 71–31. Tensions over the leadership continued, Gillard announced another ballot in March 2013, which Rudd did not contest. A further ballot was held in June 2013, which Rudd won 57–45, his second term as prime minister lasted less than three months. Despite an initial rise in opinion polls following his return, Labor was defeated in the 2013 election. Rudd announced his retirement from politics a few months after the 2013 election. In February 2014, he was named a senior fellow with John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he completed a major research effort on the future of China–United States relations. In September 2014, he became a distinguished fellow at the Paulson Institute, a think tank at the University of Chicago.
He is the inaugural President of the Asia Society Policy Institute, chairs the Independent Commission on Multilateralism and the Sanitation and Water for All global partnership. Rudd is of Irish descent, his paternal fourth great-grandparents were English and of convict heritage: Thomas Rudd and Mary Cable. Thomas arrived from London, England in 1801. Thomas Rudd, convicted of stealing a bag of sugar, arrived in NSW on board the Earl Cornwallis in 1801. Rudd was born in Nambour, Queensland, to Albert and Margaret Rudd, the youngest son of four children, grew up on a dairy farm in nearby Eumundi. At an early age, he spent a considerable time at home convalescing, it damaged his heart, in particular the valves, for which he has thus far had two aortic valve replacement surgeries, but this was discovered only some 12 years later. Farm life, which required the use of horses and guns, is where he developed his lifelong love of horse riding and shooting clay targets, he attended Eumundi State School.
When Rudd was 11, his father, a share farmer and Country Party member, died. Rudd states that the family was required to leave the farm amidst financial difficulty between two and three weeks after the death, though the family of the landowner states that the Rudds didn't have to leave for six months. Following this traumatic childhood and despite familial connections with the Country Party, Rudd joined the Australian Labor Party in 1972 at the age of 15. Rudd boarded at Marist College Ashgrove in Brisbane, although these years were not happy due to the indignity of poverty and reliance on charity, he has since described the school as "tough, unforgiving, institutional Catholicism of the old school". Two years after she retrained as a nurse, Rudd's mother moved the family to Nambour, Rudd rebuilt his standing through study and scholastic application and was dux of Nambour State High School in 1974, his future Treasurer Wayne Swan attended the same school at the same time, although they did not know each other as Swan was three years ahead.
In that year, he was the Queensland winner of the Rotary "Youth Speaks
Russell James Hinze was a politician in Queensland, Australia, in the 1970s and 1980s. He presided over an era of controversy that included the setting up of the Racing Development Fund, ministerial re-zonings and the licensing of Jupiters Casino, his career in public life spanned four decades, first in local government in the 1950s and 1960s, in the Queensland Legislative Assembly from 1966 to 1988. His exit from Parliament occurred amid allegations. Russell James Hinze was born on 19 June 1919 in Oxenford on the Gold Coast of Queensland, his father was a dairy farmer. He started his career as a sugar cane cutter, he took up dairy-farming, like his father. After becoming chairman of the South Coast Cooperative Dairy Association, he was elected to the Albert Shire Council in the early 1950s, serving as shire chairman for nine years from 1958 to 1967. In 1966, Hinze entered the State political arena as the member for South Coast, representing the Country Party. After eight years as a backbench member of the Coalition Government, he was promoted to Cabinet.
In 1971, while still a backbencher, he was part of a plot within the Country Party parliamentary wing to topple Joh Bjelke-Petersen that failed only when Bjelke-Petersen broke a tie in the party-room meeting by voting for himself. Between 1974 and 1987, he served as the Minister for Local Main Roads. Between 1980 and 1987, he served as the Minister for Racing. Between 1980 and 1982, he served as the Minister for Police; these ministerial positions earned him the known title of'Minister for Everything'. In May 1988, Hinze resigned from Queensland Parliament after damaging allegations were made against him during the Fitzgerald Inquiry, investigating corruption in Queensland during the Bjelke-Petersen era. In December 1989 Hinze was charged on eight counts of having received corrupt payments of $520,000. However, he died from bowel cancer on 29 June 1991 aged 72 at the Allamanda Private Hospital in Southport, before the case went to trial, he was buried in Lower Coomera cemetery on the Gold Coast.
