Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d'Arc or Jehanne, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War; the uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims; this long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English, she was handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.
After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte, she was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting and other cultural works since the time of her death, many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created, continue to create, cultural depictions of her; the Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace.
Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, the English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Before the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had not achieved any major victories for a generation. In the words of DeVries, "The kingdom of France was not a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype."The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanity and was unable to rule. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children; this dispute included accusations that Louis was having an extramarital affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, allegations that John the Fearless kidnapped the royal children.
The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy. The young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac, their faction became known as the "Armagnac" faction, the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the "Burgundian faction". Henry V of England took advantage of these internal divisions when he invaded the kingdom in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt on 25 October and subsequently capturing many northern French towns. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac and about 2,500 of his followers; the future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419; this ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection.
The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English. The allied forces conquered large sections of France. In 1420 the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V and his heirs instead of her son Charles; this agreement revived suspicions that the Dauphin may have been the illegitimate product of Isabeau's rumored affair with the late duke of Orléans rather than the son of King Charles VI. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent. By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control; the English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional coronation site for French kings since 816.
This was an important consideration since neither claimant to the throne of France had been crowned yet. In 1428 the English had begun the siege of Orléans, one of the few remaining cities still loyal to Charles VII and an important objective since it held a strategic position along the Loire River, which ma
Battle of Lipany
The Battle of Lipany called the Battle of Český Brod, was fought at Lipany 40 km east of Prague on 30 May 1434 and ended the Hussite Wars. An army of Utraquist nobility and Catholics, called the Bohemian League, defeated the radical Taborites and Orphans led by Prokop the Great, the overall commander, by Jan Čapek of Sány, the cavalry commander; the radicals set up a Wagenburg on a strategically advantageous hill, both armies stood against each other for some time. An attempt by the Utraquists to negotiate and resolve the conflict peacefully failed due to irreconcilable positions of the two sides. Three days after the unsuccessful negotiations, the Leaguers advanced to the radicals' encampment. Thinking that the enemy was fleeing, the radicals' commanders opened the Wagenburg to attack the Leaguers' formation, not knowing that the retreat was a trick to draw them out of the Wagenburg; as the radicals approached the Leaguers' army, the Leaguers stopped and began to fire from their wagons. At the same time, the Leaguers' heavy cavalry, hidden near the radicals' camp, undertook a surprise attack from the side and penetrated into the open Wagenburg.
The radicals' army collapsed and the commander of the Orphans' cavalry, Čapek of Sány, fled with all his men to the nearby town of Kolín. The battle now changed into a massacre of the equipped radical forces. Both Prokop the Prokůpek were killed, holding "the last stand" at the wagons; some prominent leaders of the radicals, including Jan Roháč of Dubá, were captured, but about 700 ordinary soldiers who surrendered after promises of renewed military service were burned to death in nearby barns. As a consequence of the battle, the Taborite army was markedly weakened, the Orphans ceased to exist as a military force; the road towards acceptance of the Compacts of Basel was now open, it was signed on 5 July 1436 in Jihlava. The next month, Sigismund was accepted as King of Bohemia by all major factions. Sigismund commented on the Battle of Lipany that "the Bohemians could be overcome only by Bohemians." The last formation of Taborites under the command of Jan Roháč of Dubá was besieged at his castle Sion near Kutná Hora.
It was captured by Sigismund's forces, on 9 September 1437 Roháč, still refusing to accept Sigismund as his King, was hanged in Prague. With the wars over, many Hussites were now hired by the same countries whom they had sacked during their "beautiful rides." Luděk Marold - Painter of the Marold's Panorama, which depicts this battle. The Battles of the Hussite Wars Bellum.cz – Battle of Lipany 30th May 1434
Heresy in Christianity
Heresy in Christianity denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faith as defined by one or more of the Christian churches. In Western Christianity, heresy most refers to those beliefs which were declared to be anathema by any of the ecumenical councils recognized by the Catholic Church. In the East, the term "heresy" is eclectic and can refer to anything at variance with Church tradition. Since the Great Schism and the Protestant Reformation, various Christian churches have used the concept in proceedings against individuals and groups deemed to be heretical by those churches; the study of heresy requires an understanding of the development of orthodoxy and the role of creeds in the definition of orthodox beliefs, since heresy is always defined in relation to orthodoxy. Orthodoxy has been in the process of self-definition for centuries, defining itself in terms of its faith, changing or clarifying beliefs in opposition to people or doctrines that are perceived as incorrect.
The word "orthodoxy" comes from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion". The word "heresy" comes from haeresis, a Latin transliteration of the Greek word meaning choosing, course of action, or in an extended sense school of thought eventually came to denote warring factions and the party spirit by the first century; the word appears in the New Testament and was appropriated by the Church to mean a sect or division that threatened the unity of Christians. Heresy became regarded as a departure from orthodoxy, a sense in which heterodoxy was in Christian use soon after the year 100; the first known usage of the term'heresy' in a civil legal context was in 380 by the "Edict of Thessalonica" of Theodosius I. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as'heresy'. Orthodoxy is adherence to correct or accepted creeds in religion. Heresy is used today with reference to in Christianity denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faith as defined by one or more of the Christian churches.
It should be distinguished from both apostasy and schism, apostasy being nearly always total abandonment of the Christian faith after it has been accepted, schism being a formal and deliberate breach of Christian unity and an offence against charity without being based on doctrine. Since the time of the apostles, the term anathema has come to mean a form of extreme religious sanction beyond excommunication, known as major excommunication; the earliest recorded instance of the form is in the Council of Elvira, thereafter it became the common method of cutting off heretics. In the fifth century, a formal distinction between anathema and excommunication evolved, where excommunication entailed cutting off a person or group from the rite of Eucharist and attendance at worship, while anathema meant a complete separation of the subject from the Church; the development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, the relationship between the early Church and early heretical groups is a matter of academic debate.
Walter Bauer, in his Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity, proposed that in earliest Christianity and heresy did not stand in relation to one another as primary to secondary, but in many regions heresy was the original manifestation of Christianity. Bauer reassessed as a historian the overwhelmingly dominant view that for the period of Christian origins, ecclesiastical doctrine represented what is primary, while heresies, on the other hand somehow are a deviation from the genuine. Scholars such as Pagels and Ehrman have built on Bauer's original thesis. Drawing upon distinctions between Jewish Christians, Gentile Christians, other groups such as Gnostics and Marcionites, they argue that early Christianity was fragmented, with contemporaneous competing orthodoxies. Ehrman's view is that while the specifics of Bauer's demonstration were rejected, his intuitions are broadly accepted by scholars and got confirmed beyond what Bauer might have guessed. According to H. E. W. Turner, responding to Bauer's thesis in 1954, "what became official orthodoxy was taught early on by the majority of church teachers, albeit not in developed form."
According to Darrell Bock, a Christian apologist, Bauer's theory does not show an equality between the established church and outsiders including Simon Magus. According to Mitchell et al. each early Christian community was unique, but the tenets of the mainstream or Catholic Church insured that each early Christian community did not remain isolated. G. K. Chesterton, in his book Orthodoxy, asserts that there have been substantial disagreements about faith from the time of the New Testament and Jesus, but that the Apostles all argued against changing the teachings of Christ, as did the earliest church fathers including Ignatius of Antioch, Justin Martyr and Polycarp; the Ante-Nicene period saw the rise of a great number of Christian sects and movements with strong unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period. They had different interpretations of Scripture the divinity of Jesus and the nature of the Trinity; some of the major sects and movements with different interpretations of Scripture than the Proto-Orthodox church were: Gnosticism – reliance on revealed knowledge from an unknowable God, a distinct divinity from the Demiurge who created and oversees the material world.
Marcionism – the God of Jesus was a different God from the God of the Old Testament. Montanism – relied on prophetic revelations from the Holy Spirit. Adoptionism – Jesus was not born the Son of God, but was
The Peasants' Revolt named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years' War, instability within the local leadership of London; the final trigger for the revolt was the intervention of a royal official, John Bampton, in Essex on 30 May 1381. His attempts to collect unpaid poll taxes in Brentwood ended in a violent confrontation, which spread across the south-east of the country. A wide spectrum of rural society, including many local artisans and village officials, rose up in protest, burning court records and opening the local gaols; the rebels sought a reduction in taxation, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdom, the removal of the King's senior officials and law courts. Inspired by the sermons of the radical cleric John Ball and led by Wat Tyler, a contingent of Kentish rebels advanced on London.
They were met at Blackheath by representatives of the royal government, who unsuccessfully attempted to persuade them to return home. King Richard II aged 14, retreated to the safety of the Tower of London, but most of the royal forces were abroad or in northern England. On 13 June, the rebels entered London and, joined by many local townsfolk, attacked the gaols, destroyed the Savoy Palace, set fire to law books and buildings in the Temple, killed anyone associated with the royal government; the following day, Richard met the rebels at Mile End and acceded to most of their demands, including the abolition of serfdom. Meanwhile, rebels entered the Tower of London, killing the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer, whom they found inside. On 15 June, Richard left the city to meet the rebels at Smithfield. Violence broke out, Richard's party killed Tyler. Richard defused the tense situation long enough for London's mayor, William Walworth, to gather a militia from the city and disperse the rebel forces.
Richard began to re-establish order in London and rescinded his previous grants to the rebels. The revolt had spread into East Anglia, where the University of Cambridge was attacked and many royal officials were killed. Unrest continued until the intervention of Henry le Despenser, who defeated a rebel army at the Battle of North Walsham on 25 or 26 June. Troubles extended north to York and Scarborough, as far west as Bridgwater in Somerset. Richard mobilised 4,000 soldiers to restore order. Most of the rebel leaders were executed; the Peasants' Revolt has been studied by academics. Late 19th-century historians used a range of sources from contemporary chroniclers to assemble an account of the uprising, these were supplemented in the 20th century by research using court records and local archives. Interpretations of the revolt have shifted over the years, it was once seen as a defining moment in English history, but modern academics are less certain of its impact on subsequent social and economic history.
The revolt influenced the course of the Hundred Years' War, by deterring Parliaments from raising additional taxes to pay for military campaigns in France. The revolt has been used in socialist literature, including by the author William Morris, remains a potent political symbol for the political left, informing the arguments surrounding the introduction of the Community Charge in the United Kingdom during the 1980s; the Peasants' Revolt was fed by the social upheaval of the 14th century. At the start of the century, the majority of English people worked in the countryside, as part of a sophisticated economy that fed the country's towns and cities and supported an extensive international trade. Across much of England, production was organised around manors, controlled by local lords – including the gentry and the Church – and governed through a system of manorial courts; some of the population were unfree serfs, who had to work on their lords' lands for a period each year, although the balance of free and unfree varied across England, in the south-east there were few serfs.
Some serfs were born unfree and could not leave their manors to work elsewhere without the consent of the local lord. Population growth led to pressure on the available agricultural land, increasing the power of local landowners. In 1348 a plague known as the Black Death crossed from mainland Europe into England killing an estimated 50 per cent of the population. After an initial period of economic shock, England began to adapt to the changed economic situation; the death rate among the peasantry meant that land was plentiful and manpower in much shorter supply. Labourers could charge more for their work and, in the consequent competition for labour, wages were driven upwards. In turn, the profits of landowners were eroded; the trading and financial networks in the towns disintegrated. The authorities responded to the chaos with emergency legislation; these attempted to fix wages at pre-plague levels, making it a crime to refuse work or to break an existing contract, imposing fines on those who transgressed.
The system was enforced through special Justices of Labourers and from the 1360s onwards, through the normal Justices of the Peace members of the local gentry. Although in theory these laws applied to both labourers seeking higher wages and to employers tempted to outbid their compe
Death by burning
Death by burning is an execution method involving deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion or exposure to extreme heat. It has a long history as a form of capital punishment, many societies have employed it for activities considered criminal such as treason, rebellious actions by slaves, witchcraft and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality; the best known executions of this type are those where the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake and a fire lit beneath them. This is called burning at the stake, or in some cases, auto-da-fé. For burnings at the stake, if the fire was large, death came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames caused lethal harm to the body. If the fire was small, the condemned would burn for some time until death from hypovolemia, heatstroke or the simple thermal decomposition of vital body parts. Other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known. For example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person, as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated.
Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is considered distinct from death by burning, classified as death by boiling. The 18th century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian king Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate. Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could be punished by being burnt alive. Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered by courts to be burned alive. In Ancient Egypt, several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested. For example, Senusret I is said to have rounded up the rebels in campaign, burnt them as human torches. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, burned several rebels alive. On the statute books, at least, women committing adultery might be burned to death. Jon Manchip White, did not think capital judicial punishments were carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to ratify each verdict.
Furthermore, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus asserts that the Egyptians had a terrible punishment for children who murdered their parents: With sharpened reeds, bits of flesh the size of a finger were cut from the criminal's body. He was placed on a bed of thorns and burnt alive. In the Middle Assyrian period, paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself: A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her... and bring her to the palace entrance.... They shall pour hot pitch over her head. For the Neo-Assyrians, mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but as proof of their might. For example, Neo-Assyrian King Asuhurnasirpal II was evidently proud enough of his bloody work that he committed it to monument and eternal memory as follows:I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.
In Genesis 38, Judah orders Tamar—the widow of his son, living in her father's household—to be burned when she is believed to have become pregnant by an extramarital sexual relation. Tamar saves herself by proving. In the Book of Jubilees, the same story is told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A. Reeder. In Genesis, Judah is exercising his patriarchal power at a distance, whereas he and the relatives seem more involved in Tamar's impending execution. In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: The imputed crime of Tamar, namely that a married daughter of a priest commits adultery, nine versions of relationships considered as incestuous, such as having sex with one's own daughter, or granddaughter, but for example, to have sex with one's mother-in-law or with one's wife's daughter. In the Mishnah, the following manner of burning the criminal is described: The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck.
One pulled it one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the wick and throws it in his mouth, it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels; that is, the person dies from being fed molten lead. The Mishnah is, however, a late collections of laws, from about the 3rd century AD, scholars believe it replaced the actual punishment of burning in the old biblical texts. In the 6th century AD collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest, a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning; the 3rd century jurist Ulpian, for example, says that enemies of the state, deserters to the enemy are to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical w
The Hussite Wars called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Christian Hussites and the combined Christian Catholic forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves. After initial clashes, the Utraquists changed sides in 1423 to fight alongside Roman Catholics and opposed the Taborites and other Hussite spinoffs; these wars lasted from 1419 to 1434. The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia and formed a major spontaneous military power, they defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope, intervened in the wars of neighboring countries. The Hussite Wars were notable for the extensive use of early hand-held firearms such as hand cannons; the fighting ended after 1434, when the moderate Utraquist faction of the Hussites defeated the radical Taborite faction. The Hussites agreed to submit to the authority of the King of Bohemia and the Roman Catholic Church, were allowed to practice their somewhat variant rite.
Starting around 1402, priest and scholar Jan Hus denounced what he judged as the corruption of the Church and the Papacy, he promoted some of the reformist ideas of English theologian John Wycliffe. His preaching was heeded in Bohemia, provoked suppression by the Church, which had declared many of Wycliffe's ideas heretical. In 1411, in the course of the Western Schism, "Antipope" John XXIII proclaimed a "crusade" against King Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of rival Pope Gregory XII. To raise money for this, he proclaimed indulgences in Bohemia. Hus bitterly denounced this and explicitly quoted Wycliffe against it, provoking further complaints of heresy but winning much support in Bohemia. In 1414, Sigismund of Hungary convened the Council of Constance to end the Schism and resolve other religious controversies. Hus went to the Council, under a safe-conduct from Sigismund, but was imprisoned and executed on 6 July 1415; the knights and nobles of Bohemia and Moravia, who were in favour of church reform, sent the protestatio Bohemorum to the Council of Constance on 2 September 1415, which condemned the execution of Hus in the strongest language.
This angered Sigismund, "King of the Romans", brother of King Wenceslaus of Bohemia. He had been persuaded by the Council, he sent threatening letters to Bohemia declaring that he would shortly drown all Wycliffites and Hussites incensing the people. Disorder broke out in various parts of Bohemia, drove many Catholic priests from their parishes. From the beginning the Hussites divided into two main groups, though many minor divisions arose among them. Shortly before his death Hus had accepted the doctrine of Utraquism preached during his absence by his adherents at Prague: the obligation of the faithful to receive communion in both kinds and wine; this doctrine became the watchword of the moderate Hussites known as the Utraquists or Calixtines, from the Latin calix, in Czech kališníci. The more extreme Hussites became known as Taborites, after the city of Tábor that became their center. Under the influence of Sigismund, Wenceslaus endeavoured to stem the Hussite movement. A number of Hussites led by Mikuláš of Hus — no relation of Jan Hus — left Prague.
They held meetings in various parts of Bohemia at Sezimovo Ústí, near the spot where the town of Tábor was founded soon afterwards. At these meetings they violently denounced Sigismund, the people everywhere prepared for war. In spite of the departure of many prominent Hussites, the troubles at Prague continued. On 30 July 1419 Hussite procession headed by the priest Jan Želivský attacked New Town Hall in Prague and threw the king's representatives, the burgomaster, some town councillors from the windows into the street, where several were killed by the fall, after a rock was thrown from the town hall and hit Želivský, it has been suggested that Wenceslaus was so stunned by the defenestration that it caused his death on 16 August 1419. The death of Wenceslaus resulted in renewed troubles in Prague and in all parts of Bohemia. Many Catholics Germans — still faithful to the Pope — were expelled from the Bohemian cities. Wenceslaus' widow Sophia of Bavaria, acting as regent in Bohemia, hurriedly collected a force of mercenaries and tried to gain control of Prague, which led to severe fighting.
After a considerable part of the city had been damaged or destroyed, the parties declared a truce on 13 November. The nobles, sympathetic to the Hussite cause, but supporting the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund, while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vyšehrad, which had fallen into their hands. Žižka, who disapproved of this compromise, left Prague and retired to Plzeň. Unable to maintain himself there he marched to southern Bohemia, he defeated the Catholics at the Battle of the first pitched battle of the Hussite wars. After Sudoměř, he moved to one of the earliest meeting-places of the Hussites. Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighboring new settlement of the Hussites, called by the biblical name of Tábor. Tábor soon became the center of the most militant Hussites, who differed from the Utraquists
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un