Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Idrissa Akuna Idris Elba, OBE is an English actor, and DJ. He has been nominated four times for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Miniseries or Television Film, winning one, and was nominated five times for a Primetime Emmy Award. Elba has appeared in such as Ridley Scotts American Gangster, Thor, Pacific Rim, The Dark World and Beasts of No Nation. In 2016, he voiced Chief Bogo in Zootopia, Shere Khan in The Jungle Book and he will make his directorial debut with an adaptation of 1992 novel Yardie by Victor Headley. In addition to his work, Elba is a DJ under the moniker DJ Big Driis. In 2016, he was named in the Time 100 list of the Most Influential People in the World, an only child, Idrissa Akuna Elba was born on 6 September 1972 in Hackney. His father, was a Sierra Leonean and worked in the Ford motor factory at Dagenham, while his mother, Elbas parents were married in Sierra Leone and moved to London. Elba himself was brought up in Hackney and East Ham, and shortened his first name from Idrissa to Idris at school in Canning Town, where he first became involved in acting.
He credits The Stage with giving him his first big break, having seen an advertisement for a play in the newspaper, Elba auditioned and met his first agent while performing in the role. In 1986, he began helping an uncle with his wedding DJ business, within a year, Elba left school in 1988 and won a place in the National Youth Music Theatre, thanks to a £1,500 Princes Trust grant. His first roles were in Crimewatch murder reconstructions, to support himself between roles in Crimewatch reconstructions, he worked in jobs such as tyre-fitting, cold call advertising sales, and the night shift at Ford Dagenham. He was working in nightclubs, under the DJ nickname Big Driis, at age 19, in 1995, Elba landed his first significant role on a series called Bramwell, a medical drama set in 1890s England. He played a character in an episode of Season 1, an African petty thief named Charlie Carter. His first named role arrived earlier in 1995, cast as a gigolo on the Sex episode of Absolutely Fabulous, many supporting roles on British television followed, including series such as The Bill and The Ruth Rendell Mysteries.
He joined the cast of the soap opera Family Affairs and went on to appear on the television serial Ultraviolet and he decided to move to New York City soon after. He returned to England occasionally for a role, such as a part in one of the Inspector Lynley Mysteries. In 2001, Elba played Achilles in a production of Troilus. After a supporting turn on a 2001 episode of Law & Order, from 2002 to 2004, Elba portrayed Russell Stringer Bell in the series, perhaps his best-known role in the United States
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and alcoholism. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures, most countries have laws regulating their production and consumption, some countries ban such activities entirely. However, alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world, the global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014. Alcohol is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. For instance, in 2015, among Americans, 89% of adults had consumed alcohol at point, 70% had drunk it in the last year. Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and typically contain between 3% and 40% alcohol by volume. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period, wine is a fermented beverage produced from grapes. Wine involves a longer process than beer and a long aging process. Sparkling wine can be made by means of a secondary fermentation, fruit wines are made from fruits other than grapes, such as plums, cherries, or apples.
Sake is an example of rice wine. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash and it is made from barley or a blend of several grains. If the fermented mash is distilled, the drink is a spirit, beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Cider or cyder is an alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice, apple juice, peaches. Cider alcohol content varies from 1. 2% ABV to 8. 5% or more in traditional English ciders, in some regions, cider may be called apple wine. Mead is a drink created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%, the defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drinks fermentable sugar is derived from honey. A distilled drink or liquor is a drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit. Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have a content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, and a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a singer or vocalist, Singers perform music that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is often done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists, Singers may perform as soloists, or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Singing can be formal or informal, arranged or improvised and it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort, or ritual, as part of music education, or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice, if practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers usually build their careers around one specific genre, such as classical or rock.
They typically take voice training provided by teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort, exhalation may be aided by the abdominal, internal intercostal and lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles, the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming, humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individuals size, Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract.
This is known as vocal resonation, another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds. These different kinds of function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singers Formant and it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa. The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds, Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds
Stuff is a British mens magazine featuring reviews of consumer electronics and previews of future technology. International editions such as published in the United States include other articles of interest to a predominantly male audience. Stuff was first published in Britain in November 1996 by Dennis Publishing, a bi-monthly title, it followed the success of magazines such as FHM and Loaded in being pitched toward a young, male audience, with a focus on consumer goods and electronics. Facing declining circulation, its focus became more lifestyle orientated in 1998, rival publishing group Haymarket bought the title in January 1999, taking over publication from the issue dated February 1999 and refocusing the magazine to consumer electronics. In June 2007, private equity firm Quadrangle Group acquired Dennis Publishings US arm, that year it announced that Stuff would cease publication as an independent title, returning to its origins as a regular section within Maxim, as of the latter titles November 2007 issue.
Stuff often has a scantily clad woman on the cover, posing with the product covered in that editions main feature, there are multiple in-depth features, such as product reviews of laptops, digital audio players, technology editorials, digital cameras as well as advertising. Regular features include an adrenaline junkie article, and speculative pages about upcoming technology, such as the rumour mill, hot Stuff is the news section that features new or unreleased products. Top 10s of currently available items are featured toward the back of the magazine and these include products portable media players, computers, digital cameras, video recorders, hi-fi, home cinema, gaming and sports. Like the vast majority of the magazine market in the UK. The magazine has undergone a number of redesigns during its lifetime, the US edition of Stuff was launched in 1999 by Dennis Publishing, Inc. the US arm of British publishing group Dennis Publishing. In June 2007, all but one of Denniss US titles were sold to private equity firm Quadrangle Group, founded in 2004, Stuff Magazine Malaysia is one of the countrys leading and best-selling consumer electronics and lifestyle magazines.
It is Published by Catcha Lifestyle Publications Sdn, Stuff magazine has been locally published in Singapore since 2004. The magazine gained recognition and established itself as a name in the consumer electronics. Its website launched in December 2013, the magazine was relaunched and published by content owner Haymarket Media Group. Stuff India, the Indian edition of Stuff, launched on 1 December 2008 with a price of Rs.100. The magazine launched with a print run of 40,000 copies, Stuff India is edited by Nishant Padhiar, formerly the editor of T3 and consultant editor on AV MAX. Stuff South Africa was published under license by Times Media between 2007 and December 2012, in November 2012 the publishers announced that the licence had not been renewed, but that a new publishing venture would continue the title. Circulation has been recorded at 25,811, Stuff México was published under license by Grupo Medios starting June 2012
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
MGM Resorts International
The company recently opened MGM National Harbor in Maryland and is developing MGM Springfield in Massachusetts. It has a majority interest in MGM China Holdings Limited, which owns the MGM Macau resort, MGM Resorts owns 50 percent of CityCenter in Las Vegas, which features ARIA Resort & Casino. It has a majority controlling interest in MGM Growth Properties, a real estate investment trust, the company began operations in 1987 as MGM Grand, Inc. and became MGM Mirage in 2000, after acquiring Mirage Resorts. City Centers development coincided with financial crisis, causing writedowns in its valuation. In June 2010, the changed to its present name, to reflect its latest strategy of expanding worldwide, including licensing its brand and expertise to develop non-gaming hotels. Following a one-billion-dollar stock offering by MGM Mirage amidst the global credit crunch, on June 15,2010, shareholders voted for MGM Mirage to change its name to MGM Resorts International, which emphasizes the brands global scope and increased non-gaming strategy.
In 2013, MGM won state licenses to build a resort in National Harbor, Maryland. In May 2014, MGM broke ground on an arena on the Las Vegas Strip with sports. MGM Resorts is the majority owner of MGM Growth Properties LLC and it became a separate, publicly traded company in April 2016. Among the companys management ranks, more than 38 percent are minorities, FORTUNE magazine has named MGM Resorts one of the World’s Most Admired Companies. The companys background can be traced to 1969, when airline, when the Las Vegas Hilton, the casino he had built, subsequently became the most successful hotel in Las Vegas, Kerkorian was inspired to lead the studio into the gambling industry. It opened the original MGM Grand Hotel and Casino in 1973, the MGM Grand Reno followed in 1978. By 1979, the two hotel-casinos accounted for most of MGMs income, and the company announced a plan to split itself in two. The next year, the studio was spun off as a new company, while the original company. Kerkorian held a 47 percent stake in both companies, in 1985, Kerkorian began seeking a buyer for MGM Grand Hotels, to allow him to concentrate on running United Artists and on developing new properties under the MGM Grand name.
A deal was reached for Bally Manufacturing to buy the company, the closed in April 1986. The company now known as MGM Resorts International was formed in 1986 as Grand Name Co. as a subsidiary of Kerkorians Tracinda Corporation and it was renamed the following year as MGM Grand, Inc. The companys first venture was MGM Grand Air, a luxury airline offering service between New York and Los Angeles, which launched in September 1987
Ultimate Fighting Championship
The Ultimate Fighting Championship is an American mixed martial arts promotion company, a subsidiary of the parent company William Morris Endeavor, based in Las Vegas, Nevada. It is the largest MMA promoter in the world and features most of the fighters in the sport. Based in the United States, the UFC produces events worldwide that showcase ten weight divisions, the UFC has held over 300 events to date. Dana White serves as the president of the UFC, the first Ultimate Fighting Championship event was held on November 12,1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado. In 2016, it was sold to William Morris Endeavor for $4 billion, MMA journalists and fans have criticized the UFC for putting on too many shows and thus diluting the quality of their product. Art Davie proposed to John Milius and Rorion Gracie an eight-man single-elimination tournament called War of the Worlds, Milius, a noted film director and screenwriter, as well as a Gracie student, agreed to act as the events creative director.
Davie drafted the plan and twenty-eight investors contributed the initial capital to start WOW Promotions with the intent to develop the tournament into a television franchise. In 1993, WOW Promotions sought a partner and approached pay-per-view producers TVKO, SET. SEG contacted video and film art director Jason Cusson to design the trademarked Octagon, Cusson remained the Production Designer through UFC27. SEG devised the name for the show as The Ultimate Fighting Championship, WOW Promotions and SEG produced the first event, called UFC1, at McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12,1993. Art Davie functioned as the booker and matchmaker. The show proposed to find an answer for sports fans questions such as, as with most martial arts at the time, fighters typically had skills in just one discipline and had little experience against opponents with different skills. The show proved successful with 86,592 television subscribers on pay-per-view. Its disputed whether the intended for the event to become a precursor to a series of future events.
That show was supposed to be a one-off, eventual UFC president Dana White said. It did so well on pay-per-view they decided to do another, never in a million years did these guys think they were creating a sport. Art Davie, in his 2014 book Is This Legal, an account of the creation of the first UFC event, disputes the perception that the UFC was seen by WOW Promotions and SEG as a one-off, since SEG offered a five-year joint development deal to WOW. He says, both Campbell and Meyrowitz shared my unwavering belief that War of the Worlds would be a series of fighting tournaments—a franchise
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci