Georg von Kameke
Arnold Karl Georg von Kameke was a Prussian General of the Infantry and Minister of War. Kameke began his career in 1834 in the 2nd military engineers section in Stettin. In 1836 he became an officer in the corps and in 1850 was assigned to the General Staff. In 1861 he was made a Colonel and in 1863 Chief of Staff of the VIII, in 1865 he became a Major General and a short while became Chief of Staff of the II. He participated in the Austro-Prussian War as Chief of Staff of the II, in 1867 he was made head of the entire engineering corps, in 1868 he was made a Lieutenant General. In the Franco-Prussian War Kameke commanded the 14, infanteriedivision and fought in the Battle of Spicheren, the Battle of Borny-Colombey and the Battle of Gravelotte. After the surrender of the fortress of Metz he conquered Thionville, Montmédy, but before Méziéres fell he was called to Versailles on 23 December 1870 to lead the engineers attack against Paris. On 18 February 1871 he was head of the engineering corps.
On 9 November 1873, Kameke succeeded Albrecht von Roon as Minister of War, on 22 March 1875 he was appointed General of the Infantry. On 3 March 1883 he retired from his posts and withdrew to his property, Hohenfelde near Kolberg in Pomerania
Eduard Wilhelm Daege was a German painter who served as Director for both the Prussian Academy of Art and the National Gallery. In 1820, he entered the Prussian Academy of Art, where he studied under Johann Gottfried Niedlich, in 1821, he may have been involved in painting the frescoes for Karl Friedrich Schinkels Schauspielhaus at the Gendarmenmarkt. From 1832 to 1833, he accompanied Karl Eduard Biermann on a trip to Rome. He became a member of the Academy in 1835 and, beginning in 1838, in 1840, he was appointed a Professor. He participated in painting the murals at the Neues Museum and in the chapel at the Berliner Stadtschlosses, from 1861 to 1874, he was Director of the Academy, a position which included managing the newly founded National Gallery. 1846–1852, Geburt Christi, Anbetung der Hirten and twenty-four assorted angel figures/heads at the Stadtschlosses, 1847–1855, Jerusalem and Aachen, allegorical murals in the north dome-hall of the Neues Museum. 1856, Altarpiece in the convent at the monastery in Ribnitz-Damgarten, allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. K. G.
Saur, Munich 1992, Vol.23
Prussian Academy of Arts
The academy had a decisive influence on art and its development in the German-speaking world throughout its existence. For an extended period of time it was the German artists society and training organisation and it dropped Prussian from its name in 1945 and was finally disbanded in 1955 after the 1954 foundation of two separate academies of art for East Berlin and West Berlin in 1954. Those two separate academies merged in 1993 to form Berlins present-day Academy of Arts, most artists were associated with the academy as members. Membership was an honorary distinction extended to prominent domestic Prussian artists, a deliberative body of senators was chosen from the membership -- some elected, and some automatically included due to other rank. The academy was not a school, although it had associations with educational institutions, the scope was expanded in 1704 to include Mechanical Sciences. The academys first director was Swiss painter Joseph Werner, in 1833 the academy added a fine arts division, and a music division in 1835.
Emil Fuchs studied at the Academy under Fritz Schaper and Anton von Werner, Otto Geyer studied there from 1859-1864. Sculptor Wilhelm Neumann-Torborg studied at the academy from 1878 until 1885, under Otto Knille, in 1885, he won the Academys Rome Scholarship for his thesis, The Judgment of Paris. Anna Gerresheim studied there from 1876 for four years in the class under Karl Gussow. Oskar Frenzel studied there between 1884 and 1889 under Paul Friedrich Meyerheim and Eugen Bracht and he was from 1904 until his death a member of the Academy. Painter Friedrich Wachenhusen studied there in 1889 under Eugen Bracht and sculptor Paul Wallat studied there from 1902-1909 under Otto Brausewetter and Carl Saltzmann. On December 29,1906 he received the award of the Ginsberg Foundation of the Berlin Academy, käthe Kollwitz became the first woman elected to the Prussian Academy, but with the coming to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933 she was expelled because of her beliefs and her art. Name changes, 1882–1918 Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1918–1926 Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1926–1931 Preußische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin 1931–1954 Preussische Akademie der Künste
Andreas Achenbach was a German landscape painter, associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. Born in Kassel, he began his art education in 1827 in Düsseldorf under Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow at the Düsseldorf Academy of Painting and he studied at St Petersburg and travelled in Italy and Scandinavia. Although his landscapes evince too much of his aim at picture-making and lack personal temperament, he is a master of technique and he received a medal of the first class in Paris in 1855, and was named a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him that he was regarded as the father of 19th century German landscape painting. A number of his finest works are to be found at the Berlin National Gallery, the New Pinakothek in Munich, many of his paintings are in galleries in the United States. His brother, Oswald Achenbach, was a painter, list of German painters This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Achenbach, Andreas.
Ralf Kern, Oswald Achenbach, Ein Düsseldorfer malt Italien
Herbert von Bismarck
Nicolaus Heinrich Ferdinand Herbert, Prince von Bismarck was a German politician, who served as Foreign Secretary from 1886 to 1890. His political career was tied to that of his father, Otto von Bismarck. He succeeded his father as the 2nd Prince of Bismarck in 1898 and he was born in Berlin and died in Friedrichsruh. Herbert von Bismarck born in Berlin, the oldest son of Otto von Bismarck and his wife Johanna and he had an older sister, and a younger brother, Wilhelm. He fought in the Franco-Prussian War, sustaining a wound through the left leg during a cavalry charge at the Battle of Mars-La-Tour. He joined the service in 1874, on his fathers wishes. He became Under-Secretary and acting head of the Foreign Office in 1885, and he additionally was appointed Minister of State of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1888. He once said that My father is the person who can handle this business. He wanted to marry Princess Elisabeth von Carolath-Beuthen in 1881, but his father would not allow it, as she was a Catholic divorcee, the Chancellor pressured his son with tears and threats to disinherit him by getting Kaiser Wilhelm I to change the primogeniture statutes.
This experience left Herbert a very bitter and alcoholic man and he once shot five bullets through a Foreign Office window to be told he may have hit someone. He replied Officials have to be kept in a permanent state of irritation and alarm and he entered the civil service in 1874 and was promoted during the chancellorship of his father to the position of undersecretary in the foreign office. He became State Secretary for Foreign Affairs in 1886, in 1890, when Kaiser Wilhelm II called for the resignation of Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor, Herbert von Bismarck resigned as State Secretary. He was at his fathers bedside when the latter died on 30 July 1898 at 10,57 pm, the capital of the German colonial administration of German New Guinea was called Herbertshöhe. Regarding personal names, Until 1919, Graf was a title, translated as Count, in Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and his leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war-time leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Princes Palace, Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britains Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, a traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erbs palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. His left arm was about 6 inches shorter than his right arm, historians have suggested that this disability affected his emotional development.
In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, William attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk. During the ceremony the four-year-old became restless and his eighteen-year-old uncle Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred. When Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, to her Wilhelm remained a clever, good little child, the great favourite of my beloved Vicky. His mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm and she blamed herself for the childs handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her, riding lessons began when Wilhelm was eight and were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the prince was set on his horse. He fell off time after time but despite his tears was set on its back again, after weeks of this he finally got it right and was able to maintain his balance.
Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter, Hinzpeter, he wrote, was really a good fellow. Whether he was the tutor for me, I dare not decide. The torments inflicted on me, in this riding, must be attributed to my mother. As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium, in January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, studying law and he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn
Peder Balke was a Norwegian painter. He is known for portraying the landscape of Norway in a romantic and dramatic manner and he was active in the field of social justice. Peter Andersen was born on the island of Helgøya, in Hedmark county and he grew up in Ringsaker, but lived in the 1820s on the Balke farm in Toten in Oppland county. Farmers in Toten paid for his education, and he decorated several farms in Toten in return and they actively encouraged his painting activities and supported him in obtaining higher education. In the autumn of 1827, Balke served as an apprentice to Heinrich August Grosch and he was a student at the Tegneskole under Grosch and Jacob Munch. Balke signed a contract as an apprentice to the Danish decorator. From autumn 1829 to spring 1833, he was a pupil of Carl Johan Fahlcrantz at the art academy in Stockholm, Balke was a pupil of Johan Christian Dahl from 1843 to 1844. Along the way, he painted and drew sketches that were developed into paintings. He traveled to Germany, and Russia, in Stockholm, he completed several of the paintings he had outlined on his 1832 Finnmark tour.
Some of these were sold to the royal family, in 1846 he sold thirty of his paintings to Louis Philippe I of France for the Versailles. Besides the 17 paintings in the National Gallery in Oslo, Peder Balke is represented at major art collections in Norway. The National Gallery in London organized the greatest display of his work in the UK, balkes work is mentioned in a discussion of Nordic Art from 1860-1920. He was married in 1834 to Karen Eriksdatter Strand and he was engaged in social questions and organized the construction of Balkeby, a new part of Oslo, with improved living conditions for workers. He advocated grants for artists and pensions for men and women and he is the great-grandfather of Turid Balke and great-great-grandfather of Jon Balke. Peder Balke purchased parcels of the historic Nedre Blindern farm between 1858 and 1876, the Balke association organized the suburb. Plot buyers could borrow money from Balke and construct the building themselves, by 1865, there were 300 people in Balkeby and the area was relatively well populated by workers.
Eventually they took in lodgers, so that the population increased, Balkeby provided an opportunity for a population to have their own home within a reasonable distance from the city, especially after the horse trams came in 1875. In 1878, when the area was incorporated into the city of Oslo, Balke had set up strict rules for construction, including the planning of wide streets to prevent the spreading of fire
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Stollwerck GmbH is a German chocolate manufacturer. It was founded in 1839 and expanded internationally in Europe and America, since 2011 it has belonged to Belgian firm Baronie Group. In 1839 the baker Franz Stollwerck started business in Cologne, Germany and he diversified into chocolate and other candy, having particular success with cough drops. Local pharmacists requested that he be prevented from selling such items in 1845. His business flourished in Germany and he opened two houses in Cologne. One of these was converted into a music hall before becoming a chocolate. In 1871 his sons registered a separate company Gebrüder Stollwerck which merged back into the company in 1876. Stollwercks five sons expanded the business into a corporation with plants in Europe. The second youngest of the brothers, Ludwig Stollwerck was instrumental in introducing new technology including the first vending machines in 1887 and these were initially used to sell small samples of chocolate, but their immediate popularity meant they were soon used to sell entire bars.
In 1893 Stollwerck was selling its chocolate in 15,000 vending machines and it set up separate companies in various territories to manufacture vending machines to sell not just chocolate, but cigarettes, chewing gum and soap products. By 1890 its Cologne works alone had 1500 staff, Stollwerck turned their focus to exporting their products. Subsidiaries were formed in England and Austria-Hungary, in 1894 Stollwerck founded Volkmann, Stollwerck & Company in the USA, in partnership with German businessman John Volkmann to produce vending machines in their factory in New York. By the early 1890s there were over 4,000 of its vending machines on New York train stations and it became a leading manufacturer of cinematographs. In 1902 the company went public, but World War I brought Stollwercks rapid expansion to a halt, in 1927 Karl Stollwerck built the Stollwerck Mausoleum in Upper Bavaria, a rare combination of Protestant church and family burial chamber. Costly acquisitions and the recession of the Great Depression devastated Stollwercks finances.
It had to be rescued by the Deutsche Bank in the 1930s, in the Second World War food rationing and the scarcity of cocoa drastically reduced the firms market. After the Second World War the firm was left with damaged factories and it restarted production in 1949 and fared moderately in the face of intense competition in the 1950s and 1960s. Stollwerck opened a factory in Székesfehérvár, Hungary in 1995
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus