Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999. Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor & Sanderson and Vickers' brother William owned a steel rolling operation. Edward's investments in the railway industry allowed him to gain control of the company, based at Millsands and known as Naylor Vickers and Company, it began life making steel castings and became famous for casting church bells. In 1854 Vickers' sons Thomas and Albert joined the business and their considerable talents – Tom Vickers as a metallurgist and Albert as a team-builder and salesman – were key to its subsequent rapid development. "Its great architects," the historian Clive Trebilcock writes, "Colonel T. E. and Albert Vickers... provided both inspired technical leadership... and astute commercial direction. Both men were autocrats by temperament.
The company went public in 1867 as Vickers, Sons & Company and acquired more businesses, branching out into various sectors. In 1868 Vickers began to manufacture marine shafts, in 1872 they began casting marine propellers and in 1882 they set up a forging press. Vickers produced their first armour plate in 1888 and their first artillery piece in 1890. Vickers bought out the Barrow-in-Furness shipbuilder The Barrow Shipbuilding Company in 1897, acquiring its subsidiary the Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company. At the same time, to become Sons & Maxim. Ordnance and ammunition made during this period, including World War I, was stamped V. S. M; the yard at Barrow became the "Naval Construction Yard". With these acquisitions, Vickers could now produce a complete selection of products, from ships and marine fittings to armour plate and a whole suite of ordnance. In 1901 the Royal Navy's first submarine, Holland 1, was launched at the Naval Construction Yard. In 1902 Vickers took a half share in the famous Clyde shipyard John Company.
Further diversification occurred in 1901 with the acquisition of a proposed business, incorporated as The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company and in 1905 the goodwill and patent rights of the Siddeley car. In 1911 a controlling interest was acquired in the torpedo manufacturers. In 1911 the company name was changed to Vickers Ltd and expanded its operations into aircraft manufacture by the formation of Vickers Ltd and a Vickers School of Flying was opened at Brooklands, Surrey on 20 January 1912. In 1919, the British Westinghouse electrical company was taken over as the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company. At the same time they came into Metropolitan's railway interests. A reorganisation during 1926 led to the retention of the rolling stock group: Metropolitan Carriage wagon and Finance Company and The Metropolitan -Vickers Company and the disposal of: Vickers-Petters Limited, British Lighting and Ignition Company, the Plywood department at Crayford Creek, Canadian Vickers, William Beardmore and Co, Wolseley Motors.
In 1927, Vickers merged with the Tyneside based engineering company Armstrong Whitworth, founded by W. G. Armstrong, to become Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd. Armstrong Whitworth had developed along similar lines to Vickers, expanding into various military sectors and was notable for their artillery manufacture at Elswick and shipbuilding at a yard at High Walker on the River Tyne. Armstrongs shipbuilding interests became the "Naval Yard", those of Vickers on the west coast the "Naval Construction Yard". Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was not absorbed by the new company. In 1928 the Aviation Department became Vickers Ltd and soon after acquired Supermarine, which became the "Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd". In 1938, both companies were re-organised as Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd, although the former Supermarine and Vickers works continued to brand their products under their former names. 1929 saw the merger of the acquired railway business with those of Cammell Laird to form Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon.
In 1960 the aircraft interests were merged with those of the Bristol, English Electric Company and Hunting Aircraft to form the British Aircraft Corporation. This was owned by English Electric and Bristol. BAC in turn owned 70% of Hunting; the Supermarine operation was closed in 1963 and the Vickers name for aircraft was dropped in 1965. Under the terms of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act BAC was nationalised in 1977 to become part of the British Aerospace group, which exists today in the guise of BAE Systems; the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act led to the nationalisation of Vickers' shipbuilding division as part of British Shipbuilders. These had been renamed Vickers Armstrong Shipbuilders in 1955, changing again to Vickers Limited Shipbuilding Group in 1968; this division was privatised as Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd in 1986 part of GEC's Marconi Marine. It remains in operation to this day as BAE Systems Submarine Solutions. With their steelworking operations nationalised into British Steel Corporation the remnants of Vickers became Vickers plc.
In 1986, Vickers acquired the armaments manufacturer Royal Ordnance Factory, which became Vickers Defence Systems. Other acquisitions included automotive engineers Cosworth in 1990, waterjet manufacturer Kamewa in 1986 and
A weapon, arm or armament is any device that can be used with intent to inflict damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, law enforcement, self-defense, warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a tactical, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs and axes, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological weapons and cyberweapons. Something, re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed weaponized, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized laser; the use of objects as weapons has been observed among chimpanzees, leading to speculation that early hominids used weapons as early as five million years ago. However, this can not be confirmed using physical evidence because wooden clubs and unshaped stones would have left an ambiguous record.
The earliest unambiguous weapons to be found are the Schöningen spears, eight wooden throwing spears dating back more than 300,000 years. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana, numerous human skeletons dating to 10,000 years ago may present evidence of traumatic injuries to the head, ribs and hands, including obsidian projectiles embedded in the bones that might have been caused from arrows and clubs during conflict between two hunter-gatherer groups, but the evidence interpretation of warfare at Nataruk has been challenged. The earliest ancient weapons were evolutionary improvements of late neolithic implements, but significant improvements in materials and crafting techniques led to a series of revolutions in military technology; the development of metal tools began with copper during the Copper Age and was followed by the Bronze Age, leading to the creation of the Bronze Age sword and similar weapons. During the Bronze Age, the first defensive structures and fortifications appeared as well, indicating an increased need for security.
Weapons designed to breach fortifications followed soon after, such as the battering ram, in use by 2500 BC. The development of iron-working around 1300 BC in Greece had an important impact on the development of ancient weapons, it was not the introduction of early Iron Age swords, however, as they were not superior to their bronze predecessors, but rather the domestication of the horse and widespread use of spoked wheels by c. 2000 BC. This led to the creation of the light, horse-drawn chariot, whose improved mobility proved important during this era. Spoke-wheeled chariot usage peaked around 1300 BC and declined, ceasing to be militarily relevant by the 4th century BC. Cavalry developed; the horse increased the speed of attacks. In addition to land based weaponry, such as the trireme, were in use by the 7th century BC. European warfare during the Post-classical history was dominated by elite groups of knights supported by massed infantry, they were involved in mobile combat and sieges which involved various siege tactics.
Knights on horseback developed tactics for charging with lances providing an impact on the enemy formations and drawing more practical weapons once they entered into the melee. By contrast, infantry, in the age before structured formations, relied on cheap, sturdy weapons such as spears and billhooks in close combat and bows from a distance; as armies became more professional, their equipment was standardized and infantry transitioned to pikes. Pikes are seven to eight feet in length, used in conjunction with smaller side-arms. In Eastern and Middle Eastern warfare, similar tactics were developed independent of European influences; the introduction of gunpowder from the Asia at the end of this period revolutionized warfare. Formations of musketeers, protected by pikemen came to dominate open battles, the cannon replaced the trebuchet as the dominant siege weapon; the European Renaissance marked the beginning of the implementation of firearms in western warfare. Guns and rockets were introduced to the battlefield.
Firearms are qualitatively different from earlier weapons because they release energy from combustible propellants such as gunpowder, rather than from a counter-weight or spring. This energy is released rapidly and can be replicated without much effort by the user; therefore early firearms such as the arquebus were much more powerful than human-powered weapons. Firearms became important and effective during the 16th century to 19th century, with progressive improvements in ignition mechanisms followed by revolutionary changes in ammunition handling and propellant. During the U. S. Civil War new applications of firearms including the machine gun and ironclad warship emerged that would still be recognizable and useful military weapons today in limited conflicts. In the 19th century warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Since the mid-18th century North American French-Indian war through the beginning of the 20th century, human-powered weapons were reduced from the primary weaponry of the battlefield yielding to gunpowder-based weaponry.
