click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Friedrich B├╝rklein

Georg Friedrich Christian Bürklein was a German architect and a pupil of Friedrich von Gärtner. He was born in Middle Franconia, his first important work was the construction of the town hall in Fürth, influenced by the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. Bürklein created the Hauptbahnhof in Munich with its steel construction and the stations of Augsburg, Ansbach, Neu-Ulm, Hof, Nördlingen, Rosenheim, Würzburg and Bad Kissingen. From 1851 Bürklein was the chief architect of the royal Maximilianstraße in Munich with all its state buildings including the Maximilianeum, its Neo-Gothic architecture was influenced by the Perpendicular style and was disputed. Before the Maximilianeum was finished Bürklein was replaced by Gottfried Semper; the sensitive Bürklein died mentally deranged in the sanatorium of Werneck. He is buried in the Alter Südfriedhof in Munich. Stollbergstraße 20

Helmut Lang (fashion brand)

The Helmut Lang fashion brand was created by Austrian fashion designer Helmut Lang in 1986. The Helmut Lang brand still exists today, but has been carried on without Lang's involvement since 2005. Helmut Lang, a fashion autodidact, set up a made-to-measure fashion studio in Vienna in 1977 and opened a boutique there in 1979 at the age of 23, his clothes were successful in his native Austria, after presenting his work as part of an exhibition titled "l'Apocalypse Joyeuse" at the Centre Pompidou in Paris, initiated by the Austrian government, he branched out to Paris in 1986 and created the label "Helmut Lang". At this time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, minimalist fashion was at its height, his clothes were made with sharp lines and careful cuts, creating basic but elegant silhouettes in high quality and high-tech fabrics. His work has been compared to Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto for his sometimes austere, intellectual designs. Lang is known for his minimalist and severe designs, his fashion house became famous in the late 1980s for its simple but refined designs, its slim suits in black or white, its denim collection, the use of high-tech fabrics.

Helmut Lang fashions were sold in upscale department stores and through select retailers, as well as in signature Helmut Lang stores around the world. In 1999, Lang entered into a partnership with Prada Group which resulted in the acquisition of the Helmut Lang brand by Prada in 2004, Mr. Lang's departure from the label in 2005. Prada sold it to Link Theory of Japan in 2006. Link Theory re-launched the Helmut Lang label with new designers in 2007. Since Helmut Lang fashions have been available again at upscale department stores and signature Helmut Lang boutiques worldwide. Lang moved to New York in 1997 and subsequently set up his company's headquarters in 80 Greene St. in SoHo in 1998. In New York, he decided in April 1998, three days before his designs were to be presented to a New York audience, to show his collection through a live internet broadcast to the world, via the newly created company's web site; as a first in the fashion industry, ads for the brand could be seen on New York taxi tops from 1998 to 2004.

The following season he announced to show his collections not only before New York Fashion Week, but before the Milan and Paris runway shows. As a result, with many American designers following suit, New York Fashion Week was permanently moved up six weeks to herald the established runway shows. From 2000 on, unconventional print ads for the brand were placed with National Geographic magazine. Throughout the years, both a women's and men's line existed, kept under a single name and always presented in one fashion show. Underwear and jeans lines as well as accessories, such as footwear and fragrances were launched, but otherwise the brand was kept unified to solidify its identity and strength; the runway show venues for the Helmut Lang label were switched from Paris to New York by Mr. Lang and back again to Paris by Prada; the collections/presentations used to be called séances de travail by Mr. Lang. In 1999, Milan-based fashion house Prada acquired 51% of the Helmut Lang company in the course of a multi-brand strategy, which included the acquisition of German fashion label Jil Sander.

After alleged disputes with Prada Group's CEO Patrizio Bertelli on how the brand should be continued, after Mr. Lang had sold his remaining shares to Prada in October 2004, he left his own label in January 2005. Lang joined the growing number of designer departures, including Jil Sander from her own label at Prada and Tom Ford from Gucci. However, Mr. Lang has publicly maintained. On March 17, 2006, Prada Group announced that, after six loss-making years, Link Theory Holdings of Tokyo would be acquiring the Helmut Lang brand for an estimated €20 million; this came about three weeks after Prada had sold the Jil Sander label to British equity firm Change Capital Partners. In spring 2005, it had been rumored that Prada was trying to sell the label. Prada Group was said to want to concentrate on its core labels and Miu Miu, again; the Japanese holding company LTH, developer of the theory fashion label in Japan and the US, re-launched the Helmut Lang collections under the direction of a "suitable" designer for the spring/summer 2007 season, in select boutiques worldwide as a "contemporary brand".

The new label is based out of New York City. It was never expected that Lang himself would return to the label that bears his name, although Chikara Sasake and chief executive of LTH, gave to understand that if Lang "wants to come back, the door is always open". In May 2006, it was announced that Michael and Nicole Colovos, an American-New Zealand designer couple, who had their own Los Angeles-based denim label Habitual, had been installed by Link Theory as creative directors for the new Helmut Lang brand. From February 2007, select upscale retailers such as Barneys or Bergdorf Goodman started to carry the spring/summer 2007 Helmut Lang contemporary sportswear collection; the design office has been set up in West Chelsea in New York. The collection, described as "a commercial reduction of fashion identity", has received quite favorable reviews though it is not seen as a continuation of the original line; the item prices in the collection are about 20% above those for comparable theory items and, below the original Helmut Lang prices.

Link Theory expects to generate US$8 million in revenues in 2008, make a profit in 2009 with the label. The company announced that "over the long term" they

Trolleybuses in Gdynia

The Gdynia trolleybus system serves the city of Gdynia, Poland. It is one of three remaining trolleybus systems in Poland; the system was opened on 18 September 1943. It consists of 12 lines. One stretch with two lines extend to the neighbouring city of Sopot; as of 2007, its fleet consists of 86 12-metre-long trolleybuses. The system is operated by the Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Trolejbusowej working under the commission of Zarząd Komunikacji Miejskiej; every year, the trolleybuses travel over four million kilometres and transport c. 350 million passengers. PKT is the only company, it is a limited liability company. On 1 January 1998, PKT was split from Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacji Miejskiej, it hires c. 340 workers. Four trade unions exist in PKT; the head of management in PKT is Piotr Małolepszy, the deputy is Tomasz Labuda. The company is headquartered near ulica Zakręt to Oksywie in Gdynia; the company is divided into four departments. The department of transportation is responsible for the execution and control of the routes established by ZKM.

This department hires 61 % of which are male. Their responsibilities include: Driving vehicles according to the appropriate assignments. Organising the work of the drivers; each trolleybus is operated by two to three drivers working different shifts. Monitoring the quality of provided services. Conducting small repairs to the stock; the department of stock services is responsible for three primary duties: Daily vehicle servicing to determine the technical state of each vehicle the driving utilities and electrical installations. Technical vehicle servicing, or a more thorough, periodic check of the technical state of each vehicle. Repairs to the stock. Furthermore, this department is responsible for fixing fatigue-related faults, fixing emergency vehicles, inventorying the stock, it hires. C. 50 persons mechanics and metalworkers. The department of the network and infrastructure is responsible for maintenance of the overhead lines, it is responsible for: Emergency repairs to the trolleybus network, available 24/7 with four brigades, in case of electrical failure on the network.

Conversation of the network, including modernisation of network elements, implemented during nights. Servicing the stations by conserving and monitoring the capacities of the substations in Gdynia. Servicing the electrical cables powering the network. Managing the repair workshop, it hires c. 25 persons: repair workers for the network and workshop. The department of administration is responsible for the administration of PKT. PKT does not limit itself to fulfilling its services. Gdynian mechanics constructed the first low-floored trolleybus, a worker created a tri-directional trolleybus junction; the idea to establish a trolleybus network in Gdynia began in the administration of Gdynia before the Second World War. Despite serious planning, instead of trolleybuses, in 1929, it was decided to establish a bus network. However, buses were more expensive to use, they were not worthwhile in a expanding city. Occupying Germans established the trolleybus network due to lack of fuel. On 18 September 1943, the first trolleybus drove in Gdynia, running from the offices of the city to Hauptbahnhof station.

Ten Henschel trolleybuses serviced the network, fitted with AEG electric systems. The bodies of the trolleybuses were created by Danziger Waggonfabrik; these vehicles were fit to pull passenger wagons. Incrementally, vehicles were introduced from occupied countries. During a Soviet assault in 1945, the trolleybuses were used as barricades. After the Second World War, the group of people who decided to rebuild the trolleybus network contained only a small number of professionals who had worked in the trolleybus industry. A significant number of them had never seen a trolleybus before, qualified only by their good will and motivation to work. An action to take the trolleybus wreckage from the streets to the depot near ulica Derdowskiego commenced; the electrical substations at Redłowo and Grabówek, which powered the previous trolleybus network, were secured from further destruction. After the trolleybus wreckage was moved to the depot, repair work began. On 19 March 1946, the trolleybus line from the depot near ulica Derdowskiego to the city offices was opened, a loop was established.

The line was serviced by three repaired Henschel vehicles. The next stage of the repair consisted of expanding the network to Orłowo for line 11. Besides the salvaged vehicles, one Büssing and three Henschel 01 vehicles were taken from MZK Olsztyn for usage in Gdynia. On 2 October 1946, a trolleybus line from plac Kaszubski to Chylonia was opened. An electrical substation was opened in Grabówek at a power of 720 kW. At the end of 1947, the Wydział Trolejbusowy had 3 trailers; this allowed the extension of the Orłowo line to Sopot. In 1949, MPK Wrocław gave Gdynia 8 Tallero trolleybuses that were abandoned by Germans and not activated; these trolleybuses were repaired and entered service in 1950, numbered 230-237, servicing the line to Sopot and Chylonia. On 22 August 1949, a new trolleybus line to Mały Kack was established, numbered 23; this line was serviced by 13 French Vétra vehicles, numbered 300-312. On 29 October 1949, a new line numbered 24 was opened to Oksywie, with a lo

Jordan Taylor (racing driver)

Jordan Taylor is an American professional racing driver. He competes in the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship for Corvette Racing, he won the 2017 24 Hours of Daytona and the 2017 championship in the Prototype class of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. Jordan won the 2013 Rolex Sports Car Series Daytona Prototypes class and was 2014 United SportsCar Championship Prototypes class runner-up. Jordan won the 2015 24 Hours of Le Mans GTE-Pro class in a Chevrolet Corvette C7. R. Jordan is the youngest son of sports car veteran Wayne Taylor, he raced a Cadillac Prototype for his father's team, where he partnered with his older brother, from 2014-2017. In 2018, he partnered with Renger van der Zande. Born in Orlando, Taylor began his career in professional sports car racing in 2008, competing in the 24 Hours of Daytona and finishing 15th, his first full season came in 2010. In late 2011 at a private test at Sebring Jordan Taylor impressed Corvette Racing enough that they recruited Jordan to fulfill the third driver role for the team in the 2012 season competing at Sebring, Petit Le Mans and the 24 Hours of Le Mans where he finished in 5th place in the LM GTE PRO #73 Corvette C6.

R. In 2013 he joined Wayne Taylor Racing, a team owned by his father, sports car veteran Wayne Taylor, co-driving with Max Angelelli, he and Angelelli teamed to win the 2013 Rolex Sports Car Series' Daytona Prototype championship, the final Grand American Road Racing Association championship before the merger of American Le Mans Series and Grand-Am, winning five races including the last three of the season consecutively. Taylor competed in the GT class, winning two races for Autohaus Motorsports. Taylor has competed at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 2013 through 2015 in the GTE-Pro class for Corvette Racing winning the LM GT PRO Class in 2015. For the 2017 IMSA season, Taylor drove the new Cadillac DPi-V. R. in the new Daytona Prototype International class. Taylor is well-known for his social media presence, he has an online alter ego known as Rodney Sandstorm, a parody of 1990s racers and Jeff Gordon, whose antics have drawn positive attention toward both Taylor and IMSA. In particular, during the 2018 Talladega broadcast, Taylor received significant media attention when he, as Rodney Sandstorm, crashed a live NASCAR on Fox broadcast, causing Darrell Waltrip to call for security.

* Season still in progress. Jordan Taylor driver statistics at Racing-Reference

Invasion of Kuwait

The invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a two-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring State of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country. This invasion and Iraq's subsequent refusal to withdraw from Kuwait by a deadline mandated by the United Nations led to military intervention by a United Nations-authorized coalition of forces led by the United States; these events came to be known as the first Gulf War and resulted in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat. In early 1990 Iraq was accusing Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was made a few months before the actual invasion; some feel there were several reasons for the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwaiti high petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

The invasion started on 2 August 1990, within two days most of the Kuwait Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to neighbouring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraq set up a puppet government known as the "Republic of Kuwait" to rule over Kuwait and annexed it outright, when Saddam Hussein announced a few days that it was the 19th province of Iraq; when the Iran–Iraq War broke out, Kuwait stayed neutral and tried mediating between Iran and Iraq. In 1982, Kuwait along with other Arab states of the Persian Gulf supported Iraq in order to curb the Iranian Revolutionary government. In 1982–1983, Kuwait began sending significant financial loans to Iraq. Kuwait's large-scale economic assistance to Iraq triggered hostile Iranian actions against Kuwait. Iran targeted Kuwaiti oil tankers in 1984 and fired weapons at Kuwaiti security personnel stationed on Bubiyan island in 1988. During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait functioned as Iraq's major port once Basra was shut down by the fighting.

However, after the war ended, the friendly relations between the two neighbouring Arab countries turned sour for several economic and diplomatic reasons that culminated in an Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. By the time the Iran–Iraq War ended, Iraq was not in a financial position to repay the 14 billion USD it borrowed from Kuwait to finance its war and requested that Kuwait forgive the debt. Iraq argued. However, Kuwait's reluctance to pardon the debt strained the relationship between the two countries. In late 1989, several official meetings were held between the Kuwaiti and Iraqi leaders, but they were unable to break the deadlock between the two. In 1988 Iraq's Oil Minister, Issam al-Chalabi, stressed a further reduction in the crude oil production quota of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries members so as to end the 1980s oil glut. Chalabi argued that higher oil prices would help Iraq increase its revenues and pay back its US$60 billion debt. However, given its large downstream petroleum industry, Kuwait was less concerned about the prices of crude oil and in 1989, Kuwait requested OPEC to increase the country's total oil production ceiling by 50% to 1.35 million bpd.

Throughout much of the 1980s, Kuwait's oil production was above its mandatory OPEC quota and this had prevented a further increase in crude oil prices. A lack of consensus among OPEC members undermined Iraq's efforts to end the oil glut and prevented the recovery of its war-crippled economy. According to former Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz, "every US$1 drop in the price of a barrel of oil caused a US$1 billion drop in Iraq's annual revenues triggering an acute financial crisis in Baghdad", it was estimated that between 1985 and 1989, Iraq lost US$14 billion a year due to Kuwait's oil price strategy. Kuwait's refusal to decrease its oil production was viewed by Iraq as an act of aggression against it; the tense relations between Iraq and Kuwait were further aggravated when Iraq alleged that Kuwait was slant-drilling across the international border into Iraq's Rumaila field. The dispute over Rumaila field started in 1960 when an Arab League declaration marked the Iraq–Kuwait border 2 miles north of the southernmost tip of the Rumaila field.

During the Iran–Iraq War, Iraqi oil drilling operations in Rumaila declined while Kuwait's operations increased. In 1989, Iraq accused Kuwait of using "advanced drilling techniques" to exploit oil from its share of the Rumaila field. Iraq estimated that US$2.4 billion worth of Iraqi oil was "stolen" by Kuwait and demanded compensation. Kuwait dismissed the accusations as a false Iraqi ploy to justify military action against it. Several foreign firms working in the Rumaila field dismissed Iraq's slant-drilling claims as a "smokescreen to disguise Iraq's more ambitious intentions". On 25 July 1990, only a few days before the Iraqi invasion, OPEC officials said that Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates had agreed to a proposal to limit daily oil output to 1.5 million barrels, thus settling differences over oil policy between Kuwait and Iraq. At the time of the settlement, more than 100,000 Iraqi troops were deployed along the Iraq–Kuwait border, American officials expressed little indication of decline in tensions despite the OPEC settlement.

Many westerners believed that Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was motivated by its desire to take control over the latter's vast oil reserves. The Iraqi government justified its invasion by claiming that Kuwait was a natural part of Iraq carved off as a result of British imperialism. After signing the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, the United Kingdom planned to split Kuwait from the Ottoman territories in