After his death in 1991 Queensland Deputy Premier Tom Burns remembered him in parliament with the following anecdote: "The best cartoon of him was the one that showed him as a bulldog. I saw him on television describing why he would rather be a bulldog than a mouse, but he was shown as a bulldog with dark glasses and a white cane outside a casino and brothel in the Valley that had a flashing neon light, saying he did not know there were any there." Although the charges against Hinze were never proven in court, in 1990 another court case arising from the Fitzgerald enquiry convicted businessman George Herscu of paying Hinze $100,000 to enable a shopping centre development to go ahead. Herscu claimed. Hinze Dam was named in honour of the Hinze family who lived in the valley, flooded by the dam. However, despite having the same surnames Russ Hinze is not related to the Hinze Family nor the dam's namesake, his granddaughter, Kristy Hinze, is a model. Queensland Legislative Assembly. "Queensland Legislative Assembly Hansard".
Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2006. "ABC Radio National". Queensland: Ten Years After Fitzgerald. Retrieved 17 January 2006
John Winston Howard, is an Australian former politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 1996 to 2007. He is the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister, behind only Sir Robert Menzies, in office for over 18 years. Howard was leader of the Liberal Party from 1985 to 1989 and from 1995 to 2007. Howard was studied law at the University of Sydney, he was a commercial lawyer before entering parliament. A former federal president of the Young Liberals, he first stood for office at the 1968 New South Wales state election, but lost narrowly. At the 1974 federal election, Howard was elected to the Division of Bennelong, which he would go on to represent until 2007, he was promoted to cabinet in 1977, in the year replaced Phillip Lynch as Treasurer of Australia, remaining in that position until the defeat of Malcolm Fraser's government in 1983. In 1985, Howard was elected leader of the Liberal Party for the first time, thus replacing Andrew Peacock as Leader of the Opposition.
He led the Liberal–National coalition to the 1987 federal election, but lost to Bob Hawke's Labor government, was removed from the leadership in 1989. Remaining a key figure in the party, Howard was re-elected leader in 1995, subsequently led the Coalition to victory at the 1996 federal election. After defeating Paul Keating's Labor government in 1996, the Howard Government was re-elected at the 1998, 2001 and 2004 elections. Howard's actions as prime minister included new gun laws, the introduction of a nationwide value-added tax, immigration reform, industrial relations reform. Australia contributed troops to the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War under his government, led the International Force for East Timor; the Howard government was defeated at the 2007 federal election, with the Labor Party's Kevin Rudd succeeding him as prime minister. Howard lost his own seat at the election, becoming only the second prime minister to do so. John Winston Howard is the fourth son of Lyall Howard, his parents were married in 1925.
His older brothers were Stanley and Robert. Lyall Howard was an admirer of Winston Churchill. Howard's ancestors were English and Irish. Howard was raised in the Sydney suburb of Earlwood, in a Methodist family, his mother had been an office worker until her marriage. His father and his paternal grandfather, Walter Howard, were both veterans of the First AIF in World War I, they ran two Dulwich Hill petrol stations where Howard worked as a boy. Lyall Howard died in 1955. Howard suffered a hearing impairment in his youth, leaving him with a slight speech impediment, he continues to wear a hearing aid, it influenced him in subtle ways, limiting his early academic performance. Howard attended Canterbury Boys' High School, he won a citizenship prize in his final year at Earlwood, subsequently represented his secondary school at debating as well as cricket and rugby union. Cricket remained a lifelong hobby. In his final year at school he took part in a radio show hosted by Jack Davey, Give It a Go, broadcast on the commercial radio station, 2GB.
After gaining his Leaving Certificate, he studied law at the University of Sydney, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1961. Howard began working for the firm of Stephen Stephen as a junior solicitor. In 1964, he took a trip around the world, visiting Britain, Israel and Singapore.</ref> After returning to Sydney in 1965, he began working for Clayton Utz, but "lacked the university grades and the social connections to be on track for a partnership". He subsequently moved to a smaller firm, which became Truman and Howard after he was made a partner. Howard married fellow Liberal Party member Janette Parker in 1971, with whom he had three children: Melanie and Richard. Howard joined the Liberal Party in 1957, he was a member of the party's New South Wales state executive and served as federal president of the Young Liberals from 1962 to 1964. Howard supported Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, although has since said there were "aspects of it that could have been handled and explained differently".
At the 1963 federal election, Howard acted as campaign manager for Tom Hughes in his local seat of Parkes. Hughes went on to defeat Les Haylen. In mid-1964, Howard travelled to London to travel for a period, he volunteered for the Conservative Party in the electorate of Holborn and St Pancras South at the 1964 UK general election. In 1967, with the support of party power brokers John Carrick and Eric Willis, Howard was endorsed as candidate for the marginal suburban state seat of Drummoyne, held by Labor's Reg Coady. Howard's mother sold the family home in Earlwood and rented a house with him at Five Dock, a suburb within the electorate. At the election in February 1968, in which the incumbent state Liberal government was returned to office, Howard narrowly lost to Coady, despite campaigning vigorously. Howard and his mother subsequently returned to Earlwood, moving to a house on the same street where he grew up. At the 1974 federal election, Howard contested the Division of Bennelong, located in suburban Sydney.
The election saw the return of the Gough Whitlam-led Labor government. Howard supported Malcolm Fraser for the leadership of th
Robert James Lee Hawke, is an Australian former politician, the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving Labor Party Prime Minister. Hawke was moved to Western Australia as a child, he attended the University of Western Australia and went on to Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1956, Hawke joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for wage arbitration, he was elected ACTU President in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile. After a decade in that role, Hawke announced his intention to enter politics, was elected to the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills. Three years he led Labor to a landslide victory at the 1983 election and was sworn in as Prime Minister, he led Labor to victory three more times, in 1984, 1987 and 1990, making him the most electorally successful Labor Leader. The Hawke Government created Medicare and Landcare, brokered the Prices and Incomes Accord, established APEC, floated the Australian dollar, deregulated the financial sector, introduced the Family Assistance Scheme, announced "Advance Australia Fair" as the official national anthem, initiated superannuation pension schemes for all workers and oversaw passage of the Australia Act that removed all remaining jurisdiction by the United Kingdom from Australia.
Hawke was replaced by his deputy Paul Keating at the end of 1991. Hawke remains Labor's longest-serving Prime Minister, Australia's third-longest-serving Prime Minister, at the age of 89 years, 123 days, Hawke is the oldest living former Australian Prime Minister. Hawke is the only Australian Prime Minister to be born in South Australia, the only one raised and educated in Western Australia. Hawke was born in Bordertown, South Australia, the second child of Arthur Hawke, a Congregationalist minister, his wife Edith Emily, a schoolteacher, his uncle, was the Labor Premier of Western Australia between 1953 and 1959, was a close friend of Prime Minister John Curtin, in many ways Bob Hawke's role model. Hawke's elder brother Neil, seven years his senior, died at the age of seventeen after contracting meningitis, for which there was no cure at the time. Ellie Hawke subsequently developed an messianic belief in her son's destiny, this contributed to Hawke's supreme self-confidence throughout his career.
At the age of fifteen, he presciently boasted to friends that he would one day become the Prime Minister of Australia. At the age of seventeen, the same age that his brother Neil had died, Hawke had a serious accident while riding his Panther motorcycle that left him in a critical condition for several days; this near-death experience acted as his catalyst, driving him to make the most of his talents and not let his abilities go to waste. He joined the Labor Party in 1947 at the age of eighteen. Hawke was educated at Perth Modern School and the University of Western Australia, graduating in 1952 with a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws, he was president of the university's guild during the same year. The following year, Hawke won a Rhodes Scholarship to attend University College, where he undertook a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Economics, he soon found he was covering much the same ground as he did in his education at the University of Western Australia, transferred to a Bachelor of Letters.
He wrote his thesis on wage-fixing in Australia and presented it in January 1956. His academic achievements were complemented by setting a new world record for beer drinking. In his memoirs, Hawke suggested that this single feat may have contributed to his political success more than any other, by endearing him to an electorate with a strong beer culture. In 1956, Hawke accepted a scholarship to undertake doctoral studies in the area of arbitration law in the law department at the Australian National University in Canberra. Soon after his arrival at ANU, Hawke became the students' representative on the University Council. A year Hawke was recommended to the President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions to become a research officer, replacing Harold Souter who had become ACTU Secretary; the recommendation was made by Hawke's mentor at ANU, H. P. Brown, who for a number of years had assisted the ACTU in national wage cases. Hawke decided to abandon his doctoral studies and accept the offer, moving to Melbourne with his wife Hazel.
Not long after Hawke began work at the ACTU, he became responsible for the presentation of its annual case for higher wages to the national wages tribunal, the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. He was first appointed as an ACTU advocate in 1959; the 1958 case, under previous advocate R. L. Eggleston, had yielded only a five-shilling increase; the 1959 case found for a fifteen-shilling increase, was regarded as a personal triumph for Hawke. He went on to attain such success and prominence in his role as an ACTU advocate that, in 1969, he was encouraged to run for the position of ACTU President, despite the fact that he had never held elected office in a trade union, he was elected ACTU President in 1969 on a modernising platform by the narrow margin of 399 to 350, with the support of the left of the union movement, including some associated with the Communist Party. He credited Ray Gietzelt, General Secretary of the FMWU, as the single most significant union figure in helping him achieve this outcome.
Hawke declared publicly that "socialist is not a word I would use to desc
Kim Christian Beazley, AC, is an Australian politician, serving as the Governor of Western Australia. A former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Opposition, Beazley has held various ministerial portfolios in the Hawke and Keating Governments before serving as Ambassador to the United States. Beazley was born in Perth, the son of politician Kim Beazley senior, he studied at the University of Western Australia and Balliol College, attending the latter as a Rhodes Scholar. After a period as a lecturer at Murdoch University, Beazley was elected to parliament at the 1980 federal election, winning the Division of Swan for the Labor Party, he was added to the ministry when the party won the 1983 election, served continuously through to the party's defeat in 1996. His longest-held portfolio during that time was Minister for Defence. In 1995, Beazley was elected deputy leader of the Labor Party in place of Brian Howe, thus becoming deputy prime minister. After Labor lost power in 1996, Beazley was elected unopposed as party leader in place of Paul Keating.
He led Labor to the 1998 election, falling well short of victory. After a second defeat in 2001, he resigned the leadership in favour of his deputy Simon Crean. However, in 2003 Beazley made two attempts to regain his old position, he lost an initial challenge to Crean in June, after Crean's resignation in December lost a ballot to Mark Latham by two votes. Beazley was elected to a second term as leader in January 2005 when Latham resigned in the wake of the 2004 election. Beazley was replaced by Kevin Rudd following a spate of poor opinion polling, he retired from politics at the 2007 election. From 2010 to 2016, Beazley served as Ambassador of Australia to the United States. In April 2018, it was announced by Premier Mark McGowan that Beazley would succeed Kerry Sanderson as Governor of Western Australia on 1 May, for a term of four years. Beazley was born in Western Australia, his father, Kim Beazley Snr, was the Labor MP for Fremantle from 1945 to 1977 and education minister in the Whitlam Government.
His mother, Betty Judge, was record-holder. Beazley's uncle, the Reverend Syd Beazley, was one of the more than 1,000 prisoners of war who died in the sinking of the SS Montevideo Maru in July 1942. Beazley contracted polio at the age of six, he was educated at Hollywood Senior High School and the University of Western Australia, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and subsequently a Master of Arts. On a Rhodes Scholarship, he attended Balliol College, where he graduated with a Master of Philosophy. At Oxford, he befriended Tony Blair, who would become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Geoff Gallop to be Premier of Western Australia. After he returned to Australia, Beazley tutored and lectured in politics at Perth's Murdoch University, he was recruited to Labor's right-wing faction by Graham Richardson and John Ducker, before being elected MP for the seat of Swan at the 1980 election. Beazley became a protege of Bob Hawke, Labor leader from 1983, in that year he was appointed Minister for Aviation in Hawke's first ministry.
He was Minister for Defence, with a seat in Cabinet, 1984–90. In this role he was responsible for establishing the Royal Australian Navy's submarine program, beset with some technical problems and cost over-runs. Beazley has had a lifelong interest in military matters. Beazley was Minister for Transport and Communications, Employment and Training, Finance again, he supported Hawke in his leadership battles with Paul Keating in 1991, but retained his position when Keating deposed Hawke and became Prime Minister in December 1991. Beazley was Deputy Prime Minister 1995–96. Beazley's hold on Swan grew tenuous over the years, he saw his majority more than halved in 1990, was nearly defeated in 1993. With Labor sinking in the polls during the run-up to the 1996 election, Beazley shifted to Brand, a more secure seat south of Perth. In the 1996 election, Labor was defeated by the Coalition under John Howard. Keating resigned, Beazley was elected unopposed as Labor leader, he had the difficult task of rebuilding a party that had just suffered the second-worst defeat of a sitting government since Federation.
Beazley, however made up ground on Howard as the Coalition's poll numbers sagged when Howard broke his previous promise not to introduce a Goods and Services Tax. Beazley led the ALP contingent at the Constitutional Convention in February 1998, called to discuss the issue of Australia becoming a republic. Beazley advocated "minimalist" change and described transition to a republic as "unfinished business" for Australia, he said that foreigners "find it strange and anachronistic, as many Australians now do, that our Head of State is not an Australian". The ALP proposed appointment of a president by two-thirds majority of parliament. In his opening address, Beazley told the Convention: In the October 1998 election, Labor polled a majority of the two-party vote and received the largest swing to a first-term opposition since 1934. However, due to the uneven nature of the swing, as well as the Coalition's large majority going into the election, Labor came up eight seats short of making Beazley Prime Minister.
Beazley did, manage to slash Howard's majority by more than half, from 19 seats to five. In mid-2001 Labor was well ahead in the opinion polls and seemed set to win the elec
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826