Sometimes referred to as the "Age of Rifles", this period was characterized by the development of firearms for infantry and cannons for support, as well as the beginnings of mechanized weapons such as the machine gun. Of particular note, Howitzers were able to destroy masonry fortresses and other fortifications, this single invention caused a Revolution in
Thorsten Nordenfelt, was a Swedish inventor and industrialist. Nordenfelt was born in Örby outside Kinna, the son of a colonel; the surname was and is spelt Nordenfeldt, though Thorsten and his brothers always spelt it Nordenfelt, the 1881 Census shows it as Nordenfelt. The family home in that year was Leinster Lodge on the Uxbridge Paddington in west London. Thorsten worked for a Swedish company in London from 1862 to 1866 and migrated to England in 1867 when he married Emma Stansfeld Grundy. Thorsten Nordenfelt and his brother-in-law started a small business to trade Swedish steel for British rails in 1887. On he founded Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company, ltd to develop a machine-gun designed by Helge Palmcrantz that would be referred to as the Nordenfelt gun, his company designed a range of anti-torpedoboat guns in calibres from 37 to 57 mm, that were produced in Erith, Kent and Spain. Under pressure from Rothschild and Vickers his company merged with Maxim's in 1888 to form The Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company.
After a personal bankruptcy Nordenfelt was forced out of the Nordenfelt-Maxim company in 1890 and left England for France, where his new company, Société Nordenfelt, designed the eccentric screw breech used on the French 75. Legal action followed over a non-compete clause Nordenfelt had signed. In 1903 he retired. In 1902 a public house named after Thorsten Nordenfelt was built at 181 Erith Road, Erith just along from the Gun and Carriage works of Vickers and Maxim. Named'The Nordenfelt Tavern' it was built to the design of Jonathan G. Ensor, architect for brewer Watney Combe & Reid Discussions between Thorsten Nordenfelt and the English reverend George Garrett led to the production of a series of steam powered submarines; the first was the Nordenfelt I, a 56 tonne, 19.5 metre long vessel similar to Garret's ill-fated Resurgam, with a range of 240 kilometres and armed with a single torpedo and a 25.4 mm machine gun. It was manufactured by Bolinders in Stockholm in 1884-1885. Like the Resurgam, it operated on the surface using a 100 HP steam engine with a maximum speed of 9 kn it shut down its engine to dive.
She was purchased by the Greek Government and was delivered to Salamis Naval Base in 1886. Following the acceptance tests, she was never used again by the Hellenic Navy and was scrapped in 1901. Nordenfelt built the Nordenfelt II in 1886 and Nordenfelt III in 1887, a pair of 30 metre long submarines with twin torpedo tubes, for the Ottoman Navy. Abdül Hamid became the first submarine in history to fire a torpedo while submerged under water. Nordenfelt's efforts culminated in 1887 with the Nordenfelt IV which had twin motors and twin torpedoes, it was sold to the Russians, but ran aground off Jutland. Abdülhamid and Abdülmecid were in Istanbul in 1914; the submarines were considered for use in harbour defence but it was found that their hulls were too badly corroded. "Nordenfelt, Torsten Vilhelm". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Ammunition is the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. Ammunition is both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all mechanical weapons require some form of ammunition to operate; the term ammunition can be traced back to the mid-17th century. The word comes for the material used for war. Ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although munition now refers to the actual weapons system with the ammunition required to operate it. In some languages other than English ammunition is still referred to as munition, such as French, German or Italian; the purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a selected target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the firearm cartridge, which includes all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a great range of sizes and types and is designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain ammunition types that enable their use across different weapons and by different users.
There are specific types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition, used only in certain circumstances. Ammunition is colored in a specific manner to assist in the identification and to prevent the wrong ammunition types from being used accidentally. A round is a single cartridge containing a projectile, propellant and casing. A shell is a form of ammunition, fired by a large caliber cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials and relied on kinetic energy to have an effect. However, since that time, they are more filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a single release of a weapons system; this may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, but can refer to ammunition types that release a large number of projectiles at the same time. A dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only functions, known as a hang fire.
Dud ammunition, classified as an unexploded ordnance, is regarded as dangerous. In former conflict zones, it is not uncommon for dud ammunition to remain buried in the ground for many years. Large quantities of ammunition from World War I continue to be found in fields throughout France and Belgium and still claim lives. Although classified as an unexploded ordnance, landmines that have been left behind after conflict are not considered duds as they have not failed to work and may still be functioning and forgotten. A bomb, or more a guided or unguided bomb, is an airdropped, unpowered explosive weapon. Mines and the warheads used in guided missiles and rockets are referred to as bomb-type ammunition. Ammunition design has evolved throughout history as different weapons have been developed and different effects required. Ammunition was of simple design and build, but as weapon designs developed and became more refined, the requirement for more specialized ammunition increased. Modern ammunition can vary in quality but is manufactured to high standards.
For example, ammunition for hunting can be designed to expand inside the target, maximizing the damage inflicted by a single round. Anti-personnel shells can affect a large area. Armor-piercing rounds are specially hardened to penetrate armor, while smoke ammunition covers an area with a fog that screens people from view. More generic ammunition can be altered to give it a more specific effect, whilst larger explosive rounds can be altered by using different fuzes; the components of ammunition intended for rifles and munitions may be divided into these categories: Fuze or primer explosive materials and propellants projectiles of all kinds cartridge casing The term "fuze" refers to the detonator of an explosive round or shell. The spelling is different in British English and American English and they are unrelated from a fuse. A fuse was earlier used to ignite the propellant until the advent of more reliable systems such as the primer or igniter, used in most modern ammunitions; the fuze of a weapon can be used to alter.
For example, a common artillery shell fuze can be set to'point detonation', time-delay and proximity. These allow a single ammunition type to be altered to suit the situation. There are many designs of a fuze, ranging from simple mechanical to complex radar and barometric systems. Fuzes are armed by the acceleration force of firing the projectile, arm several meters after clearing the bore of the weapon
Nordenfelt v Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co Ltd
Nordenfelt v Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co Ltd AC 535 is a 19th-century English case decided by the House of Lords. The dispute was about restraint of trade, the judgment declares when such a restraint may become valid; the case established the "Blue pencil doctrine" as a method for deciding whether contractual obligations can be enforced when the obligation as drafted in the contract has an element of illegality. Thorsten Nordenfelt, a manufacturer specialising in armaments, had sold his business to Hiram Stevens Maxim, they had agreed that Nordenfelt ‘would not make guns or ammunition anywhere in the world, would not compete with Maxim in any way for a period of 25 years’. The House of Lords held, they placed emphasis on the £200,000 that Thomas Nordenfeldt had received as full value for his sale. Restraint of trade clauses were prima facie void at common law, but they may be deemed valid if three conditions are met: the terms seek to protect a legitimate interest the terms are reasonable in scope from the viewpoint of the parties involved the terms are reasonable in scope from the viewpoint of public policy.
The question on severability was whether the reasonable restriction could be enforced when it was in the same contract as an unreasonable and unenforceable restriction. The court used the test of whether striking out words containing unreasonable provisions would leave behind a contractual obligation that still made sense. If it did the amended contract would be enforced by the court. In this case, the unreasonable restraint was severable, the court enforced the amended agreement that Nordenfelt "for the next 25 years, would not make guns or ammunition anywhere in the world, would not compete with Maxim in any way" thus permitting him to trade in those items in direct competition with Maxim, illustrating the limited practical utility of the rule under its strike-out only stricture. Restraint of trade English contract law NSW Law Reform Commission. Working Paper 4 - Covenants in Restraint of Trade NORDENFELT vs THE MAXIM NORDENFELT GUNS AND AMMUNITION COMPANY, LIMITED
A machine gun is a automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire rifle cartridges in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine for the purpose of suppressive fire. Not all automatic firearms are machine guns. Submachine guns, assault rifles, battle rifles, pistols or cannons may be capable of automatic fire, but are not designed for sustained fire; as a class of military rapid-fire guns, machine guns are automatic weapons designed to be used as support weapons and used when attached to a mount- or fired from the ground on a bipod or tripod. Many machine guns use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not found on rifles. In the U. S. A, a "machine gun" is a legal term for any weapon able to fire more than one shot per function of the trigger regardless of caliber, the receiver of any such weapon, any weapon convertible to such a state using normal tools, or any component or part that will modify an existing firearm such that it functions as a "machine gun" such as a drop-in auto sear.
