Magnus III of Sweden
Magnus III was King of Sweden from 1275 until his death in 1290. He was the "first Magnus" to rule Sweden for any length of time, not regarded as a usurper or a pretender. Historians ascribe his epithet "Ladulås" – Barnlock – to a royal decree of 1279 or 1280 freeing the yeomanry from the duty to provide sustenance for travelling nobles and bishops; this king has been referred to as Magnus I, but, not recognized by any Swedish historians today. Magnus, whose birth year has never been confirmed in modern times, was the second son of Birger Jarl and Princess Ingeborg, herself the sister of the childless King Eric XI and daughter of King Eric X. Thus, Valdemar Birgersson was the eldest son and ruled as Valdemar, King of Sweden from 1250-1275, succeeding King Eric, their maternal uncle who ruled until 1250. Birger Jarl had designated Magnus as Jarl, henceforth titled Duke of Sweden, as Valdemar's successor. After Valdemar's coming of age in 1257, Birger Jarl kept his grip over the country. After Birger's death in 1266 Valdemar came into conflict with Magnus who wanted the throne for himself.
In 1275, Duke Magnus started a rebellion against his brother with Danish help, ousted him from the throne. Valdemar was deposed by Magnus after the Battle of Hova in the forest of Tiveden on June 14, 1275. Magnus was elected king at the Stones of Mora. In 1276, Magnus married a second wife Helwig, daughter of Gerard I of Holstein. Through her mother, Elizabeth of Mecklenburg, Helwig was a descendant of Christina, the putative daughter of King Sverker II. A papal annulment of Magnus' alleged first marriage and a dispensation for the second were issued ten years in 1286. Haelwig acted as regent 1290–1302 and 1320–1327; the deposed King Valdemar managed, with Danish help in turn, to regain provinces in Gothenland in the southern part of the kingdom, Magnus had to recognize that in 1277. However, Magnus regained them about 1278 and assumed the additional title rex Gothorum, King of the Goths, starting the tradition of "King of the Swedes and the Goths". King Magnus's youngest brother, Benedict archdeacon, acted as his Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, in 1284 Magnus rewarded him with the Duchy of Finland.
Magnus died. Magnus ordered his kinsman Thurchetel Canuteson, the Lord High Constable of Sweden as the guardian of his heir, the future King Birger, about ten years old at father's death. In spring 2011, archaeologists and osteologists from the University of Stockholm were given permission to open one of the royal graves in Riddarholm Church in order to study the remains of what was presumed to be Magnus Ladulås and some of his relatives. SVT broadcast a presentation of the preliminary studies. Carbon-14 tests dated the bones to the 15th century, indicating the remains could not be those of the king and his family. In December 2011, the researchers applied for permission to open the neighbouring sarcophagus, which has hitherto been presumed to contain the bones of a king, Charles VIII. From his alleged first marriage to an unknown woman: Eric Magnusson From his second marriage to Helwig of Holstein: Ingiburga Magnusdotter of Sweden. Birger, King of Sweden Eric Magnuson, Duke of Sudermannia in 1302 and Halland etc.
C 1305, born c. 1282. Died of starvation in 1318 at Nyköpingshus Castle while imprisoned by his brother King Birger. Waldemar Magnuson, Duke of Finland in 1302 and Öland 1310. Died of starvation 1318 at Nyköpingshus Castle while imprisoned by his brother, King Birger. Richeza Magnusdotter of Sweden, Abbess of the convent of St. Clare's Priory, Stockholm
Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)
The Imperial Diet was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire. It was not a legislative body in the contemporary sense, its members were the Imperial Estates, divided into three colleges. The diet as a permanent, regularized institution evolved from the Hoftage of the Middle Ages. From 1663 until the end of the empire in 1806, it was in permanent session at Regensburg; the Imperial Estates had, according to feudal law, no authority above them besides the Holy Roman Emperor himself. The holding of an Imperial Estate entitled one to a vote in the diet. Thus, an individual member might have multiple votes in different colleges. In general, members did not attend the permanent diet at Regensburg, but sent representatives instead; the late imperial diet was in effect a permanent meeting of ambassadors between the Estates. The precise role and function of the Imperial Diet changed over the centuries, as did the Empire itself, in that the estates and separate territories gained more and more control of their own affairs at the expense of imperial power.
There was neither a fixed time nor location for the Diet. It started as a convention of the dukes of the old Germanic tribes that formed the Frankish kingdom when important decisions had to be made, was based on the old Germanic law whereby each leader relied on the support of his leading men. For example under Emperor Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars, the Diet, according to the Royal Frankish Annals, met at Paderborn in 777 and determined laws concerning the subdued Saxons and other tribes. In 803, the Frankish emperor issued the final version of the Lex Saxonum. At the Diet of 919 in Fritzlar the dukes elected the first King of the Germans, a Saxon, Henry the Fowler, thus overcoming the longstanding rivalry between Franks and Saxons and laying the foundation for the German realm. After the conquest of Italy, the 1158 Diet of Roncaglia finalized four laws that would alter the constitution of the Empire, marking the beginning of the steady decline of the central power in favour of the local dukes.
The Golden Bull of 1356 cemented the concept of "territorial rule", the independent rule of the dukes over their respective territories, limited the number of electors to seven. The Pope, contrary to modern myth, was never involved in the electoral process but only in the process of ratification and coronation of whomever the Prince-Electors chose. However, until the late 15th century, the Diet was not formalized as an institution. Instead, the dukes and other princes would irregularly convene at the court of the Emperor. Only beginning in 1489 was the Diet called the Reichstag, it was formally divided into several collegia; the two colleges were that of the prince-electors and that of the other dukes and princes. The imperial cities, that is, cities that had Imperial immediacy and were oligarchic republics independent of a local ruler that were subject only to the Emperor himself, managed to be accepted as a third party. Several attempts to reform the Empire and end its slow disintegration, notably starting with the Diet of 1495, did not have much effect.
In contrast, this process was only hastened with the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, which formally bound the Emperor to accept all decisions made by the Diet, in effect depriving him of his few remaining powers. From to its end in 1806, the Empire was not much more than a collection of independent states; the most famous Diets were those held in Worms in 1495, where the Imperial Reform was enacted, 1521, where Martin Luther was banned, the Diets of Speyer 1526 and 1529, several in Nuremberg. Only with the introduction of the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg in 1663 did the Diet permanently convene in a fixed location; the Imperial Diet of Constance opened on 27 April 1507. Since 1489, the Diet comprised three colleges: The Electoral College, led by the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz in his capacity as Archchancellor of Germany; the seven Prince-electors were designated by the Golden Bull of 1356: three ecclesiastical Prince-Bishops, the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz as Archchancellor of Germany the Prince-Archbishop of Cologne as Archchancellor of Italy the Prince-Archbishop of Trier as Archchancellor of Burgundy four secular Princes, the King of Bohemia as Archcupbearer the Elector of the Palatinate as Archsteward the Elector of Saxony as Archmarshal the Margrave of Brandenburg as ArchchamberlainThe number increased to eight, when in 1623 the Duke of Bavaria took over the electoral dignity of the Count Palatine, who himself received a separate vote in the electoral college according to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, including the high office of an Archtreasurer.
In 1692 the Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg became the ninth Prince-elector as Archbannerbearer during the Nine Years' War. In the War of the Bavarian Succession, the electoral dignities of the Palatinate and Bavaria were merged, approved by the 1779 Treaty of Teschen; the German Mediatisation of 1803 entailed the dissolution of the Cologne and Trier Prince-archbishoprics, the Prince-Archbishop of Mainz and German Archchancellor received—as compensation for his lost territory occupied by Revolutionary France—the newly establ
The Fifth Crusade was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt. Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, an attack against Jerusalem left the city in Muslim hands. In 1218, a German army led by Oliver of Cologne, a mixed army of Dutch and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Holland joined the crusade. In order to attack Damietta in Egypt, they allied in Anatolia with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm which attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts. After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards Cairo in July 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses, in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe.
Pope Innocent III had planned since 1208 a crusade to recapture Jerusalem. In April 1213 he issued the papal bull Quia maior; this was followed by another papal bull, the Ad Liberandam in 1215. The message of the crusade was preached in France by Robert of Courçon. In 1215 Pope Innocent III summoned the Fourth Lateran Council, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Pope Innocent wanted it to be led by the papacy, as the First Crusade should have been, to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, taken over by the Venetians. Pope Innocent planned for the crusaders to meet at Brindisi in 1216, prohibited trade with the Muslims, to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons; every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who helped pay the expenses of a crusader, but did not go on crusade themselves. Oliver of Cologne had preached the crusade in Germany, Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215.
Frederick was the last monarch. Innocent died in 1216 and was succeeded by Pope Honorius III, who barred Frederick from participating, but organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. Andrew had the largest royal army in the history of the crusades. Pope Innocent had managed to secure Georgia's participation in the crusade. Georgia's isolationist policies had allowed it to accumulate a powerful army and a large concentration of knights. However, the reconnaissance force under the Mongols Jebe and Subutai destroyed the entire Georgian army in two successive battles, most notably the Battle of Caucasus Mountain. After the death of Georgian King George IV Lasha, his sister Queen Rusudan wrote to the Pope informing him that Georgia was unable to fulfill its promise to assist in the Crusade because its army had been destroyed by unknown savages, it has been speculated that the oddly passive behavior of the Crusaders in the years was due to them waiting for the Georgian army to join the fray.
Decades after this Crusade, Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan would take a census of the Kingdom of Georgia to ascertain how many troops it could muster. According to contemporary sources, the kingdom was judged to be able to field nine tumens. A tumen was nominally 10,000 men, but averaged 5,000 in reality. If Hulegu's census was accurate the kingdom of Georgia in the 13th century was capable of mustering 45,000 soldiers. Had a force this size joined the Fifth Crusade, it would have more than doubled the Crusaders' strength; the first to take up the cross in the Fifth Crusade was King Andrew II of Hungary. In July 1217, Andrew departed from Zagreb, accompanied by Leopold VI of Austria and Otto I, Duke of Merania. King Andrew's army was so large—at least 10,000 mounted soldiers and much more "uncountable" infantrymen—that most of it stayed behind when Andrew and his men embarked in Split two months later, they were transported by the Venetian fleet, the largest European fleet in the era. Andrew and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217, in Split.
They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre and joined John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch to fight against the Ayyubids in Syria. Until his return to Hungary, king Andrew remained the leader of Christian forces in the Fifth Crusade. In October 1217, the leaders of the crusaders - Masters of Hospitalers and Teutons with the leaders and dignitaries of the crusade - held a war council in Acre, over which King Andrew II presided. King Andrew's well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I at Bethsaida on the Jordan River on 10 November 1217. Muslim forces retreated in their towns. In Jerusalem, the walls and fortifications were demolished to prevent the Christians from being able to defend the city, if they did manage to reach it and take it. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099; the crusaders' catapults and trebuchets did not arrive in time, so they had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor.
Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics. At the beginning of 1218 Andrew, sick, decided to return to Hungary. Andrew and his army departed to
Lambert Simnel was a pretender to the throne of England. His claim to be Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick in 1487 threatened the newly-established reign of King Henry VII. Simnel became the figurehead of a Yorkist rebellion organised by Earl of Lincoln; the rebellion was crushed in 1487. Simnel was pardoned and was thereafter employed by the Royal household as a scullion, as a falconer. Simnel was born around 1477, his real name is not known—contemporary records call him John, not Lambert, his surname is suspect. Different sources have different claims of his parentage, from a baker and tradesman to organ builder. Most he was of humble origin. At the age of about ten, he was taken as a pupil by an Oxford-trained priest named Richard Simon who decided to become a kingmaker, he tutored the boy in courtly contemporaries described the boy as handsome. He was well educated by Simon. One contemporary described him as "a boy so learned, had he ruled, he would have as a learned man." Simon noticed a striking resemblance between Lambert and the sons of Edward IV, so he intended to present Simnel as Richard, Duke of York, son of King Edward IV, the younger of the vanished Princes in the Tower.
However, when he heard rumours that the Earl of Warwick had died during his imprisonment in the Tower of London, he changed his mind. The real Warwick was a boy of about the same age, having been born in 1475, had a claim to the throne as the son of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, King Edward IV's executed brother. According to James A. Williamson, Simnel was a figurehead for a rebellion, being planned by the Yorkists: He was a commonplace tool to be used for important ends, the attempt to overthrow Henry VII would have taken place had Simnel never existed; the Yorkist leaders were determined on a serious push, rising of their party in England supported by as great a force as possible from overseas. Simon spread a rumour that Warwick had escaped from the Tower and was under his guardianship, he gained some support from Yorkists. He took Simnel to Ireland where there was still support for the Yorkist cause, presented him to the head of the Irish government, the Earl of Kildare. Kildare was willing to invade England to overthrow King Henry.
Simnel was paraded through the streets, carried on the shoulders of "the tallest man of the time", an individual called D'Arcy of Platten. On 24 May 1487, Simnel was crowned in Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin as "King Edward VI", he was about 10 years old. Lord Kildare collected an army of Irish soldiers under the command of his younger brother, Thomas FitzGerald of Laccagh. John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln the designated successor of his uncle the late King Richard III, joined the conspiracy against Henry VII, he fled to Burgundy, where Warwick's aunt Margaret of York, the Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, kept her court. Lincoln claimed, he met Viscount Lovell, who had supported a failed Yorkist uprising in 1486. Margaret collected 2,000 Flemish mercenaries and shipped them to Ireland under the command of Martin Schwartz, a noted military leader of the time, they arrived in Ireland on 5 May. King Henry began to gather troops. Simnel's army—mainly Flemish and Irish troops—landed on Piel Island in the Furness area of Lancashire on 5 June 1487 and were joined by some English supporters.
However, most local nobles, with the exception of Sir Thomas Broughton, did not join them. They clashed with the King's army on 16 June at the Battle of Stoke Field in Nottinghamshire, were defeated. Lincoln and Thomas FitzGerald were killed. Lovell went missing. Simons was imprisoned for life. Kildare, who had remained in Ireland, was pardoned. King Henry put him to work in the royal kitchen as a spit-turner; when he grew older, he became a falconer. No information about his life is known, he died some time between 1525 and 1535. He seems to have married, as he is the father of Richard Simnel, a canon of St Osyth's Priory in Essex during the reign of Henry VIII. In the 1972 BBC serial The Shadow of the Tower, Simnel was portrayed by Gary Warren. In 1996, Blyth Power's album Out From Under the King included Lambert Simnel. In 2006 Steeleye Span's album Bloody Men included a song, The Story of the Scullion King, about Simnel. In the 2017 Starz miniseries The White Princess, Simnel is portrayed by Max True.
The 2017 children's book The Player King, by Avi, offers a fictionalized first-person account of the key period of Simnel's life. Perkin Warbeck Simnel cake, a cake with the same name, but which predated him by some centuries; the term simnel here refers to fine flour, is related to the word semolina. Ashley, Mike. British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3. Pp. 229, 230
Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler was the duke of Saxony from 912 and the elected king of East Francia from 919 until his death in 936. As the first non-Frankish king, he established the Ottonian Dynasty of kings and emperors, he is considered to be the founder and first king of the medieval German state, known until as East Francia. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king, he was born into the Liudolfing line of Saxon dukes. His father Otto I of Saxony was succeeded by Henry; the new duke launched a rebellion against the king of East Francia, Conrad I of Germany, over the rights to lands in the Duchy of Thuringia. They reconciled in 915 and on his deathbed in 918, Conrad recommended Henry as the next king, considering the duke the only one who could hold the kingdom together in the face of internal revolts and external Magyar raids. Henry was elected and crowned king in 919, he went on consolidating his rule.
Through successful warfare and a dynastic marriage, Henry acquired Lotharingia as a vassal in 925. Unlike his Carolingian predecessors, Henry did not seek to create a centralized monarchy, ruling through federated autonomous stem duchies instead. Henry built an extensive system of fortifications and mobile heavy cavalry across Germany to neutralize the Magyar threat and in 933 routed them at the Battle of Riade, ending Magyar attacks for the next 21 years and giving rise to a sense of German nationhood. Henry expanded German hegemony in Europe with his defeat of the Slavs in 929 at the Battle of Lenzen along the Elbe river, by compelling the submission of Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia through an invasion of the Duchy of Bohemia the same year and by conquering Danish realms in Schleswig in 934. Henry's hegemonic status north of the Alps was acknowledged by King Rudolph of West Francia and King Rudolph II of Upper Burgundy, who both accepted a place of subordination as allies in 935. Henry planned an expedition to Rome to be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope, but the design was thwarted by a hunting accident near the royal palace of Bodfeld in the autumn of 935 that mortally injured him.
Henry prevented a collapse of royal power, as had happened in West Francia, left a much stronger kingdom to his successor Otto I. Henry died of a stroke on 2 July 936 in his royal palace in one of his favourite places, he was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey, established by his wife Matilda in his honor. Born in Memleben, in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony, his wife Hedwiga, daughter of Henry of Franconia and Ingeltrude and a great-great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. In 906 he married Hatheburg of daughter of the Saxon count Erwin, she had been a nun. The marriage was annulled in 909 because her vows as a nun were deemed by the church to remain valid, she had given birth to Henry's son Thankmar. The annulment placed a question mark over Thankmar's legitimacy; that year he married Matilda, daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, Count in Westphalia. Matilda bore him three sons, one called Otto, two daughters and Gerberga, founded many religious institutions, including the Quedlinburg Abbey where Henry is buried.
She was canonized. Henry became Duke of Saxony after his father's death in 912. An able ruler, he continued to strengthen the position of his duchy within the weakening kingdom of East Francia, was in conflict with his neighbors to the South in Duchy of Franconia. On 23 December 918 Conrad I, king of East Francia and Franconian duke, died. Although Henry had rebelled against Conrad I between 912 and 915 over the lands in Thuringia, Conrad recommended Henry as his successor. Kingship now changed from Franks to Saxons, who had suffered during the conquests of Charlemagne and were proud of their identity. Henry, as Saxon, was the first non-Frank on the throne. Conrad's choice was conveyed by his brother, duke Eberhard III of Franconia at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in 919; the assembled Franconian and Saxon nobles elected Henry to be king with other regional dukes not participating in election. Archbishop Heriger of Mainz offered to anoint Henry according to the usual ceremony, but he refused - the only king of his time not to undergo that rite - because he wished to be king not by the church's but by the people's acclaim.
Henry, elected to kingship by only Saxons and Franconians at Fritzlar, had to subdue other dukes. Duke Arnulf of Bavaria did not submit until Henry defeated him in two campaigns in 921. Henry forced Arnulf into submission. Arnulf had crowned himself as king of Bavaria in 919, but in 921 renounced crown and submitted to Henry while maintaining large autonomy and the right to mint his own coins. Duke Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new King, but when he died, Henry appointed a noble from Franconia to be the new duke. Henry was too weak to impose absolutist rule, regarded his kingdom as a confederation of stem duchies rather than as a feudal monarchy and saw himself as primus inter pares. Instead of seeking to administer the empire through counts, as Charlemagne had done and as his successors had attempted, Henry allowed the local dukes in Duchy of Franconia, Duchy of Swabia, Duchy of Bavaria to maintain large internal autonomy. In 920 king of West Francia Charles the Simple invaded and marched as far as Pfeddersheim near Worms, but retreated when he learned that Henry was organizing an army.
On 7 November 921, He
Franconia is a region in southern Germany, characterised by its culture and language, may be associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, colloquially referred to as "Franconian", is spoken. Because of this, the region can be associated with the three administrative regions of Lower and Upper Franconia in the state of Bavaria. Part of the cultural region of Franconia are the adjacent Franconian-speaking region of South Thuringia, as well as Heilbronn-Franconia in the state of Baden-Württemberg, small parts of the state of Hesse; the German word Franken refers to the ethnic group of Franconians. They are to be distinguished from the Germanic tribe of the Franks, of whom they are but one descendant; the origins of Franconia as a cultural region begins with the settlement of Franks in the Main river area from the 6th century onwards becoming known as East Francia. In the Middle Ages the region formed much of the eastern part of the Duchy of Franconia and, beginning in 1500, the Franconian Circle.
After the demise of the Holy Roman Empire following the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent German mediatisation, most of Franconia was placed under administration of the emerging Kingdom of Bavaria. The German name for Franconia, comes from the dative plural form of Franke, a member of the Germanic tribe known as the Franks; the name of the Franks in turn derives from a word meaning "daring, bold", cognate with old Norwegian frakkr, "quick, bold". In the 9th century the realm of the Franks was divided; the German region of Franconia corresponds to the region along the river Main, the original territory of the Ripuarian Franks. English distinguishes between Franks and Franconians in reference to the high medieval stem duchy, following Middle Latin use of Francia for France vs. Franconia for the German duchy, while in German the name Franken is used for both, while the French are called Franzosen, after Old French françois, from Latin franciscus, from Late Latin Francus, from Frank, the Germanic tribe.
The Franconian lands lie principally in Bavaria and south of the sinuous River Main which, together with the left Regnitz tributary, including its Rednitz and Pegnitz headstreams, drains most of Franconia. Other large rivers include the upper Werra in Thuringia and the Tauber, as well as the upper Jagst and Kocher streams in the west, both right tributaries of the Neckar. In southern Middle Franconia, the Altmühl flows towards the Danube; the man-made Franconian Lake District has become a popular destination for day-trippers and tourists. The landscape is characterized by numerous Mittelgebirge ranges of the German Central Uplands; the Western natural border of Franconia is formed by the Spessart and Rhön Mountains, separating it from the former Rhenish Franconian lands around Aschaffenburg, whose inhabitants speak Hessian dialects. To the north rise the Rennsteig ridge of the Thuringian Forest, the Thuringian Highland and the Franconian Forest, the border with the Upper Saxon lands of Thuringia.
The Franconian lands include the present-day South Thuringian districts of Schmalkalden-Meiningen and Sonneberg, the historical Gau of Grabfeld, held by the House of Henneberg from the 11th century and part of the Wettin duchy of Saxe-Meiningen. In the east, the Fichtel Mountains lead to Vogtland, Bohemian Egerland in the Czech Republic, the Bavarian Upper Palatinate; the hills of the Franconian Jura in the south mark the border with the Upper Bavarian region, historical Swabia, the Danube basin. The northern parts of the Upper Bavarian Eichstätt District, territory of the historical Bishopric of Eichstätt, are counted as part of Franconia. In the west, Franconia proper comprises the Tauber Franconia region along the Tauber river, which As of 2014 is part of the Main-Tauber-Kreis in Baden-Württemberg; the state's larger Heilbronn-Franken region includes the adjacent Hohenlohe and Schwäbisch Hall districts. In the city of Heilbronn, beyond the Haller Ebene plateau, South Franconian dialects are spoken.
Furthermore, in those easternmost parts of the Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis which had belonged to the Bishopric of Würzburg, the inhabitants have preserved their Franconian identity. Franconian areas in East Hesse along Spessart and Rhön comprise Ehrenberg; the two largest cities of Franconia are Würzburg. Though located on the southeastern periphery of the area, the Nuremberg metropolitan area is identified as the economic and cultural centre of Franconia. Further cities in Bavarian Franconia include Fürth, Bayreuth, Aschaffenburg, Hof, Coburg and Schwabach; the major Franconian towns in Baden-Württemberg are Schwäbisch Hall on the Kocher — the imperial city declared itself "Swabian" in 1442 — and Crailsheim on the Jagst river. The main towns in Thuringia are Meiningen. Franconia may be distinguished from the regions that surround it by its peculiar historical factors and its cultural and linguistic characteristics, but it is not a political entity with a fixed or defined area; as a result, it is debated.
Pointers to a more precise definition of Franconia's boundaries include: the territories covered by the former Duchy of Franconia and former Franconian Circle, the range of the East Franconian dialect group, the common culture and history of the region and the use of the Franconian Rake on coats of arms and seals. However, a sense of popular consciousness of being Fran
Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
Christ Church Cathedral, more formally The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, is the cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and the cathedral of the ecclesiastical province of the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel in the Church of Ireland. It is situated in Dublin, is the elder of the capital city's two medieval cathedrals, the other being St Patrick's Cathedral. Christ Church is claimed as the seat of both the Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin. In law, in fact, it has been the cathedral of only the Church of Ireland's Archbishop of Dublin since the English Reformation. Though nominally claimed as his cathedral, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin uses St Mary's in Marlborough Street in Dublin as his pro-cathedral. Christ Church Cathedral is located in the former heart of medieval Dublin, next to Wood Quay at the end of Lord Edward Street; however a major dual carriage-way building scheme around it separated it from the original medieval street pattern which once surrounded it, with its original architectural context lost due to road-building and the demolition of the older residential quarter at Wood Quay.
As a result, the cathedral now appears dominant in isolation behind new civil offices along the quays, out of its original medieval context. The cathedral is used as the setting for filming from time to time. Christ Church is the only one of the three cathedrals or acting cathedrals which can be seen from the River Liffey; the cathedral was founded sometime after 1028 when King Sitric Silkenbeard, the Hiberno-Norse king of Dublin made a pilgrimage to Rome. The first bishop of this new Dublin diocese was Dúnán or Donat, the diocese was at that time a small island of land surrounded by the much larger Diocese of Glendalough, was for a time answerable to Canterbury rather than to the Irish Church hierarchy; the church was built on the high ground overlooking the Viking settlement at Wood Quay and Sitric gave the "lands of Baldoyle and Portrane for its maintenance." Of the four old Celtic Christian churches reputed to have existed around Dublin, only one, dedicated to St. Martin of Tours, lay within the walls of the Viking city, so Christ Church was one of just two churches for the whole city.
The cathedral was staffed by secular clergy. The second Bishop of Dublin introduced the Benedictines. In 1163, Christ Church was converted to a priory of the Regular Order of Arrosian Canons by the second Archbishop of Dublin saint, Laurence O'Toole, who adhered to the rule himself; this priory, the Priory of the Holy Trinity, became the wealthiest religious house in Ireland, holding over 10,000 acres of property in County Dublin alone, most notable of which were the three home farms held at Grangegorman and Clonken or Clonkene, now known as Deansgrange. Henry II attended the Christmas service at the cathedral in 1171. According to the cathedral guidebook this was the first time Henry received Holy Communion following the murder of Thomas Becket by Henry's knights in Canterbury. In the 1180s, Strongbow and other Norman magnates helped to fund a complete rebuilding of Christ Church a wooden building, in stone, comprising the construction of a choir, choir aisles and transepts, the crypt and chapels to St. Edmund and St. Mary and St. Lô.
A chapel to St Laurence O'Toole was added in the 13th century and much of the extant nave was built in the 1230s. Its design was inspired by the architecture of the English western school of Gothic, its wrought stones- of a Somersetshire oolite- were sculpted and laid by craftsmen from the same area. In 1300 Richard de Ferings, Archbishop of Dublin arranged an agreement between the two cathedrals, the Pacis Compostio, which acknowledged both as cathedrals and made some provision to accommodate their shared status. In the 1350s a major extension was undertaken by John de St Paul, Archbishop of Dublin 1349-62. By 1358, the nave of the cathedral was in use for secular purposes and a "long quire" was added, extending the old choir area by around 10 metres. St Paul installed an organ, his works were destroyed by the major rebuilding project in the 1870s. In 1480 the wealthy judge William Sutton bequeathed all his silver to the Cathedral; the cathedral was the location of the purported coronation, in 1487, of Lambert Simnel, a boy pretender who sought unsuccessfully to depose Henry VII of England, as "King Edward VI".
The choir school was founded in 1493. In 1539, King Henry VIII converted the priory to a cathedral with a dean and chapter and worked to ensure Christ Church adhered to his new church structure, his immediate successor, Edward VI of England, in 1547, provided funds for an increase in cathedral staffing and annual royal funding for the choir school. King Edward VI formally suppressed St Patrick's Cathedral and, on 25 April 1547, its silver and ornaments were transferred to the dean and chapter of Christ Church; this episode ended with a late document of Queen Mary's reign, a deed dated 27 April 1558, comprising a release or receipt by Thomas Leverous and the chapter of St Patrick's, of the "goods, musical instruments, etc." belonging to that cathedral and, in the possession of the dean and chapter of Christ Church. Queen Mary I of England, James I of England increased Christ Church's endowment. Meanwhile, in 1551, divine service was sung for the first time in Ireland in English instead of Latin.
In 1560, the Bib