Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled, his disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is known as "the father of the Royal Navy". Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering into England the theory of the divine right of kings. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, he expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were used to quell dissent, those accused were executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder.
He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in Henry's administration, he was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert into royal revenue the money, paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly and unsuccessful continental wars with King Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. At home, he oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 he was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland, his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king.
He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". He was an composer; as he aged, Henry became obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is characterised in his life as a lustful, egotistical and insecure king, he was succeeded by the issue of his third marriage to Jane Seymour. Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henry's six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales, he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, he was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so made Warden of the Scottish Marches.
In May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. The reason for all the appointments to a small child was so his father could keep personal control of lucrative positions and not share them with established families. Henry was given a first-rate education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French, learning at least some Italian. Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king. In November 1501, Henry played a considerable part in the ceremonies surrounding his brother's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the youngest surviving child of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile; as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. He was further honoured, on 9 February 1506, by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I who made him a Knight of the Golden Fleece. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, just 20 weeks after his marriage to Catherine.
Arthur's death thrust all his duties upon the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, the new Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in February 1503. Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was supervised and did not appear in public; as a result, he ascended the throne "untrained in the exacting art of kingship". Henry VII renewed his efforts to seal a marital alliance between England and Spain, by offering his second son in marriage to Arthur's widow Catherine. Both Isabella and Henry VII were keen on the idea, which had arisen shortly after Arthur's death. On 23 June 1503, a treaty was signed for their marriage, they were betrothed two days later. A papal dispensation was only needed for the "impediment of public honesty" if the marriage had not been consummated as Catherine and her duenna claimed, but Henry VII and the Spanish ambassador set out instead to obtain a dispensation for "affinity", which took account of the possibility of consummation.
Cohabitation was not possible. Isabella's death in 1504, the ensuing problems of succession in Castile, complicated matters, her father preferred her to stay in England, but Henry VII's relations with Ferdinand had deteriorated. Catherine was therefore left in limbo for some time, culminating in Prince Henry's rejection of the marriage as soon he was able, at the age of 14. Ferdinand's solution was to make his daugh
Cyaxares was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces. He was the first to divide his troops into separate sections of spearmen and horsemen. By uniting most of the Iranian tribes of ancient Iran and conquering neighbouring territories, Cyaxares transformed the Median Empire into a regional power, he facilitated the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, according to Herodotus repelled the Scythians from Media. Cyaxares was born in the Median capital of Ecbatana, his father Phraortes was killed in a battle against the Assyrians, led by Ashurbanipal, the king of Assyria. After Phraortes' demise, the Scythians overran Media. Cyaxares, seeking revenge, proclaimed himself King of Medes. After throwing off the Scythians, he prepared for war against Assyria. Cyaxares reorganized the Median army allied himself with King Nabopolassar of Babylonia, a mutual enemy of Assyria; this alliance was formalized through the marriage of Cyaxares' daughter, Amytis, to Nabopolassar's son, Nebuchadnezzar II.
These allies overthrew the Assyrian Empire and destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC. After the victory in Assyria, the Medes conquered Northern Mesopotamia and the parts of Asia Minor east of the Halys River, the border established with Lydia after a decisive battle between Lydia and Media, the Battle of Halys ended with an eclipse on May 28, 585 BC; the conflict between Lydia and the Medes was reported by Herodotus as follows: "A horde of the nomad Scythians at feud with the rest withdrew and sought refuge in the land of the Medes: and at this time the ruler of the Medes was Cyaxares the son of Phraortes, the son of Deïokes, who at first dealt well with these Scythians, being suppliants for his protection. Time went by, the Scythians used to go out continually to the chase and always brought back something, and they, when they had received this treatment from Cyaxares, considering that they had suffered indignity, planned to kill and to cut up one of the boys who were being instructed among them, having dressed his flesh as they had been wont to dress the wild animals, to bear it to Cyaxares and give it to him, pretending that it was game taken in hunting.
This was done. After this, since Alyattes would not give up the Scythians when Cyaxares demanded them, there had arisen war between the Lydians and the Medes lasting five years, and this change of the day Thales the Milesian had foretold to the Ionians laying down as a limit this year in which the change took place. The Lydians however and the Medes, when they saw that it had become night instead of day, ceased from their fighting and were much more eager both of them that peace should be made between them, and they who brought about the peace between them were Syennesis the Kilikian and Labynetos the Babylonian: these were they who urged the taking of the oath by them, they brought about an interchange of marriages. Cyaxares died shortly after the battle and was succeeded by his son, the maternal grandfather of Cyrus the Great through his daughter Mandane of Media. Qyzqapan is a tomb located in the Iraqi mountains in Sulaymaniyah; the Russian historian Igor Diakonov believes that it is a royal tomb and that if it is royal it is the tomb of Cyaxares.
In accounts of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, this was remembered as Nebuchadrezzar's present for his wife Amytis Cyaxares's daughter, to help with her homesickness for the mountainous country of her birth. After Darius I seized the Iranshahr, rebellions erupted claiming Uvaxštra's legacy. After these were defeated, the shah noted two in the Behistun Inscription: "Another was Phraortes, the Mede, he made Media to revolt. Another was the Sagartian, he made Sagartia to revolt." History of Iran Iranian Peoples Cyaxares II Medes Eclipse of Thales Diakonoff, I. M.. "CYAXARES". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 5. Pp. 478–479. Livius.org: Cyaxares
Dou Jiande was a leader of the agrarian rebels who rose against the rule of Emperor Yang of Sui near the end of the Chinese Sui dynasty. Considered the kindest and most able of the agrarian rebel leaders of the time, he was able to capture the modern Hebei region and declare himself the Prince of Changle, the Prince of Xia. In 621, when the Tang dynasty general Li Shimin attacked Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, who ruled the modern Henan region, Dou believed that if Tang were able to destroy Zheng, his own Xia state would suffer the same fate, therefore went to Wang's aid, against the advice of his strategist Ling Jing and his wife Empress Cao. Li defeated him at the Battle of Hulao. Li's father Emperor Gaozu of Tang subsequently put Dou to death. Xia territory was seized by Tang, but soon Dou's general Liu Heita rose against Tang rule, recapturing Dou's territory, held out against Tang until 623. Dou Jiande was born in 573, when his birth area Zhangnan County was under the rule of Northern Qi, although subsequently it came under the rule of Northern Zhou and Sui dynasty.
It was said that in his youth, his honesty and willingness to help others made him well known in his home territory. In particular, when a man from his county lost his parents but was too poor to give his parents a proper burial, Dou was tilling in the fields, but he dropped his tilling and went to help the man bury his parents, after this incident he became praised among the people. For a while, he served as the leader of the neighborhood, but after he was accused of crimes, he fled, returning home only after a general pardon; when his father died, more than a thousand people attended the funeral, Dou refused all gifts given him for the funeral. In 611, when Emperor Yang of Sui was conscripting men for his campaign against Goguryeo, Dou was conscripted and selected to be the commander of 200 men. During those times, there were floods afflicting the region east of the Taihang Mountains. One of the men from Dou's home county, Sun Anzu, whose house had been destroyed in the flood and whose wife had starved to death, was conscripted.
Sun tried to obtain an exemption from conscription, but the county magistrate, in anger, whipped him. Sun fled to Dou's home, where Dou hid him; as the region was afflicted with a famine in the aftermaths of the floods, Dou told Sun: During the reign of Emperor Wen, the empire was prosperous and wealthy, he collected a million men to attack Goguryeo but was defeated. Now we are facing floods and poverty, people were not returning from repeated conscriptions and not recovering; the emperor does not care about these things, but instead leads the army against Goguryeo. The empire will be in great disturbance soon. A man who escapes death should do great things. How can you stay here and be a fleeing felon? He therefore gathered several hundred men of the region and gave them to Sun to lead, to become bandits at the nearby Gaoji Pond. Meanwhile, there were other bands of bandits in the same commandery, led by Zhang Jincheng and Gao Shida; the bandits were not pillaging his home. The county magistrates of Dou's and nearby counties thus suspected Dou of conspiring with the bandits, once, when Dou happened to be away from home, they ambushed Dou's house and slaughtered his family.
Dou fled to Gao, who claimed the title Duke of Donghai and made Dou a general. Soon, Zhang killed Sun, Sun's men fled to Dou. Dou become the commander of an army of more than 10,000 men, it was said at this time that Dou was open to other opinions, he shared both the spoils and the labors with his soldiers, therefore his soldiers were willing to fight and die for him. In 616, Guo Xuan the governor of Zhuo Commandery led a Sui army against Gao. Gao realized that he was not as capable as Dou, so he promoted Dou to the leader of his army. Dou asked Gao to safeguard their homebase, led 7,000 men against Guo, pretending to be betraying Gao and surrendering having Gao publicly execute a woman that Gao claimed to be Dou's wife. Guo, not suspecting Dou, proceeded at once planning to attack Gao together. Dou killed him, seizing his army and horses. Thereafter, Dou became more famous; that year, one of the most capable Sui generals, Yang Yichen, defeated Zhang and slaughtered his troops. The survivors fled to Dou. Yang followed up by attacking Gao.
Dou, advising Gao not to engage Yang directly, stated: Among Sui generals, none is more capable than Yang Yichen. He had just defeated Zhang Jincheng and is now attacking us, he is difficult to resist right now. Please avoid him and let him wait and be unable to engage us. Once his soldiers are tired, we will achieve a great victory. If you fight him now, I am afraid that you, will not be able to defeat him. Gao disagreed, leaving Dou in charge of the base, engaged Yang. Gao achieved initial success against Yang, became arrogant, feasting on the battlefield; when Dou heard this, he, in surprise, stated, "The Duke of Donghai has not yet defeated the enemy but has become arrogant. A disaster will happen soon. After the Sui victory, they will attack here as well, I am afraid we will not be spared." Several days Yang defeated Gao and killed him on the battlefield. He attacked Dou, whose army collapsed. Dou fled, Yang, not believing that he woul
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f
Transition from Sui to Tang
The transition from Sui to Tang refers to the transition period between the end of the Sui dynasty and the start of the Tang dynasty, when the former dynasty's territories were carved into a handful of short-lived states by its officials and agrarian rebel leaders, the process of elimination and annexation that followed which culminated in the consolidation of the Tang dynasty by the former Sui general Li Yuan. The transition started around the year of 613 when Emperor Yang of Sui launched his first of three failed campaigns against Goguryeo, leading to a number of desertions in the army and the start of agrarian revolt against the Sui, ended in 628, when Emperor Gaozu's son Li Shimin annexed the agrarian rebel ruler Liang Shidu's state of Liang, thereby once again unifying most of China under a single power; as of 611, Sui Dynasty had just enjoyed more than two decades of peace and prosperity, as China had been united under it since it destroyed Chen Dynasty in 589, aside from border conflicts with Eastern Tujue and Goguryeo, one brief internal conflict between Emperor Yang of Sui, who became emperor in 604, his brother Yang Liang the Prince of Han, the realm had not seen war.
When Goguryeo's king Yeong-yang refused to pay homage to Emperor Yang in 610, Emperor Yang decided to plan a campaign to conquer it, both he and the people believed that the conquest would be easy. The logistics of staging the attack on Goguryeo, took much human and other tolls, as the building of a fleet and more so, the shipping of food and other supplies to the base of operations, Zhuo Commandery, caused major disruptions in the farming cycle and major deaths in those conscripted to ship the supplies to Zhuo Commandery. In response, in 611, in northern China, those who were unwilling to be conscripted began to rise as agrarian rebels, led by leaders such as Wang Bo and Liu Badao, while Emperor Yang did not consider these rebels serious threats, the local governmental militias were unable to quell them. Despite this, Emperor Yang launched his first campaign against Goguryeo in 612, crossing the Liao River into Goguryeo territory in spring 612. Emperor Yang led part of the army to put the important city Liaodong under siege, while he sent the generals Yuwen Shu and Yu Zhongwen to lead the rest of the army deep into Goguryeo territory, heading toward the Goguryeo capital Pyongyang, joined by the fleet commanded by the general Lai Hu'er.
Emperor Yang, was never able to capture Liaodong, while Yuwen and Yu, advancing nearly to Pyongyang, were crushed by the Goguryeo general Eulji Mundeok at the Battle of Salsu and forced to withdraw with heavy losses. By fall 612, Emperor Yang was forced to terminate the campaign and withdraw as well, with only minor territorial gains. About 300,000 men had been lost in the campaign. Not deterred, Emperor Yang launched a second campaign against Goguryeo in 613 though the agrarian rebellions were becoming more numerous and serious, he again headed for Liaodong himself and put it under siege, while sending Yuwen and Yang Yichen toward Pyongyang. While he was sieging Liaodong, the general Yang Xuangan, in charge of logistics near the Sui eastern capital Luoyang, rose in rebellion, attacking Luoyang; when Emperor Yang heard the news, he withdrew his forces and sent Yuwen and Qutu Tong back to Luoyang ahead of himself, Yuwen and Qutu joined with Fan Zigai and Wei Wensheng, the commanders of forces that Emperor Yang had left at Luoyang and Chang'an to defeat Yang Xuangan.
Emperor Yang carried out heavy-handed reprisals against actual or perceived adherents of Yang Xuangan, but such actions did not deter further rebellions. Despite this, Emperor Yang launched a third campaign against Goguryeo in 614; as Lai reached the Yalu River, Goguryeo submitted, sending Yang Xuangan's confederate Husi Zheng, who had fled to Goguryeo, back to Sui as a sign of submission. Emperor Yang terminated the campaign, but when he again summoned Gao Yuan to pay homage to him, Gao Yuan ignored his summons. Emperor Yang began to plan a fourth campaign, however, he was never able to launch. Meanwhile, in the fall of 615, while Emperor Yang and Empress Xiao were conducting a tour of the northern frontier, Qimin Khan's son and successor Shibi Khan launched a surprise attack against Yanmen Commandery as a reprisal for the emperor's proposal to give a princess to his brother and for the treacherous murder of one of his close advisors; the khan's wife Princess Yicheng, a relative of the emperor, honored by the empress during an earlier visit, sent them a secret warning about the Turkish attack.
The imperial entourage fled to the fortified commandery seat at present-day Daixian, where Shibi Khan's forces besieged them on September 11. Yu Shiji advised the emperor to raise morale among the soldiers by promising promotion and rewards, as well as promising to abandon the unpopular campaigns against Goguryeo. Meanwhile, the empress's brother Xiao Yu had gotten the emperor to seek further assistance from Princess Yicheng, administering military affairs at home in her husband's absence, she sent a false report to the khan. With credit for his salvation muddled, Emperor Yang followed the advice of Su Wei and Yuwen Shu and reneged on most of his promises, causing gr
Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII. Henry's marriage to her, her execution by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval, the start of the English Reformation. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, was educated in the Netherlands and France as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry 9th Earl of Ormond. Early in 1523 Anne was secretly betrothed to Henry Percy, son of the 5th Earl of Northumberland, but the betrothal was broken off when Percy's father refused to support their engagement. Cardinal Wolsey refused the match in January 1524 and Anne was sent back home to Hever Castle. In February or March 1526, Henry VIII began his pursuit of Anne, she resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, which her sister Mary had been. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he would be free to marry Anne.
When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage, the breaking of the Catholic Church's power in England began. In 1532, Henry granted Anne the Marquessate of Pembroke. Henry and Anne formally married on 25 January 1533, after a secret wedding on 14 November 1532. On 23 May 1533, newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and Catherine's marriage null and void. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against Cranmer; as a result of this marriage and these excommunications, the first break between the Church of England and Rome took place and the Church of England was brought under the King's control. Anne was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September, she gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I. Henry was disappointed to have a daughter rather than a son but hoped a son would follow and professed to love Elizabeth. Anne subsequently had three miscarriages, by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour.
In order to marry Jane Seymour, Henry had to find reasons to end the marriage to Anne. Henry VIII had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. On 2 May she was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, where she was tried before a jury of peers – which included Henry Percy, her former betrothed, her own uncle, Thomas Howard – and found guilty on 15 May, she was beheaded four days later. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included adultery and plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing; some say that Anne was accused of witchcraft but the indictments make no mention of this charge. After the coronation of her daughter, Anne was venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation through the works of John Foxe. Over the centuries, she has inspired, or been mentioned, in many artistic and cultural works and thereby retained her hold on the popular imagination, she has been called "the most influential and important queen consort England has had", as she provided the occasion for Henry VIII to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and declare the English church's independence from Rome.
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Thomas Boleyn was a well respected diplomat with a gift for languages. Anne and her siblings grew up at Hever Castle in Kent. However, the siblings were born in Norfolk at the Boleyn home at Blickling. A lack of parish records from the period has made it impossible to establish Anne's date of birth. Contemporary evidence is contradictory, with several dates having been put forward by various historians. An Italian, writing in 1600, suggested that she had been born in 1499, while Sir Thomas More's son-in-law, William Roper, indicated a much date of 1512, her birth was most sometime between 1501 and 1507. As with Anne herself, it is uncertain when her two siblings were born, but it seems clear that her sister Mary was older than Anne. Mary's children believed their mother had been the elder sister. Most historians now agree that Mary was born in 1499.
Mary's grandson claimed the Ormonde title in 1596 on the basis she was the elder daughter, which Elizabeth I accepted. Their brother George was born around 1504; the academic debate about Anne's birth date focuses on two key dates: 1501 and 1507. Eric Ives, a British historian and legal expert, advocates the 1501 date, while Retha Warnicke, an American scholar who has written a biography of Anne, prefers 1507; the key piece of surviving written evidence is a letter Anne wrote sometime in 1514. She wrote it in French to her father, still living in England while Anne was completing her education at Mechelen, in the Burgundian Netherlands, now Belgium. Ives argues that the style of the letter and its mature handwriting prove that Anne must have been about thirteen at the time of its composition, while Warnicke argues that the numerous misspellings and grammar errors show that the letter was written by a child. In Ives' view, this would be around the minimum age that a girl could be a maid of honour, as Anne was to the regent, Margaret of Austria.
This is supported by claims of a chronicler from the late 16th century, who wrote that Anne was twenty when she returned from France. These findings are contested by Warnicke in several bo
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649. He is traditionally regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty for his role in encouraging Li Yuan, his father, to rebel against the Sui dynasty at Jinyang in 617. Taizong subsequently played a pivotal role in defeating several of the dynasty's most dangerous opponents and solidifying its rule over China. Taizong is considered to be one of the greatest emperors in China's history and henceforth, his reign became regarded as the exemplary model against which all future emperors were measured, his era, the "Reign of Zhenguan" is considered a golden age in Chinese history and was treated as required studying material for future crown princes. Under the Zhenguan era, Tang China flourished militarily. For more than a century after his death, China enjoyed prosperity and peace brought about by the solidification of imperial protection over the Chinese regions. In territorial extent, it covered most of the territories held by the Han dynasty, including parts of modern Vietnam and Central Asian regions as far as eastern Kazakhstan.
This era of consolidation and conquest laid the foundation for Xuanzong's reign, considered to be the height of the Tang dynasty. In 630, Emperor Taizong sent his general Li Jing against the Eastern Turks and capturing their Jiali Khan Ashina Duobi and destroying their power; this made Tang the dominant power in East and Central Asia, Emperor Taizong subsequently took the title of Tengeri Qaghan. He launched a series of campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, against the armies of their main ally, the Western Turks. During his reign, Tang armies annexed Karakhoja in 640, Karasahr in 644 and Kucha in 648. Unlike many of the nobility of the time, Emperor Taizong was a frank rationalist and scholar of logic and scientific reason scorning superstitions and claims of signs from the heavens, he modified important rites in order to ease the burden of agricultural labour. The modern Chinese historian Bo Yang opined that Emperor Taizong achieved greatness by enduring criticism which others would find difficult to accept whilst trying hard not to abuse his absolute power, as well as through his employment of capable chancellors such as Fang Xuanling, Du Ruhui and Wei Zheng.
Emperor Taizong's wife Empress Zhangsun proved to be a capable assistant. Lǐ Shìmín was born in 598 at Wugong, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), his father Li Yuan the Duke of Tang was a general of the Sui Dynasty and a nephew, by marriage, to Sui's founding emperor Emperor Wen. Li Shimin's grandmother Duchess Dugu was a sister of Empress Dugu, both of whom were daughters of Dugu Xin, a major Xianbei general during Sui's predecessor dynasty Northern Zhou. Li Shimin's mother, Li Yuan's wife Duchess Dou, was a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and his wife, Northern Zhou's Princess Xiangyang. Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, two younger brothers, Li Yuanba, who would die in 614, Li Yuanji – and at least one daughter. Li Yuan named Li Shimin "Shimin" as a shortened form of the phrase "save the earth and pacify the people". Li Shimin showed talent early in his life, in 613, the official Gao Shilian, impressed with him, gave him a niece in marriage as his wife.
In 615, when Emperor Wen's son and successor Emperor Yang was ambushed by Eastern Turkish forces under Shibi Khan at Yanmen Commandery, a general call was made for men to join the army to help rescue the emperor. Li Shimin answered that call and served under the general Yun Dingxing doing so with distinction. In 616, when Li Yuan was put in charge of the important city of Taiyuan, Li Shimin followed his father to Taiyuan, while leaving at least three other sons—Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, Li Zhiyun —at the ancestral home Hedong. Emperor Yang was soon dissatisfied with Li Yuan and Wang Rengong, the governor of Mayi Commandery, over their inability to stop Eastern Turkish incursions and the growing strengths of agrarian rebels the Eastern Turkish-support Liu Wuzhou the Dingyang Khan, who soon rose against Wang and killed him and soon captured Emperor Yang's secondary palace near Taiyuan. Li Yuan became fearful that there had been prophecies throughout the empire that the next emperor would be named Li—and that Emperor Yang had killed another official, Li Hun and Li Hun's clan over his fears that Li Hun's nephew, Li Min, would seize the throne.
In fear, Li Yuan considered rebellion, at that point, he did not know that Li Shimin had been doing so—secretly discussing such plans with Li Yuan's associates Pei Ji and Liu Wenjing. Once Li Shimin's plans matured, he had Pei inform Li Yuan of them—and had Pei warn Li Yuan that if it were revealed that Li Yuan had had sexual relations with some of Emperor Yang's ladies in waiting at the secondary Jinyang Palace, all of them would be slaughtered. Li Yuan agreed to rebel, after secretly summoning Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji from Hedong and his son-in-law Chai Shao from the capital Chang'an, he declared a rebellion, claiming to want to support Empero