Maximillian Oppenheimer, known as Max Ophüls, was a German-born film director who worked in Germany and the United States. He made nearly 30 films, the latter ones being notable: La Ronde, Le Plaisir, The Earrings of Madame de… and Lola Montès, he was credited as Max Opuls on several of his American films, including The Reckless Moment, Letter from an Unknown Woman, The Exile. The annual Filmfestival Max Ophüls Preis in Saarbrücken is named after him. Max Ophüls was born in Saarbrücken, the son of Leopold Oppenheimer, a Jewish textile manufacturer and owner of several textile shops in Germany, his wife Helen, he took the pseudonym Ophüls during the early part of his theatrical career so that, should he fail, it wouldn't embarrass his father. Envisioning an acting career, he started as a stage actor in 1919 and played at the Aachen Theatre from 1921 to 1923, he worked as a theater director, becoming the first director at the city theater of Dortmund. Ophüls moved into theatre production in 1924.
He became creative director of the Burgtheater in Vienna in 1926. Having had 200 plays to his credit, he turned to film production in 1929, when he became a dialogue director under Anatole Litvak at UFA in Berlin, he worked throughout Germany and directed his first film in 1931, the comedy short Dann schon lieber Lebertran. Of his early films, the most acclaimed is Liebelei, which included a number of the characteristic elements for which he was to become known: luxurious sets, a feminist attitude, a duel between a younger and an older man, it was at the Burgtheater. They were married in 1926. Predicting the Nazi ascendancy, Ophüls, a Jew, fled to France in 1933 after the Reichstag fire and became a French citizen in 1938. After the fall of France to Germany, he travelled through Switzerland and Italy to the United States in 1941, only to become inactive in Hollywood, he received help from a longtime fan, director Preston Sturges, went on to direct a number of distinguished films. His first Hollywood film was Jr. vehicle, The Exile.
Ophüls' Letter from an Unknown Woman, derived from a Stefan Zweig novella, is the most regarded of the American films. Caught, The Reckless Moment followed, before his return to Europe in 1950. Back in France, he directed and collaborated on the adaptation of Schnitzler's La Ronde, which won the 1951 BAFTA Award for Best Film, Lola Montès starring Martine Carol and Peter Ustinov, as well as Le Plaisir and The Earrings of Madame de... the latter with Danielle Darrieux and Charles Boyer, which capped his career. Ophüls died from rheumatic heart disease on 26 March 1957 in Hamburg, while shooting interiors on The Lovers of Montparnasse, was buried in Le Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris; this final film was completed by his friend Jacques Becker. Max Ophüls's son Marcel Ophüls became a distinguished documentary-film maker, director of The Sorrow and the Pity and other films examining the nature of political power. All his works feature his distinctive smooth camera movements, complex crane and dolly sweeps, tracking shots.
Many of his films inspired filmmakers like Paul Thomas Anderson, who gave an introduction on the restored DVD of The Earrings of Madame de.... Some of his films are narrated from the point of view of the female protagonist. Film scholars have analyzed films such as Liebelei, Letter from an Unknown Woman, Madame de... as examples of the woman's film genre. Nearly all of his female protagonists had names beginning with "L" Actor James Mason, who worked with Ophüls on two films, wrote a short poem about the director's love for tracking shots and elaborate camera movements: A shot that does not call for tracks Is agony for poor old Max, separated from his dolly, Is wrapped in deepest melancholy. Once, when they took away his crane, I thought. Worked on Les amants de Montparnasse, before his death. Max Ophüls, Spiel im Dasein. Eine Rückblende. Mit einem Nachwort von Hilde Ophüls und einer Einführung von Friedrich Luft, sowie achtzehn Abbildungen, Stuttgart: Henry Goverts Verlag. List of German-speaking Academy Award winners and nominees Alan Larson Williams, Max Ophüls and the Cinema of Desire: Style and Spectacle in Four Films, 1948–1955, Dissertations on Film series, New York: Arno Press.
| ISBN 0-405-12924-6 Susan M. White, The Cinema of Max Ophüls: Magisterial Vision and the Figure of Woman, New York: Columbia University Press. | ISBN 0-231-10113-9 Lutz Bacher, Max Ophüls in the Hollywood Studios, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. | ISBN 0-8135-2291-9 Melinda Camber Porter, "Through Parisian Eyes: Reflections on Contemporary French Arts and Culture", Da Capo Press. | ISBN 978-0-306-80540-0 Dossier about Max Ophüls, on La furia umana, n° 9, 2011, texts by Raymond Bellour, Chris Fujiwara, Leland Monk, Gaylyn Studlar, Susan M. White, Alain Masson, others. Max Ophüls on IMDb Max Ophüls at AllMovie Max Ophuls Bibliography Senses of Cinema Essay by Tag Gallagher Max Ophüls Award
The Factory Act of 1847 known as the Ten Hours Act was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which restricted the working hours of women and young persons in textile mills to 10 hours per day. The practicalities of running a textile mill were such that the Act should have set the same limit on the working hours of adult male mill-workers, but defective drafting meant that a subsequent Factory Act in 1850 imposing tighter restrictions on the hours within which women and young persons could work was needed to bring this about. With this slight qualification, the Act of 1847 was the culmination of a campaign lasting fifteen years to bring in a'Ten Hours Bill'. Richard Oastler was a early advocate; the 1847 Act was passed soon after the fall from power of Sir Robert Peel's Conservative government, but the fiercest opponents of all ten-hour bills were the'free trade' Liberals such as John Bright. The Factory Act of 1847 stipulated that as of 1 July 1847, women and children between the ages of 13 and 18 could work only 63 hours per week.
The Bill further stipulated that as of 1 May 1848, women and children 13–18 could work only 58 hours per week, the equivalent of 10 hours per day. The 1833 Factory Act had specified an eight-hour working day for children and a twelve-hour day for'young persons' but it had proved difficult to enforce, its attempts to ensure the education of mill-children had failed. Under the Whig government of Lord Melbourne, Fox Maule had produced draft factory bills which were to replace the 1833 Act and better address these issues, but the Whigs had never found the political will and the parliamentary time to get a new Factory Act passed. Maule's draft bills had proposed reducing the working hours for children to allow better access to better education but had otherwise left hours of work unchanged. A short-time movement in the textile districts sought a ten-hour day for all millworkers, which it believed would be secured by reducing the working hours for young persons: Lord Ashley supported their cause.
The Whigs were defeated in the 1841 general election, Sir Robert Peel formed a Conservative government. Ashley let it be known that he had declined office under Peel because Peel would not commit himself not to oppose a ten-hour bill. In February 1842, Peel indicated definite opposition to a ten-hour bill, Sir James Graham, Peel's Home Secretary, declared his intention to proceed with a bill prepared by Fox Maule, but with some alterations. In response to the findings of a Royal Commission, Ashley saw through Parliament a Mines And Collieries Act banning the employment of women and children underground. In July, it was announced that the Government did not intend any modification to the Factory Act in that session. In 1843, Ashley initiated a debate on "the best means of diffusing the benefits and blessings of a moral and religious education among the working classes..." The Royal Commission had investigated not only the working hours and conditions of the children but their moral state. It had found much of concern in their habits and language, but the greatest concern was that "the means of secular and religious instruction.. are so grievously defective, that, in all the districts, great numbers of Children and Young Persons are growing up without any religious, moral, or intellectual training.
The State had no responsibility for the provision of education, the working classes themselves had neither the capital nor the income to set up and support schools giving an effective education to their children. Through the Privy Council, government money was available to cover up to one-third of the cost of setting up an'efficient' school where none existed. Since the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, many of the grievances of the Dissenters had been addressed, until the Whig government felt itself politically unable to go further because of the increasing concern of Anglicans at the systematic erosion of the Church of England's status as the national church. Church and organised Dissent regarded each other not as a colleague, but at best as a competitor, too as an opponent. Two charities existed to assist the formation of efficient schools, its implications for the Established Church were noted
Bishop Devprasad John Ganawa, S. V. D. is the current serving bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of India. John was born on 8 December 1951 in Madhya Pradesh, India, he completed his studies at the Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth. On 27 October 1982, John was ordained a priest for the Society of the Divine Word. John was appointed bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jhabua on 11 May 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI and consecrated on 16 June 2009 by Leo Cornelio. On 21 December 2012, he was appointed bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Udaipur by Pope Benedict XVI, he served as Apostolic Administrator of Jhabua, India from 21 December 2012 until 10 October 2015. His episcopal motto is THE JOY OF HOPE. List of Catholic bishops of India
The 2015 FIM Motocross World Championship was the 59th F. I. M. Motocross World Championship season, it included 18 events, starting at Losail in Qatar on 28 February, ending at San Bernardino, California in the United States on 20 September. In the main MXGP class, Tony Cairoli was the six-time defending champion, entered the 2015 season looking to score a record seventh consecutive premier class title, for Red Bull KTM. In the MX2 class, Jordi Tixier was the defending champion, after taking the title in the final race of the 2014 season for Red Bull KTM. Tixier defends his title with Team Monster Energy Kawasaki. An 18-round calendar for the 2015 season was announced on 10 October 2014. In February 2015, it was announced that the Brazilian event – scheduled to be held on 16 August in Trindade – had been cancelled due to financial and political issues. A replacement event has been scheduled in Italy. Gautier Paulin moved over to the factory Honda. Steven Frossard lost his factory Kawasaki ride, he moved to KTM team, Wilvo Forkrent and will compete in the British national MX1 as well as MXGP.
Monster Energy Kawasaki signed multi-American champion Ryan Villopoto and 2008 MX2 World Champion Tyla Rattray. Red Bull KTM expand to sign Tommy Searle. Max Nagl moved over to the factory Red Bull IceOne Husqvarna. Nathan Watson is signed at IceOne alongside Todd Waters. 24MX Honda has a new lineup with aged-out MX2 rider Christophe Charlier and Swede Filip Bengtsson. Yamaha factory expand to sign Romain Febvre. Dean Ferris enters series full-time with Wilvo Nestaan Husqvarna. Glenn Coldenhoff moves up from MX2 with Rockstar Suzuki Europe. Rui Goncalves signs for the new MX Racing Team Husqvarna. Dennis Ullrich leaves Sarholz KTM to join Castrol Power1 Suzuki, he is replaced by fellow German Angus Heidecke. Milko Potisek joins Tip Top Racing. Alessandro Lupino and Kei Yamamoto move up from MX2 with Assomotor Honda. Jose Butron moves up with Marchetti KTM Official website
Julebukking is a Christmas tradition of Scandinavian origin. Between Christmas and New Year's Day, people wearing masks and costumes would go door to door, where neighbors receiving them attempt to identify, under the disguise. In one version of Julebukking, people go from door to door singing Christmas songs. After they have sung, they are awarded with candy. Another tradition requires that at least one person from the visited household join the band of Julebukkers and continue to the next household. In certain aspects, the custom resembled the modern-day tradition of Halloween trick-or-treating. Julebukkers will disguise their voices and body language to further the masquerade. Offering people holiday treats and something to drink is customary. Once identities are known and the food is eaten, the Julebukkers continue to the next home; the earliest form of Julebukking was a pre-Christian pagan ritual. The tradition of the Yule goat is believed to have originated in Norway, at a time when pagans worshiped Thor, the god who traveled in his chariot drawn by two goats.
During the Yule holiday, they would disguise their appearance by dressing in a goatskin and go from house to house carrying a goat head. Christian missionaries divorced its meaning from Paganism; the Yule Goat became one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions. In Scandinavia, the figure of the Yule Goat remains a common Christmas ornament, it is made out of straw, has a red ribbon around its neck, is found under the Christmas tree. German and Scandinavian immigrants brought this tradition to America. Though the practice of Julebukking may be dying out in Europe, it can still be observed on occasion in rural communities in America with large populations of people of Scandinavian descent, such as in Petersburg and Ketchikan, Alaska. Yule goat Mummers Play Wassailing Rossel, Sven H..
