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Maximianus of Ravenna

Maximianus of Ravenna, or Maximian was bishop of Ravenna in Italy. Ravenna was the capital of the Byzantine Empire's territories in Italy, Maximianus's role may have included secular political functions. Born in the Istrian city of Pola, now Pula in modern Croatia, Maximianus was consecrated bishop of Ravenna in 546 by Pope Vigilius in Patras, Greece. Maximianus was a forty-eight-year-old deacon from Pola when he became the twenty-sixth bishop of Ravenna. According to the ninth-century Ravennate priest Andreas Agnellus, Maximianus' flock refused his leadership, because he was selected by the emperor Justinian I and was not their initial candidate. To a modern art historian Meyer Shapiro, "Maximian was "a poor deacon of Pola who rose to a high position through his political adroitness" as a protegé of Justinian I, he had not been wanted as archbishop by the people of Ravenna, but "by shrewd maneuvres he overcame their opposition, won their respect by his discretion and great enterprises of church building and decoration".

He completed the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, built Sant'Apollinare in Classe and several other churches. Maximianus devoted himself to the revision of liturgical books and to the emendation of the Latin text of the Bible, commissioned a large number of illuminated manuscripts. For the high altar in Ravenna he had a hanging made of the most costly cloth, embroidered with a portrayal of the entire life of Jesus. In another hanging he had portraits of all his predecessors embroidered on gold ground. Maximian's most remarkable episcopal furnishing is the Throne of Maximian, the cathedra of the bishop, constructed of ivory panels, it was carved in Constantinople and shipped to Ravenna. It consists of decorative floral panels framing various figured panels, including one with the complex monogram of the bishop. In a famous 6th-century mosaic in San Vitale, Maximianus is with his retinue; the saint holds a jewelled cross and wears early versions of an alb and pallium. He is regarded as a saint by both the Catholic and Orthodox churches, though local to Ravenna, where there is a church dedicated to him at Piazza S. Massimiano, Punta Marina, Ravenna, 48020.

Andreas Agnellus of Ravenna. The Book of Pontiffs of Ravenna, trans. Deliyannis Mauskopf. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2004. Schapiro, Meyer, "The Joseph Scenes on the Maximianus Throne", in Selected Papers, volume 3, Late Antique, Early Christian and Mediaeval Art, 1980, Chatto & Windus, London, ISBN 0701125144 on JSTOR from the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1952 Otto von Simson. Sacred Fortress: Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1987. Saint Patrick's Church His contribution to the iconography of the Ravenna mosaics

Masters (snooker)

The Masters is a professional invitational snooker tournament. Held every year since 1975, it is the second-longest running tournament behind the World Championship, it is one of the Triple Crown events, although not a ranking event, it is regarded as one of the most prestigious tournaments on the circuit. The reigning champion is Stuart Bingham; the Masters began as an invitational event for 10 top players. The field was expanded to 12 competitors in 1981, 16 in 1983. Since 1984, the standard invitees have been the top 16 players in the world rankings, with the addition of two or three wild-card places in tournaments held between 1990 and 2010. Ronnie O'Sullivan holds the record for the most Masters titles, having won the tournament seven times. Stephen Hendry has won six titles, Cliff Thorburn, Steve Davis, Mark Selby, Paul Hunter three, Alex Higgins, Mark Williams and John Higgins two. In 2016, the Masters trophy was renamed the Paul Hunter Trophy in honour of the three-time champion, who died in 2006, aged 27.

The oldest champion in Masters history is the reigning champion Stuart Bingham, aged 43 years and 243 days in 2020. The youngest champion is O'Sullivan, who won his first title in 1995 aged 69 days. Three maximum breaks have been made in the history of the tournament, all by overseas players. Canada's Kirk Stevens made the first in 1984, China's Ding Junhui made the second in 2007 and Hong Kong's Marco Fu made the third in 2015; the tournament was held for the first time in 1975 at the West Centre Hotel in London, when ten leading players were invited. The event was sponsored by the cigarette company Hedges. John Spencer won the inaugural tournament by defeating Ray Reardon 9–8 in the final; the following year the event moved to the New London Theatre and in 1979 to the Wembley Conference Centre. In 1981 the number of players invited to compete was increased to 12, increased again to 16 in 1983. From 1984 onwards the top 16 players in the world rankings were automatically invited to the tournament.

In 1984 Kirk Stevens became the first player to make a maximum break at the event against Jimmy White in the semi-final. In 1988 Mike Hallett became the first and to date only player to be whitewashed in a Masters final, losing 0–9 to Steve Davis. Stephen Hendry maintained an unbeaten record in the event, a run which included five successive championship victories, from his first appearance in 1989 until his defeat by Alan McManus in a final-frame decider in the 1994 final. Hallett reached his second final in four years in 1991, but lost 8–9 against Hendry, despite leading 7–0 and 8–2; this defeat ended Hallett's days as a major force in the game. In 1990 the sponsors introduced two wild-cards, granted by the game's governing body at their discretion, who would play wild-card matches against the players seeded 15th and 16th for a place in the first round of the tournament. For the 1991 tournament, the Benson & Hedges Championship was introduced: this granted the winner one of the two wild-card places.

The other continued to be granted by the governing body. In the 1997 final, Steve Davis defeated Ronnie O'Sullivan in a match disrupted by a streaker. Davis came back from 4–8 down to win the remaining six frames in a row, clinching the final at 10–8; the 1998 final went down to a re-spotted black in the deciding frame. In the 2000 final Ken Doherty missed the final black in a 147 attempt, the first time this had happened in competition, lost to Matthew Stevens. After the 2003 Masters, Benson & Hedges had to end their sponsorship of the event due to UK restrictions on tobacco advertising, the tournament was unsponsored in 2004. In 2005, Rileys Club became the sponsor of the event. There was no qualifying competition, both wild-card places were awarded by the governing body, but the competition returned the following season. SAGA Insurance took over sponsorship of the tournament in 2006 and the same year agreed to a deal to sponsor the event until 2009. 2006 was the last year the tournament was held at the Wembley Conference Centre, before it was demolished in the same summer to make place for redevelopment.

Following the death of Paul Hunter in October 2006, Jimmy White led calls for the Masters trophy or tournament to be renamed in honour of Hunter, who had won the title three times in four years between 2001 and 2004. Lindsey Hunter, widow of Paul Hunter expressed her wishes for the trophy to be renamed, claiming that "...everybody expected it. Every player I've spoken to, every fan, thought it would be a definite". World Snooker, the sport's governing body, decided against renaming the trophy, stating "Our board unanimously agreed that the Paul Hunter Scholarship was the most fitting tribute. Just as Hunter himself rose swiftly through the amateur ranks, the scholarship will give a gifted young player the chance to fulfil his talent through elite training."In a slight change for 2007, one extra discretionary wild-card place was awarded, bringing the total number of players up to 19. The event was held at the Wembley Arena. For 2008 the tournament reverted to having only two wild-card players.

Ronnie O'Sullivan appeared in four successive finals from 2004 to 2007, winning in 2005 and 2007. Paul Hunter won the first of these, recovering from 2–7 down to win 10–9 against Ronnie, making five century breaks along the way; this was Hunter's third Masters win in four years. O'Sullivan put on a great display to defeat John Higgins in the 2005 final, 10–3; the next year, they met once again in the final, which saw a high standard of play throughout the match, including back-to-back total clearances of 138 and 139 for O'Sullivan to win frames 2 and 3, before losing the next five frames in a row. In the deciding

Camassia cusickii

Camassia cusickii, common name Cussick's camas, is a species of plant in the family Asparagaceae. It is native to parts of North America. C. cusickii appeared in horticultural journals in the late 1800s, but they been sold and cultivated for about thirty years. This plant family is not studied intensely. Seven or eight species exist in the wild, only three are talked about and cultivated; the Camassia cusickii has flowers in parts of three. The flowers are ice blue or baby blue in color, although they can be various shades of blue and white; the flowers are zygomorphic with the tepals withering separately after anthesis. C. cusickii has yellow anthers and a fruiting pedicel incurving-erect or spreading. The capsules are not deciduous, light brown in color, having an ellipsoid shape; the flowers in the wild have a deeper, darker hue compared to their garden forms tending to be a lighter blue color. Although scattered from coast to coast Camassia cusickii is more abundant in the northwestern states Oregon and Idaho.

It is found in the Canadian Life Zone and prefers damp meadows. Stations have been located in the Eagle Creek Mountains, Powder River Mountains, Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. C. cusickii is a federal 3c Bureau of Land Management Sensitive Species and'Idaho Native Plant Society Sensitive Species.' This species spreads over Eastern Oregon in a variety of the local climates, from Mount Hebo on the North Coast, to the isolated area of the Hell's Canyon overlook. A native to North America, the Camassia cusickii tolerates damp meadows at subalpine and alpine elevations and tolerates pond edges, rich soils, bloom well in either sun or shade. C. cusickii blooms in May. Cusick's camas self-seed and germinate as long as they find rich and well-drained soil. C. cusickii has long basal leaves with parallel venation. The flowers are in parts of threes and the petals, which are of a pale blue, are long and slim; the flowers appear as a raceme on top of a long stem. There can be 100 flowers in a raceme.

The bulb formed by C. cusickii has a bulb two or three times the size of the bulb in other species of this genus. However, despite the bulb size it is not the tallest of the species; the evolutionary path and species' variability within the genus Camassia have not been studied due to the fact that they have been influenced by "hybridization and geographic isolation" in North America. It is thought; this plant was not used as a food source for Native Americans. The large root of this relative of Camassia is pungent and bitter tasting; this bitter taste is due to steroidal saponins within the plant. These saponins found in the bulbs of C. cusickii are being isolated and used in multiple studies helping to provide a point of reference for further studies on plant saponins. C. cusickii is confused with its near sister relative the C. quamash, which Native Americans would harvest the roots to consume as raw vegetables, or they boiled them to create a "sweet, molasses-like treat." C. cusickii prefers fertile moist soil, but well drained humus rich soil that does not become over saturated with water.

The bulbs are planted 6 inches deep in late summer or early fall, but planting can be successful. In cold areas, the soil should be mulched to protect the bulbs in late autumn. Camassias can be propagated by removing the offsets that have formed round the main bulbs and replanting them individually. Sweet William and Peonies offer as good companions to the C. cusickii. They can be planted in flower beds, rock gardens, be planted as cut flowers; this plant thrives among perennials. C. cusickii can serve as ground cover. C. cusickii is resistant to deer and rodents. The botanical name is derived from Native American words for this plant,'quamash,' though this plant was only a sister plant to the actual plant, eaten. On the flower there is a attractive darker blue selection,'Zwanenburg', named after the place in Haarlem where the famous van Tubergen bulb nursery was based for many years; the botanist Sereno Watson is credited with naming this plant, most when we was collecting species during the "U.

S. Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel" from 1867-1871; the species was first formally published by Watson in "Notes and Notices of New or Little Known Plants" in 1888, in the Journal Garden and Forest. C. cusickii is sometimes confused with wild hyacinth, however, it is the close relative, Camassia scilloides, considered the wild hyacinth according to botanists. Data related to Camassia cusickii at Wikispecies Media related to Camassia cusickii at Wikimedia Commons USDA Plants Profile for Camassia cusickii