Longfellow, Oakland, California
Longfellow is a neighborhood of North Oakland, California. It is bounded by Temescal Creek to the north, State Route 24 to the east, Interstate 580 to the south, Adeline Street to the west; the area, today known as the Longfellow was considered part of the Temescal district. Through the late 1800s, the Temescal encompassed the area north of 36th Street to the Berkeley border and from the Emeryville border at the west to Broadway at the east; the introduction of the Grove-Shafter Freeway in the 1960s physically divided the neighborhood resulting in a splintering of the historical Temescal district into smaller neighborhoods: Santa Fe, Longfellow and lower Rockridge. Evidence of the roots of the name Temescal remain in the Longfellow neighborhood. Temescal Community Garden, the first community garden in Oakland, was established on 47th Street in 1984 and falls within Longfellow’s borders. Temescal Creek, now culverted, runs beneath the rear property line of the garden and ostensibly acts as the physical geography that defines the northern edge of the Longfellow neighborhood.
The name Longfellow was introduced to the neighborhood with the opening of the Longfellow Elementary School on Lusk Street between 39th and Apgar streets. It is assumed. In 1982, Nancy Reagan visited the school as part of a national tour to warn children about the dangers of illegal drug use; when one fourth-grader at the school asked Mrs. Reagan what she should do if approached by someone offering drugs, Reagan responded: "Just say no" and thus the moniker for the national campaign was born; the Longfellow Elementary School closed in 2004, the property is now used by the Oakland Military Institute, a college preparatory school that relocated to the site in 2007. Other schools in the neighborhood include North Oakland Community Charter School and St Martin De Porres Catholic School; the Oakland Public School that served the Longfellow neighborhood, Santa Fe Elementary, closed in 2012, neighborhood elementary students are now assigned to Emerson Elementary School in the Temescal neighborhood.
Santa Fe Elementary had served the Santa Fe neighborhood to the north, elementary students in Santa Fe are now assigned to Sankofa Academy in the Bushrod neighborhood. Through the early 1900s, North Oakland was a vibrant Italian neighborhood including what is now known as the Longfellow district. Grove Street, renamed Martin Lurther King Jr. Way in 1984, was an active commercial strip including many Italian businesses. Sacred Heart Parish on the corner of MLK and 40th Street was founded in 1876 and a cornerstone of the larger Italian neighborhood; the Grove Street corridor was home to the Grove Street #5, a streetcar connecting the community to the greater Key System. The introduction of the freeway in the 1960s divided the neighborhood and both the commercial district along Grove Street and the Sacred Heart Parish suffered as the area fell into decline. Today, this commercial corridor has been revitalized with the introduction of several thriving food related business including Grace Street Catering, Café Dejéna, MLK Café, Arthur Mac's Tap and Snack.
In the 1940s and 1950s, the Longfellow and Santa Fe neighborhoods of North Oakland began to transition from a white immigrant population of predominantly Italians and to an African American population. Two significant African American organizations, the African American Museum and Library and the Black Panther Party, began in part in the Longfellow neighborhood; the AAMLO's predecessor, the East Bay Negro Historical Society, was founded in 1965 by residents of the Longfellow and greater North Oakland. The society first held meetings at the Church of the Good Shepard, which still stands at 52nd and West streets; the society’s library-museum contained documentation of "the history and accomplishments of black Americans – politicians, religious figures, inventors and miners who came to California during the Gold Rush" and was open to anyone, including school groups, that were interested in the contributions of African Americans to the American experience. The society moved to a storefront on Grove Street at 37th Street in 1970, in 1976 to another storefront on Grove Street just above 45th Street.
The organization moved out of the neighborhood in the 1980s and resides on 14th Street. The Black Panther Party, an African American leftist organization finds its roots in the streets of North Oakland including the Longfellow neighborhood. Founders Huey P. Newton and David Hilliard grew up on 47th Street and West Street and the Second Black Panther Party Office was located on the 4400 block of Martin Luther King Jr. Way; the neighborhood has an active community group, which formed in 2010, known as the Longfellow Community Association. The LCA has more than 100 members and five strong committees working on various community interests and led by coordinators/co-coordinators; the group has formed alliances with the NCPC, local schools and businesses, Urban Releaf, the councilperson’s office and more. Many artists live in the neighborhood, among them, famous metalsmith and Burning Man art car creator Jon Sarriugarte. Many new restaurants have started in the most recent economic boom post 2008 but some areas of the neighborhood continue to be troubled by violence and frequent daytime shootings.
Malaspina, Rick. Italian Oakland. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2
Golden Gate, Oakland, California
The Golden Gate neighborhood of Oakland, California is located in the northwest corner of the city, east of Emeryville and south of Berkeley. It includes the Golden Gate Shopping District, the stretch of San Pablo Avenue between 53rd Street on the south, the Oakland-Berkeley border at 67th Street to the north; the neighborhood includes the area from a few blocks west of San Pablo Avenue to Adeline Street on the east. The district includes arts establishments; the area was inhabited by the Huchiun band of the Ohlone people was part of the Rancho San Antonio grant, split up following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Charles Alexander Klinkner built 75 homes in the area and called it Klinknerville, established in 1885. A Klinknerville post office was established in 1887; the name was changed to Golden Gate in 1888. The town was annexed to Oakland in 1897; the Golden Gate branch of the Oakland Library opened in 1918. It was built with funds from a 1914 Carnegie grant, its design, by Donovan and Dickie, is a good example of early 20th century Georgian Revival Architecture.
In the first half of the 20th century, Golden Gate was an entertainment district, with over 50 bars including the original Trader Vic's location at the northeast corner of San Pablo Ave & 65th St where the Mai Tai drink was purportedly invented. In the last half of the 20th century the retail district underwent a period of decline and by 1998 was considered blighted by the city of Oakland. During the 1950s, the area became majority African American. In 1982, the East Bay Negro Historical Society was invited into the Golden Gate Branch of the Oakland Public Library, making it the first Oakland city library with a predominantly African American focused collection; the collection was housed in the entire left side of the library where the children's section of the library is now located. The assistance of Mayor Lionel Wilson, Assemblyman Elihu Harris, others helped the organization establish a solid foundation in their new home. Following the appointment of Dr. Lawrence Crouchett as its executive director in 1988, the organization changed its name to the Northern California Center for Afro-American History & Life.
In 1994, the City of Oakland and the NCCAAHL merged to create the African American Museum & Library at Oakland. This unique public/private partnership entered a historic juncture with the opening of AAMLO in February 2002. Located at 659 14th Street, AAMLO is now housed in the former Charles S. Greene library, an historic 1902 Carnegie building; the Golden Gate Shopping District was the location of Your Black Muslim Bakery, which made national headlines in August 2007 when the bakery was raided by the Oakland police and shut down. By 2010 the area was undergoing a process of gentrification, including controversially being dubbed "NOBE" by some realtors. Starting in 2014, the neighborhood has hosted Love Our Neighborhood Day, an open streets festival in which San Pablo Avenue is car free. Oakland North has covered the neighborhood since 2008 and Oakland Local since 2009. History of Golden Gate - Oakland North Shop Oakland - Golden Gate District at the Wayback Machine An opinion piece on the neighborhood schools at the Wayback Machine Friends of the Oakland Public Library at the Wayback Machine Golden Gate branch of the Oakland Library A profile of the business district at the Wayback Machine Map of local police beat 10X Golden Gate page on OaklandWiki
The Chinatown neighborhood in Oakland, California（Chinese: 屋崙華埠), is a pan-Asian neighborhood which reflects Oakland's diverse Asian American community. It is referred to as "Oakland Chinatown" in order to distinguish it from nearby San Francisco's Chinatown, it lies at an elevation of 39 feet. Chinese were the first Asians to arrive in Oakland in the 1850s, followed by Japanese in the 1890s, Koreans in the 1900s, Filipinos in the 1930s and 1940s. Southeast Asians began arriving in the 1970s during the Vietnam War. Many Asian languages and dialects can be heard in Chinatown due to its diverse population. Chinatown is located with its center at 8th Street and Webster Street, its northern edge is 12th Street, its southern edge is Interstate 880. It stretches from Broadway on the west to the southern tip of Lake Merritt in the east. Oakland Chinatown dates back to the arrival of Chinese immigrants in the 1850s, making it one of the oldest Chinatowns in North America. By 1860, the census of Oakland included 96 "Asiatics" among a total of 1,543.
More Chinese arrived to help build the Central Pacific Railroad western portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad during the Coolie slave trade during the 1860s. The Chinese settled in shrimp camps on the estuary of Oakland at 1st Street and Castro in the 1850s, near the Point in West Oakland, referred to as "Chinese Point", at 4th and Clay streets; the Chinese settlement at Telegraph between 16th and 17th streets burnt down in 1867 and was relocated at the San Pablo Avenue Chinatown between 19th and 20th streets. Other areas settled were 14th Street between Washington and Clay, the Charter line between Castro and Brush Streets. Fears of the Yellow Peril and local exclusion laws forced the Chinese population to resettle to its current location centered at 8th Street and Webster Street in the 1870s; the first Chinese in Oakland fished in the San Francisco Bay for shrimp to the Chinese at China Camp near San Rafael. In 1868, Chinese laborers built the Temescal Dam in Oakland providing water for the East Bay as well as the Lake Chabot Dam in 1874–75.
They worked in cotton mills and fuse and explosive factories as well as farms. In the 1880s, discriminatory laws made it difficult for Chinese immigrants to own land or find work, they found work as laundry workers, gardeners, houseboys, or as vegetable peddlers. The Chinese Exclusion Act limited the further immigration of Chinese. By 1900, the Chinese in Oakland numbered less than 1,000; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed most of San Francisco's Chinatown and more than 4,000 Chinese survivors found refuge in Oakland. While San Francisco Chinatown was rebuilding, many stayed in Oakland, bringing the Chinatown population to about 2,500; because of immigration restrictions barring Chinese women and children, a bachelor society was created. In the 1920s, Oakland Chinatown grew from 10th Street to the waterfront from Broadway to Harrison; until 1940, the Chinatown population grew only to about 3,000. With the United States involvement in World War II and the fact that China was an ally, the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943, however the immigration quota was maintained at 105 immigrants per year.
In 1950, Chinatown grew to a population of 5,500, but local housing was lost due to the construction of Interstate 880, which runs through 8 blocks between 5th and 6th streets and serves as a transportation artery for some of Chinatown's commercial activity, Laney College and in the late 1960s, the Bay Area Rapid Transit headquarters and Lake Merritt station and Oakland Museum of California. Oakland Chinatown was economically stagnant for many years after multigenerational Chinatown residents began moving to the suburbs in the late 1960s. However, Chinatown saw much steady development during the 1980s and 1990s as Chinese American merchants relocated from San Francisco to Oakland, due to increased immigration from mainland China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Thailand. During this time period, many ethnic Chinese Vietnamese and Chinese Cambodians began opening new small businesses replacing many of the older Taishanese-dominated businesses. Investors with Hong Kong backgrounds constructed the Pacific Renaissance Plaza in the early 1990s.
Chinatown still retains the traditional characteristics of an older Chinatown. Oakland's Chinatown includes a historic and still thriving fortune cookie factory. Although it is overshadowed by its more prominent, tourist-oriented counterpart in San Francisco, Oakland's Chinatown is bustling with activity and considered to be more authentic to many. Other Asian cultures are represented in Oakland's Chinatown as it has been settled by non-Chinese Asians such as ethnic Vietnamese and Thais making it more of a pan-Asian area as opposed to a "Chinatown." As is the case with other retail and commercial districts around Oakland, the many customers and thriving businesses in Chinatown generate sales tax revenue for Oakland city and Redevelopment Agency coffers. Japanese immigrants began settling in Oakland in the 1890s in West Oakland around Market Street. Hundreds were living in the section between Harrison and Oak streets south of 8th Street, they owned several stores in Chinatown. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, all Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps.
The Masuda family had posted a large "I Am An American" sign outside their Oakland grocery store, Wanto Company, at 8th and Franklin streets, photograp
Bushrod Park, Oakland, California
The Bushrod Park neighborhood in North Oakland, California is an area surrounding its namesake park, bounded by Martin Luther King, Jr. Way to the west, Claremont Avenue to the east, Highway 24 to the south, the Berkeley border to the north, it borders the neighborhoods of Sante Fe to the west, Fairview Park to the east, Temescal and Shafter to the south and southeast, respectively. Notable landmarks include the Bushrod Park ballfields and the former Bushrod Washington Elementary School, which share adjoining land on a large greenbelt and open space in the heart of the neighborhood. At 10.12 acres, Bushrod is one of the largest parks in the North Oakland section of Oakland, California. It is located between Shattuck Avenue and Racine Street to the east and west, between 61st Street and 59th Street to the north and south; the park was established in 1903 through the donation of seven and a half acres of land by Dr. Bushrod Washington James, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In the 1910s it was used as a school playground.
It has had a long association with local baseball. In the 1960s, the park was used as a practice field by the Oakland Raiders. On April 8, 2006, a block of ice fell from the sky and landed in the park, leaving a crater, several feet wide; the Bushrod Park neighborhood is 32.95% African-American, 52% White, 9.7% Hispanic, 3.62% Asian At only 0.35 acres, Colby Park is one of the smallest parks in North Oakland. It is situated at 61st & Colby Street, features a sand pit and playground equipment; the Sankofa Academy is a public school that occupies the building used by the Bushrod Washington Elementary School, adjacent to Bushrod Park at 61st Street and Shattuck Avenue. The school is a member of the Oakland Small Schools Foundation. Peralta Elementary School is a designated arts anchor school in the Oakland Unified School District, it was established in 1880 as a one-room schoolhouse, today has over 250 students. It is one of the top ranked Elementary schools in the Oakland and Berkeley neighborhoods
Old Oakland is a historic district in downtown Oakland, California. The area is located on the northwest side of Broadway, between the City Center complex and the Jack London Square district, across Broadway from Chinatown; the Old Oakland district was the "original" downtown Oakland during the 1860s after Central Pacific Railroad constructed a terminus on 7th Street. By the 1870s, elegant brick Victorian hotels were being built in the blocks surrounding the railroad station to accommodate travelers; the ground floor of the hotels were designed as series of narrow shops so that pedestrians would pass by many of them just walking down the block. The architectural styles of the time featured large plate-glass windows; the downtown began its decline after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, when the shopping district began moving to the blocks north of 14th. In the 1970s and 1980s developers rehabilitated and restored a block along 9th Street between Washington Street and Broadway, known as "Victorian Row".
Notable structures on Victorian Row include the 1878 Nicholl Block building. In its early days, the Oakland Tribune rented a small office on 9th Street. A sign for the Tribune office can still be seen hanging outside the building today. A farmer's market is held every Friday on the same stretch of 9th Street; as of 2008, the neighborhood continues to gentrify as a'downtown lifestyle' district, more bistros and boutiques have cropped-up, as more market-rate condominiums have been constructed nearby, as transit-oriented development retail and housing become more and more in demand. Oakland Chinatown Jack London Square Lakeside Apartments District Oakland City Center Oaksterdam Uptown Oakland Old Oakland Historic District Business Association SOBU - Sustainable Furniture & Design
Mills College is a private liberal arts and sciences college in Oakland, California. Mills was founded as the Young Ladies Seminary in 1852 in California; the school was relocated to Oakland, California, in 1871, became the first women's college west of the Rockies. Mills is an undergraduate women's college with graduate programs for students of all genders. In 2014, Mills became the first single-sex college in the U. S. to adopt an admission policy explicitly welcoming transgender students. Mills College offers more than 45 undergraduate majors and minors and over 30 graduate degrees and credentials; the college is home to the Mills College School of Education and the Lorry I. Lokey School of Business & Public Policy. Mills College was founded as the Young Ladies Seminary in the city of Benicia in 1852 under the leadership of Mary Atkins, a graduate of Oberlin College. In 1865, Susan Tolman Mills, a graduate of Mount Holyoke College, her husband, Cyrus Mills, bought the Young Ladies Seminary renaming it Mills Seminary.
In 1871, the school was moved to Oakland and the school was incorporated in 1877. The school became Mills College in 1885. In 1890, after serving for decades as principal, Susan Mills became the president of the college and held the position for 19 years. Beginning in 1906 the seminary classes were progressively eliminated. In 1921, Mills granted its first master's degrees. On May 3, 1990, the Trustees announced that they had voted to admit male undergraduate students to Mills; this decision led to a two-week student and staff strike, accompanied by numerous displays of non-violent protests by the students. At one point, nearly 300 students blockaded boycotted classes. On May 18, the Trustees met again to reconsider the decision, leading to a reversal of the vote. In 2014, Mills became the first single-sex college in the U. S. to adopt an admission policy explicitly welcoming transgender students. The policy states that undergraduate students who were not assigned to the female sex at birth, but who self-identify as women, are welcome to apply for admission.
Undergraduates who were assigned to the female sex at birth, but identify as transgender or gender fluid, are welcome to apply for admission. The policy further clarifies that undergraduate students assigned to the female sex at birth who have become male prior to applying are not eligible for admission to Mills; the policy ends with a statement that "once admitted, any student who completes the College's graduate requirements shall be awarded a degree," indicating that once admitted to Mills, an undergraduate female student who changes sex or gender to male will be allowed to complete their degree at the college. In September 2017, Mills became the first private college in California to implement a tuition reset reducing the cost of its undergraduate education; the college reduced its undergraduate tuition by 36% with a goal of making a Mills education more affordable for more students. Undergraduate tuition in the 2018–2019 academic year will be $28,765. Students are still able to receive merit scholarships and need-based financial aid in addition to the tuition reduction.
Admission to Mills is holistic. The Mills admission application process is designed to allow students to share a complete picture of their experiences, passions and what they hope to achieve, in addition to their academic accomplishments. Most first-year students admitted to Mills have a B+ average and have followed a full college-preparatory course in their secondary school, including 4 years of English, 3 to 4 years of mathematics, 2 to 4 years of foreign languages, 2 to 4 years of social sciences, 2 to 4 years of a laboratory science. Additional course work in fine arts is given positive consideration, as are special talents or interests. Course credit may be awarded for the College Board Advanced Placement tests and the International Baccalaureate program's higher-level examinations. Mills is one of nearly 200 top-tier colleges in the U. S. that have made standardized test scores optional in the admissions process. Mills accepts applications from transfer students and women who have delayed their entrance to college or who wish to continue work on their bachelor's degrees.
The high school transcript requirement is waived if 24 or more transferable semester units have been completed. For international students, TOEFL, IELTS, or ELS are required to satisfy English language proficiency requirements. Applications should be accompanied by transcripts, a letter of recommendation, for international students, language test scores. An interview, either on campus or online through Skype or FaceTime, is recommended for all applicants. In 2018–19, Mills enrolled students from 41 U. S. states and 15 countries. Of the 766 undergraduate students: 57% identified themselves as students of color 51% identified themselves as LGBTQ+ 32% were first-generation college students 15% were resumer students Mills offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors across the arts and sciences; as of the 2017–2018 academic year, the college's top 5 majors were: English, sociology and biology. To earn a Mills bachelor's degree, students complete 120 semester credits. Grading is traditional, a pass-fail option is available outside the major.
Mills offers ten bachelor's-to-master's accelerated degree programs that allow students to earn a bachelor's and a master's degree in less time with the goal of increasing their career options. The core cur
AC Transit is an Oakland-based public transit agency serving the western portions of Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. AC Transit operates "Transbay" routes across San Francisco Bay to San Francisco and selected areas in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties. AC Transit is constituted as a special district under California law, it is governed by seven elected members. It is not a part of or under the control of Alameda or Contra Costa counties or any local jurisdictions. Buses operate out of four operating divisions: Emeryville, East Oakland and Richmond; the Operations Control Center is located in Emeryville. The Richmond operating division closed in 2011, but opened again in early 2017 due to a revived economy; the District is the public successor to the owned Key System. The District encompasses the following cities and unincorporated areas: Oakland, Hayward, Richmond, San Leandro, Castro Valley, San Pablo, El Cerrito, San Lorenzo, Albany, Cherryland, El Sobrante, Fairview, Emeryville and East Richmond Heights.
The District's bus lines serve parts of some other East Bay communities, including Milpitas and Union City. AC Transit serves many universities including the University of California, Berkeley. Most routes connect with regional train service BART, in addition to ACE and Amtrak, including the Capitol Corridor. AC Transit routes connect with several other regional transit services, including Union City Transit, SamTrans, WestCAT, the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, San Francisco Municipal Railway, Golden Gate Transit, the Alameda-Oakland Ferry, the Harbor Bay Ferry, Emery Go Round, SolTrans and FAST. While most AC Transit service consists of local lines throughout the East Bay, the District provides many Transbay lines. Most of these run across the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge to connect communities as distant as El Sobrante and Newark with San Francisco's Transbay Terminal. Bus service is provided across the San Mateo and Dumbarton bridges to the south. AC Transit's primary hubs include BART stations, major shopping centers, points of interest, which are spread throughout the East Bay.
Most routes terminate at BART stations, providing convenience for transit users. The hubs include: Voters created the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District in 1956 and subsequently approved a $16.5 million bond issue in 1959 enabling the District to buy out the failing owned Key System Transit Lines. In October 1960, AC Transit’s service began; the new District built up the bus fleet with 250 new “transit liner” buses, extended service into new neighborhoods, created an intercity express bus network, increased Bay Bridge bus service. In 2003, the District introduced a San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route. Designated as Line M, the service connected the BART stations of Castro Valley and Hayward with Foster City and San Mateo's Hillsdale Caltrain station. A second San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route, Line MA, was added in 2006 and discontinued in 2007. In 2003, a new "rapid bus" line operating on San Pablo Avenue was introduced. Designated as Line 72R, the service connected Oakland with Richmond and operated at faster speeds than regular local service due to wide stop spacing and signal priority treatments.
In 2004, the District began service on Line U across the Dumbarton Bridge, connecting Stanford University with ACE and BART trains in Fremont. As part of a consortium of transit agencies including AC Transit, BART, SamTrans, Union City Transit, VTA), the District operated Dumbarton Express bus service across the Dumbarton Bridge. Beginning 10 December 2005, AC Transit began participating in the regional All Nighter network, providing 24-hour bus service throughout its service area to supplement BART service, which does not operate during owl hours. AC Transit had provided 24-hour service on many of its trunk lines prior to this date, except in the late 1990s due to budget limitations. On 30 July 2007, AC Transit announced that it had entered into a 25-year partnership with SunPower, MMA Renewable Ventures, PG&E to install solar energy systems at its facilities in an effort to reduce its carbon footprint, improve local air quality, save money on energy costs that could be used instead to spend on transit service.
In 2008, AC Transit sponsored the world's largest chalk drawing at the old Alameda Naval Base and provided free transportation for children to the site. On 28 March 2010, several major service changes were implemented to reduce a severe budget shortfall. Changes included reduced service on local and Transbay lines, elimination of unproductive routes, splitting of the 51 into two sections, the introduction of limited-stop line 58L. Starting in February 2011, all buses on Line 376 were being escorted by a marked Contra Costa County Sheriff's patrol vehicle through the unincorporated community of North Richmond. Line 376 provides late-night service through North Richmond and the nearby cities of Richmond, San Pablo, Pinole; the escorts were introduced to improve the safety of the service, which had five serious incidents between 5 January and 9 February. On Decembe