Civilian possession of such weapons manufactured prior to 1986 is not prohibited by any federal law and not illegal in many states, but they must be registered as Title II weapons under the National Firearms Act and have a tax stamp paid. Machine guns manufactured after 1986 are prohibited by the Hughes Amendment to the Gun Owners Protection Act. Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per round fired, a machine gun is designed to fire for as long as the trigger is held down. Nowadays the term is restricted to heavy weapons, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic fire for as long as ammunition lasts. Machine guns are used against personnel and light vehicles, or to provide suppressive fire, either directly or indirectly, they are mounted on fast attack vehicles such as technicals to provide heavy mobile firepower, armored vehicles such as tanks for engaging targets too small to justify use of the primary weaponry or too fast to engage with it, on aircraft as defensive armament or for strafing ground targets, though on fighter aircraft true machine guns have been supplanted by large-caliber rotary guns.
Some machine guns have in practice sustained fire continuously for hours. Because they become hot all machine guns fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts, they usually have either a barrel cooling system, slow-heating heavyweight barrel, or removable barrels which allow a hot barrel to be replaced. Although subdivided into "light", "medium", "heavy" or "general-purpose" the lightest machine guns tend to be larger and heavier than standard infantry arms. Medium and heavy machine guns are either mounted on a vehicle. Light machine guns are designed to provide mobile fire support to a squad and are air-cooled weapons fitted with a box magazine or drum and a bipod. Medium machine guns use full-sized rifle rounds and are designed to be used from fixed positions mounted on a tripod. Heavy machine gun is a term originating in World War I to describe heavyweight medium machine guns and persisted into World War II with Japanese Hotchkiss M1914 clones. A general-purpose machine gun is a lightweight medium machine gun which can either be used with a bipod and drum in the light machine gun role or a tripod and belt feed in the medium machine gun role.
Machine guns have simple iron sights, though the use of optics is becoming more common. A common aiming system for direct fire is to alternate solid rounds and tracer ammunition rounds, so shooters can see the trajectory and "walk" the fire into the target, direct the fire of other soldiers. Many heavy machine guns, such as the Browning M2.50 caliber machine gun, are accurate enough to engage targets at great distances. During the Vietnam War, Carlos Hathcock set the record for a long-distance shot at 7,382 ft with a.50 caliber heavy machine gun he had equipped with a telescopic sight. This led to the introduction of.50 caliber anti-materiel sniper rifles, such as the Barrett M82. Other automatic weapons are subdivided into several categories based on the size of the bullet used, whether the cartridge is fired from a closed bolt or an open bolt, whether the action used is locked or is some form of blowback. Automatic firearms using pistol-calibre ammunition are called machine pistols or submachine guns on the basis of size.
The term personal defense weapon is sometimes applied to weapons firing dedicated armor-piercing rounds which would otherwise be regarded as machine pistols or SMGs, but it is not strongly defined and has been used to describe a range of weapons from ordinary SMGs to compact assault rifles. Selective fire rifles firing a full-power rifle cartridge from a closed bolt are called automatic rifles or battle rifles, while rifles that fire an intermediate cartridge are called assault rifles. Assault rifles are a compromise between the size and weight of a pistol-calibre submachine gun and a full size battle rifle, firing intermediate cartridges and allowing semi-automatic and burst or full-automatic fire options
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion