Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, the second of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 575–535 BC. Roman and Greek sources describe his servile origins and marriage to a daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Rome's first Etruscan king, assassinated in 579 BC. Servius is said to have been the first Roman king to accede without election by the Senate, having gained the throne by popular support. Several traditions describe Servius' father as divine. Livy depicts Servius' mother as a captured Latin princess enslaved by the Romans; the Emperor Claudius discounted such origins and described him as an Etruscan mercenary, named Mastarna, who fought for Caelius Vibenna. Servius was a popular king, one of Rome's most significant benefactors, he had military successes against Veii and the Etruscans, expanded the city to include the Quirinal and Esquiline hills. He is traditionally credited with the institution of the Compitalia festivals, the building of temples to Fortuna and Diana and, less plausibly, the invention of Rome's first true coinage.
Despite the opposition of Rome's patricians, he expanded the Roman franchise and improved the lot and fortune of Rome's lowest classes of citizens and non-citizens. According to Livy, he reigned for 44 years, until murdered by his daughter Tullia and son-in-law Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In consequence of this "tragic crime" and his hubristic arrogance as king, Tarquinius was removed; this cleared the way for the abolition of Rome's monarchy and the founding of the Roman Republic, whose groundwork had been laid by Servius' reforms. Before its establishment as a Republic, Rome was ruled by kings. In Roman tradition, Rome's founder Romulus was the first. Servius Tullius was the sixth, his successor Tarquinius Superbus was the last; the nature of Roman kingship is unclear. Some were native Romans, others were foreign. Romans had a complex ideological relationship with this distant past. In Republican mores and institutions kingship was abhorrent. On the one hand, Romulus was held to have brought Rome into being more-or-less at a stroke, so complete and purely Roman in its essentials that any acceptable change or reform thereafter must be clothed as restoration.
On the other, Romans of the Republic and Empire saw each king as contributing in some distinctive and novel way to the city's fabric and territories, or its social, religious, legal or political institutions. Servius Tullius has been described as Rome's "second founder", "the most complex and enigmatic" of all its kings, a kind of "proto-Republican magistrate"; the oldest surviving source for the overall political developments of the Roman kingdom and Republic is Cicero's De republica, written in 44 BC. The main literary sources for Servius' life and achievements are the Roman historian Livy, whose Ab urbe condita was accepted by the Romans as the standard, most authoritative account. Livy's sources included at least some official state records, he excluded what seemed implausible or contradictory traditions, arranged his material within an overarching chronology. Dionysius and Plutarch offer various alternatives not found in Livy, Livy's own pupil, the etruscologist and emperor Claudius, offered yet another, based on Etruscan tradition.
Most Roman sources name Servius' mother as Ocrisia, a young noblewoman taken at the Roman siege of Corniculum and brought to Rome, either pregnant by her husband, killed at the siege: or as a virgin. She was given to Tanaquil, wife of king Tarquinius, though slave, was treated with the respect due her former status. In one variant, she became wife to a noble client of Tarquinius. In others, she served the domestic rites of the royal hearth as a Vestal Virgin, on one such occasion, having damped the hearth flames with a sacrificial offering, she was penetrated by a disembodied phallus that rose from the hearth. According to Tanaquil, this was a divine manifestation, either of the household Lar or Vulcan himself, thus Servius was divinely fathered and destined for greatness, despite his mother's servile status. Servius' birth to a slave of the royal household made him part of Tarquin's extended familia. Ancient sources infer him as protégé, rather than adopted son, as he married Tarquinius' and Tanaquil's daughter, named by some sources as Gegania.
All sources agree that before his accession, either in his early childhood or members of the royal household witnessed a nimbus of fire about his head while he slept, a sign of divine favour, a great portent. He proved a responsible son-in-law; when given governmental and military responsibilities, he excelled in both. In Livy's account, Tarquinius Priscus had been elected king on the death of the previous king, Ancus Marcius, whose two sons were too young to inherit or offer themselves for election; when Servius' popularity and his marriage to Tarquinius' daughter made him a successor to the throne, these sons attempted to seize the throne for themselves. They hired two assassins, who attacked and wounded Tarquinius. Tanaquil o
The Roman triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or and traditionally, one who had completed a foreign war. On the day of his triumph, the general wore a crown of laurel and the all-purple, gold-embroidered triumphal toga picta, regalia that identified him as near-divine or near-kingly, was known to paint his face red, he rode in a four-horse chariot through the streets of Rome in unarmed procession with his army and the spoils of his war. At Jupiter's temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice and the tokens of his victory to the god Jupiter. Republican morality required that, despite these extraordinary honours, the general conduct himself with dignified humility, as a mortal citizen who triumphed on behalf of Rome's Senate and gods; the triumph offered extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity, besides its religious and military dimensions.
Most Roman festivals were calendar fixtures, while the tradition and law which reserved a triumph to extraordinary victory ensured that its celebration, attendant feasting, public games promoted the general's status and achievement. By the Late Republican era, triumphs were drawn out and extravagant, motivated by increasing competition among the military-political adventurers who ran Rome's nascent empire, in some cases prolonged by several days of public games and entertainments. From the Principate onwards, the triumph reflected the Imperial order and the pre-eminence of the Imperial family; the triumph was consciously imitated by medieval and states in the royal entry and other ceremonial events. In Republican Rome exceptional military achievement merited the highest possible honours, which connected the vir triumphalis to Rome's mythical and semi-mythical past. In effect, the general was close to being "king for a day", close to divinity, he wore the regalia traditionally associated both with the ancient Roman monarchy and with the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus: the purple and gold "toga picta", laurel crown, red boots and, again the red-painted face of Rome's supreme deity.
He was drawn in procession through the city in a four-horse chariot, under the gaze of his peers and an applauding crowd, to the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The spoils and captives of his victory led the way. Once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiter's feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate and gods. Triumphs were tied to season, or religious festival of the Roman calendar. Most seem to have been celebrated at the earliest practicable opportunity on days that were deemed auspicious for the occasion. Tradition required; the ceremony was thus, in some sense, shared by the whole community of Roman gods, but overlaps were inevitable with specific festivals and anniversaries. Some may have been coincidental. For example, March 1, the festival and dies natalis of the war god Mars, was the traditional anniversary of the first triumph by Publicola, of six other Republican triumphs, of the first Roman triumph by Romulus.
Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis. Religious dimensions aside, the focus of the triumph was the general himself; the ceremony promoted him – however temporarily – above every mortal Roman. This was an opportunity granted to few. From the time of Scipio Africanus, the triumphal general was linked to Alexander and the demi-god Hercules, who had laboured selflessly for the benefit of all mankind, his sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy and malice of onlookers. In some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality. Rome's earliest "triumphs" were simple victory parades, celebrating the return of a victorious general and his army to the city, along with the fruits of his victory, ending with some form of dedication to the gods; this is so for the earliest legendary and semi-legendary triumphs of Rome's regal era, when the king functioned as Rome's highest magistrate and war-leader.
As Rome's population, power and territory increased, so did the scale, length and extravagance of its triumphal processions. The procession mustered in the open space of the Campus Martius well before first light. From there, all unforeseen delays and accidents aside, it would have managed a slow walking pace at best, punctuated by various planned stops en route to its final destination of the Capitoline temple, a distance of just under 4 km. Triumphal processions were notoriously slow; some ancient and modern sources suggest a standard processional order. First came the captive leaders and soldiers walking in chains, their captured weapons, gold, silver and curious or exotic treasures were carted behind them, along with paintings and models depicting significant places and episodes of the war. Next in line, all on foot, came Rome's senators and magistrate
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system. In early Germanic law, the death penalty is conspicuously absent, outlawing is the most extreme punishment amounting to a death sentence in practice; the concept is known from Roman law, as the status of homo sacer, persisted throughout the Middle Ages. In the common law of England, a "Writ of Outlawry" made the pronouncement Caput lupinum with respect to its subject, using "head" to refer to the entire person and equating that person with a wolf in the eyes of the law: not only was the subject deprived of all legal rights of the law being outside the "law", but others could kill him on sight as if he were a wolf or other wild animal. Women were declared "waived" rather than outlawed but it was the same punishment.
Among other forms of exile, Roman law included the penalty of interdicere aquae et ignis. People so penalized were required to forfeit their property. If they returned, they were outlaws. Interdicere aquae et ignis was traditionally imposed by the tribune of the plebs, is attested to have been in use during the First Punic War of the third century BC by Cato the Elder, it was also applied by many other officials, such as the Senate and Julius Caesar as a general and provincial governor during the Gallic Wars. It fell out of use during the early Empire. See: Homo sacer. In English common law, an outlaw was a person who had defied the laws of the realm, by such acts as ignoring a summons to court, or fleeing instead of appearing to plead when charged with a crime; the term outlawry referred to the formal procedure of declaring someone an outlaw, i.e. putting him outside the sphere of legal protection. In the common law of England, a judgment of outlawry was one of the harshest penalties in the legal system, since the outlaw could not use the legal system for protection, e.g. from mob justice.
To be declared an outlaw was to suffer a form of civil or social death. The outlaw was debarred from all civilized society. No one was allowed to give him food, shelter, or any other sort of support – to do so was to commit the crime of aiding and abetting, to be in danger of the ban oneself. A more recent concept of "wanted dead or alive" is similar, but implies that a trial is desired, whereas outlawry precludes a trial. An outlaw might be killed with impunity. A man who slew a thief was expected to declare the fact without delay, otherwise the dead man's kindred might clear his name by their oath and require the slayer to pay weregild as for a true man. By the rules of common law, a criminal outlaw did not need to be guilty of the crime for which he was an outlaw. If a man was accused of a treason or felony but failed to appear in court to defend himself, he was deemed to be convicted of the said offence. If he was accused of a misdemeanour he was guilty of a serious contempt of court, itself a capital crime.
In the context of criminal law, outlawry faded out, not so much by legal changes as by the greater population density of the country, which made it harder for wanted fugitives to evade capture. It was obsolete by the time the offence was abolished in 1938. Outlawry was, however, a living practice as of 1855: in 1841, a William John Bankes a MP on several times 1810...1835, was outlawed by due process of law for absenting himself from trial for indecent exposure, died in 1855 in Venice as an outlaw. There was a doctrine of civil outlawry. Civil outlawry did not carry the sentence of capital punishment, it was however imposed on defendants who fled or evaded justice when sued for civil actions like debts or torts. The punishments for civil outlawry were harsh, including confiscation of chattels left behind by the outlaw. In the civil context, outlawry became obsolescent in civil procedure by reforms that no longer required summoned defendants to appear and plead. Still, the possibility of being declared an outlaw for derelictions of civil duty continued to exist in English law until 1879 and, in Scots law until the late 1940s.
Since failure to find the defendant and serve process is interpreted in favour of the plaintiff, harsh penalties for mere nonappearance no longer apply. Outlawry existed in other ancient legal codes, such as the ancient Norse and Icelandic legal code. In early modern times, the term Vogelfrei and its cognates came to be used in Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia, referring to a person stripped of his civil rights being "free" for the taking like a bird. In Germany and Slavic countries in 15th–19th centuries groups of outlaws composed from former prisoners, soldiers etc. became an important social phenomenon. They lived from robbery and their activity was supported by local inhabitants from lower classes; the best known are Juraj Jánošík and Jakub Surovec in Slovakia, Oleksa Dovbush in Ukraine, Rózsa Sándor in Hungary and Hans Kohlhase in Germany etc. The concept of outlawry was rein
Alfonso VI of León and Castile
Alfonso VI, nicknamed the Brave or the Valiant, was king of León and of Galicia, king of the reunited Castile and León. After the conquest of Toledo in 1085, Alfonso proclaimed himself victoriosissimo rege in Toleto, et in Hispania et Gallecia The Battle of Sagrajas and the Battle of Uclés, in which his only son and heir, Sancho Alfónsez died, constituted defeats for the Leonese and Castilian armies; the son of Ferdinand I, King of León and Count of Castile and his wife, Queen Sancha, Alfonso was a "Leonese infante with Navarrese and Castilian blood". His paternal grandparents were Sancho Garcés III, king of Pamplona and his wife Muniadona of Castile, his maternal grandparents were Alfonso V of León and his first wife Elvira Menéndez; the year of Alfonso's birth is not recorded in the medieval documentation. According to one of the authors of the Anonymous Chronicle of Sahagún, who met the monarch and was present at his death, he died at age 62 after reigning 44 years; this indicates that he was born in the second half of 1047 or in the first half of 1048.
Pelagius of Oviedo wrote that Alfonso was 79 when he died, but that would place his birth around 1030, before his parents' marriage. According to the Historia silense, the eldest child of Ferdinand I and Sancha, a daughter called Urraca, was born when her parents were still Count and Countess of Castile, so her birth could be placed in 1033–34; the second child and eldest son, must have been born in the second half of 1038 or in 1039. The third child and second daughter, may have been born in 1039–40, followed by Alfonso in 1040–41, the youngest of the siblings, García, sometime between 1041 and 24 April 1043, the date on which King Ferdinand I, in a donation to the Abbey of San Andrés de Espinareda, mentions his five children. All of them except Elvira signed a document in the monastery of San Juan Bautista de Corias on 26 April 1046. All the children of King Ferdinand I, according to the Historia silense, were educated in the liberal arts, the sons were trained in arms, the "art of running horses in the Spanish usage", hunting.
The cleric Raimundo was in charge of Alfonso's early education. Once king, Alfonso appointed him Bishop of Palencia and referred to him as magistro nostro, viro nobile et Deum timenti. Alfonso spent long periods in Tierra de Campos, along with Pedro Ansúrez, the son of Ansur Díaz and nephew of Count Gómez Díaz de Saldaña, he learned the art of war and what was expected of a knight; as the second son of the king of León and Count of Castile, Alfonso would not have been entitled to inherit the throne. At the end of 1063 on 22 December, taking advantage of the fact that numerous magnates had gathered in León, capital of the kingdom, for the consecration of the Basílica of San Isidoro, Ferdinand I summoned a Curia Regia to make known his testamentary dispositions, under which he decided to distribute his patrimony among his children, a distribution that would not become effective until the death of the monarch in order to prevent any disputes arising after his death: Alfonso inherited the Kingdom of León, "the most extensive and emblematic part: the one that contained the cities of Oviedo and León, cradles of the Asturian-Leonese monarchy", which included Asturias, León, Astorga, El Bierzo, Zamora with Tierra de Campos as well as the parias of the Taifa of Toledo.
His elder brother, was given the Kingdom of Castile, created by his father for him, the parias of the Taifa of Zaragoza. His younger brother, García, received the entire region of Galicia, "elevated to the rank of kingdom" that extended south to the Mondego River in Portugal with the parias of the Taifa of Badajoz and Seville, their sisters and Elvira, both received the Infantazgo, that is, "the patronage and income of all the monasteries belonging to the royal patrimony" on the condition that they remained unmarried. The historian Alfonso Sánchez Candeira suggests that, although the reasons that led King Ferdinand I to divide the kingdom are unknown the distribution was made because the king considered it proper that each son should inherit the region where he had been educated and spent his early years. After his coronation in the city of León in January 1066, Alfonso VI had to confront the expansionist desires of his brother Sancho II, who, as the eldest son, considered himself the sole legitimate heir of all the kingdoms of their father.
The conflicts began after the death of their mother Queen Sancha on 7 November 1067, leading to seven years of war between the three brothers. The first skirmish was the Battle of Llantada, a trial by ordeal in which both brothers agreed that the one, victorious would obtain the kingdom of the defeated brother. Although Sancho II was the winner, Alfonso VI did not comply with the agreement; this was the same event where both decided to join forces to divide between themselves the Kingdom of Galicia, assigned to their younger brother García II. With the complicity of Alfonso VI, Sancho II invaded Galicia in 1071, defeating their brother García II, arrested in Santarém and imprisoned in Burgos until he was exiled to the Taifa of Seville under the rule of Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad. After eliminating their broth
Order of Christ (Portugal)
The Military Order of Christ the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ, is the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church. Swayed by Philip IV of France, Pope Clement had the Knights Templar annihilated throughout France and most of Europe on charges of heresy, but Denis revived the Templars of Tomar as the Order of Christ for their aid during the Reconquista and in the reconstruction of Portugal after the wars. Denis negotiated with Clement's successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets and property. There exists a parallel Supreme Order of Christ of the Holy See.
The order's origins lie in the Knights Templar, founded circa 1118. The Templars were persecuted by the king of France and disbanded by the pope in 1312. King Dinis I of Portugal created the Order of Christ in 1317 for those knights who survived their mass slaughter throughout Europe. In Portugal, the Order of Christ accumulated great riches and power during the Age of Discoveries. In 1789, Queen Maria I of Portugal secularized the order. In 1910, with the end of the Portuguese monarchy, the order was extinguished. However, in 1917, the order was revived, with its Grand Master; the Military Order of Christ, together with the Military Orders of Aviz and of St. James of the Sword, formed the group of the "Ancient Military Orders", governed by a chancellor and a council of eight members, appointed by the President of the Republic to assist him as Grand Master in all the order's administrative matters; the Order can be conferred for outstanding services to the Republic on military officers, despite its name, on civilians and on members of: Parliament or other branches of government, the diplomatic corps, the Courts of Justice, the Civil Service, other public authorities.
The Order of Christ, as awarded by the Portuguese government today, comes in five classes: Grand Cross, which wears the badge of the Order on a sash on the right shoulder, the star of the Order in gold on the left chest. The badge of the Order is a gilt cross with enamel, similar to the Order's emblem illustrated here, but with a longer lower arm. During the monarchy there were separate badges for civil and military knights: civil knights wore a badge similar to the modern version, but with the Sacred Heart of Christ above it; the star of the Order has 22 asymmetrical arms of rays, in gilt for Grand Cross and Grand Officer, in silver for Commander. The central disc is with a miniature of the modern badge in it. During the monarchy the Sacred Heart of Christ was placed at the top of the star; the ribbon of the Order is plain red. Henry the Navigator Manuel I Infante Ferdinand Sebastian of Portugal Vasco da Gama Pedro Álvares Cabral João Gonçalves Zarco Gonçalo Velho Cabral Bartolomeu Dias D. Beatrice Francisco de Almeida Miguel Corte-Real Gaspar Corte-Real Tristão da Cunha Martim Afonso de Sousa João de Castro Cristóvão da Gama Tomé de Sousa Fernão de Magalhães known as Ferdinand Magellan Vicente Sodré Damião de Góis Pedro Teixeira Alexandre de Gusmão Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira Henrique Dias António Filipe Camarão Jácome Ratton Albert Coyette Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean-Baptiste Bessières Castro Marim Convento de Cristo Belém Tower Castle of Almourol Castle of Monsanto Castle of Castelo Branco Sagres Brazilian Football Confederation Clube de Futebol Os Belenenses Futebol Clube Cesarense Madeira National Corps of Scouts - Portuguese Catholic Scouting Olympic Committee of Portugal Portuguese Air Force Portuguese Athletic Federation Portuguese Football Federation Portuguese Navy Portuguese Roller Sports Federation Principality of Pontinha Flag of the city of São Paulo Honorific orders of Portugal Order of Christ History of the Order of Christ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. GUIMARÃES, J. Vieira, A Ordem de Cristo, Lisboa, I. N. 1936 OLIVAL, The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion, Portuguese Studies Review Monographs, Vol. 3, Peterborough: Baywolf Press and The Portuguese Studies Review, 2018
Prince Henry the Navigator
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu, better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discovery. Henry was the fourth child of the Portuguese king John I. Henry was responsible for the early development of Portuguese exploration and maritime trade with other continents through the systematic exploration of Western Africa, the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, the search for new routes, he encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta, the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian Peninsula. He learned of the opportunities offered by the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, became fascinated with Africa in general, he is regarded as the patron of Portuguese exploration. Henry was the third surviving son of King John I and his wife Philippa, sister of King Henry IV of England.
He was baptized in Porto, may have been born there when the royal couple was living in the city's old mint, now called Casa do Infante, or in the region nearby. Another possibility is that he was born at the Monastery of Leça do Bailio, in Leça de Palmeira, during the same period of the royal couple's residence in the city of Porto. Henry was 21 when he and his father and brothers captured the Moorish port of Ceuta in northern Morocco. Ceuta had long been a base for Barbary pirates who raided the Portuguese coast, depopulating villages by capturing their inhabitants to be sold in the African slave trade. Following this success, Henry began to explore the coast of Africa, most of, unknown to Europeans, his objectives included finding the source of the West African gold trade and the legendary Christian kingdom of Prester John, stopping the pirate attacks on the Portuguese coast. At that time, the ships of the Mediterranean were too heavy to make these voyages. Under his direction, a new and much lighter ship was developed, the caravel, which could sail further and faster, above all, was maneuverable and could sail much nearer the wind, or "into the wind".
This made the caravel independent of the prevailing winds. With the caravel, Portuguese mariners explored rivers and shallow waters as well as the open ocean with wide autonomy. In fact, the invention of the caravel was what made Portugal poised to take the lead in transoceanic exploration. In 1419, Henry's father appointed him governor of the province of the Algarve. On 25 May 1420, Henry gained appointment as the Grand Master of the Military Order of Christ, the Portuguese successor to the Knights Templar, which had its headquarters at Tomar, in central Portugal. Henry held this position for the remainder of his life, the Order was an important source of funds for Henry's ambitious plans his persistent attempts to conquer the Canary Islands, which the Portuguese had claimed to have discovered before the year 1346. In 1425, his second brother the Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, made a tour of Europe. While a diplomatic mission, among his goals was to seek out geographic material for his brother Henry.
Peter returned from Venice with a current world map drafted by a Venetian cartographer. In 1431, he donated houses for the Estudo Geral to reunite all the sciences—grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic and astronomy—into what would become the University of Lisbon. For other subjects like medicine or philosophy, he ordered that each room should be decorated according to each subject, being taught. Henry had other resources; when John I died in 1433, Henry's eldest brother Edward of Portugal became king. He granted Henry all profits from trading within the areas he discovered as well as the sole right to authorize expeditions beyond Cape Bojador. Henry held a monopoly on tuna fishing in the Algarve; when Edward died eight years Henry supported his brother Peter, Duke of Coimbra for the regency during the minority of Edward's son Afonso V, in return received a confirmation of this levy. Henry functioned as a primary organizer of the disastrous expedition to Tangier in 1437. Henry's younger brother Ferdinand was given as a hostage to guarantee that the Portuguese would fulfill the terms of the peace agreement, made with Çala Ben Çala.
The Portuguese Cortes refused to approve the return of Ceuta in exchange for the Infante Ferdinand who remained in captivity until his death six years later. Prince Regent Peter had an important role and responsibility in the Portuguese maritime expansion in the Atlantic Ocean and Africa during his administration. Henry promoted the colonization of the Azores during Peter's regency. For most of the latter part of his life, Henry concentrated on his maritime activities, or on Portuguese court politics. According to João de Barros, in the Algarve he repopulated a village; this village was situated in a strategic position for his maritime enterprises and was called Vila do Infante. It is traditionally suggested that Henry gathered at his villa on the Sagres peninsula a school of navigators and map-makers; however modern historians hold this to be a misconception. He did employ some cartographers to chart the coast of Mauritania after the voyages he sent there, but there was no center of navigation science or observatory in the modern sense of the word, nor was th