American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, Inc. was the post-merger parent company of the American Broadcasting Company and United Paramount Theatres. United Paramount Theatres, Inc. was incorporated on November 15, 1949, as a spin off of Paramount Pictures' movie theater operations pursuant to the Supreme Court anti-trust ruling in United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc.. UPT took over Paramount's theater chains, which included Balaban and Katz, a Chicago-based circuit that included some broadcasting interests. 800 of the 1,450 Paramount theaters were to be divested. A court appointed trustee would control UPT stock for five years to ensure separate ownership of the two businesses. Paramount stockholders were to receive stock in both companies, with a conversion provision that would allow a shareholder to exchange its stock in one successor into the other company's stock. Leonard Goldenson, who had headed the theater chain since 1938, remained as UPT's president. With the American Broadcasting Company looking to enter television, UPT had the cash from the divested theaters and was looking to invest that money elsewhere, as it was barred from film making.
ABC considered International Telephone & Telegraph and General Tire, before accepting UPT's offer. In 1950, UPT acquired a 1/3 share of Microwave Associates, Inc. a consulting and research company for millimeter-wave technology. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, Inc. became the name of United Paramount Theatres, Inc. on February 9, 1953 to reflect its post merger status as the parent company of the merged companies, American Broadcasting Company and United Paramount Theatres. The Federal Communication Commission approved the merger that same day. Leonard H. Goldenson continued as corporate president post merger with ABC president Robert E. Kintner continuing as ABC division president. No general theater division similar to the ABC division was set up as AB-PT corporate would handle overall theater planning and development. ABC division was slated to move out of the RCA Building to 7 W. 66th Street, New York City by April 1. The sale of WBKB in Chicago to CBS for $6 million was approved by the FCC.
In 1954, AB-PT made a deal with Walt Disney to provide capital for his proposed Disneyland amusement park. For $500,000 in cash and a guarantee of $4.5 million in bank loans, AB-PT acquired a 34.48% interest in Disneyland, Inc. and secured an agreement with Walt Disney Productions to provide programs for the ABC-TV network. AB-PT's subsidiary, UPT Concessions, Inc. was enlisted to operate Tomorrowland's Space Bar and various other concession stands in Disneyland. ABC-Paramount formed a records division with Samuel H. Clark as its first president; the business was incorporated on June 1955, as Am-Par Record Corporation. In February 1956, along with Western Union, AB-PT agreed to purchase a 22% share of Technical Operations, Inc. a nucleonics, operations research and electronics company, with options to increase the share to 25%. In a related transaction, Western Union acquired a 1/3 share in Microwave Associates, allowing that AB-PT holding to purchase a site for a new plant. On December 30, 1956, a film production company, American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres Pictures was formed, with Irving H. Levin as President.
By March 1957, AB-PT's theater circuits had divested more theaters than required by the court ruling. In June, AB-PT decided to sell 90 more theaters due to declining revenue. In 1957, Microwave Associates became a publicly traded corporation. On May 1, 1957, the American Broadcasting Company Radio Network was formed as an autonomous subsidiary, with Robert E. Eastman as President. AB-PT purchased the Weeki Wachee Springs natural tourist attraction in Florida in 1959. In 1959, AB-PT acquired the Prairie Farmer agricultural publishing group, including Chicago radio station WLS, which shared a frequency with AB-PT's station WENR. In 1960, Walt Disney Productions paid $7.5 million to buy back AB-PT's share in Disneyland and obtain a release from its ABC-TV contract. In 1962, AB-PT purchased another Florida nature attraction, Silver Springs, placed it into the company's ABC Scenic & Wildlife Attractions subsidiary. American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres, Inc. assumed the name, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. on July 2, 1965.
ABCs started ABC Pictures in 1965 to produce feature films. In 1965, Clark was appointed vice-president, non-broadcasting operation of American Broadcasting Companies overseeing ABC-Paramount Records, ABC music publishing, theater operations, ABC Pictures, ABC Amusements and other operations. In April 1966, Dunhill Records was purchased. American Broadcasting Companies move from the New York Paramount Building to the ABC Building at 1330 Avenue of the Americas, in 1965, its recording subsidiary was renamed ABC Records in 1966. On December 7, 1965, Goldenson announced a merger proposal with IT&T to ABCs board; the two companies agreed to the deal on April 27, 1966. The FCC approved the merger on December 21, 1966. ITT management promised that the company would allow ABC to retain autonomy in the publishing business; the merger was suspended, a complaint was filed by the Department of Justice in July 1967, with ITT going to trial in October 1967. By May 1972, ABCs formed the ABC Leis