Jesus College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Jesus College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Jesus College, Cambridge. It is the most successful Cambridge college boat club, holding the most headships between both sides of the club in both the May bumps and the Lent bumps; the Women's side currently hold the headship of both the Lent bumps and the May Bumps. It has had numerous successes at other races and notable alumni, such as Steve Fairbairn. Jesus men have been head of the Lent Bumps on 39 occasions and head of the May Bumps on 24 occasions - more than any other boat club, although Jesus men have not been head in either event since 1974. Jesus held the headship of the early races for 11 consecutive years between 1875 and 1886 - a feat which has never been equalled. Jesus Women have been head of the Lent Bumps on 5 occasions, again head of the May bumps on 5 occasions, ranking themselves highly amongst the Cambridge colleges. In recent years they have been successful, being head of the Lents 2016-present and head of the Mays in 2005, 2007 and 2017-present.
Jesus run the Fairbairn Cup, the biggest race on the Cam, is named after the alumnus Steve Fairbairn. The club performed indifferently. During the early years it rose on occasion to be second and achieved Head of the River in 1841, but remained a minor force until the late 1860s. By 1875 it held Headship again and continued to for eleven years - a record not since equalled. In this time they refurbished the boathouse including the addition of a weathervane and, some years a clock tower. Both of which were transferred to the current boathouse. After this period the club's success declined with Trinity Hall Boat Club and Trinity having an monopoly of the Headship, until Jesus recovered it in 1909 and 1912-14. During the inter-war years the club was coached by Steve Fairbairn and held Headship on twelve occasions in the Lents and occupied a top three position for the entire period. In the women's bumps, Jesus fielded crews in the 1980s, took the headship of the Lent Bumps in 1985, 1986, 1987, more in 2016, headship of the May Bumps in 1988, 1993, 1994, 2005, 2007, 2017-present.
JCBC are one of the successful Cambridge colleges at the Henley Royal Regatta, winning the Grand Challenge Cup, the most prestigious event at the regatta, on 3 occasions. Jesus won the Ladies' Challenge Plate on 13 occasions between 1872 and 1958, the Visitors' Challenge Cup on 5 occasions between 1877 and 1936, the Wyfold Challenge Cup on 2 occasions, the Stewards' Challenge Cup in 1879 and the Thames Challenge Cup in 1892. Silver Goblets has been won by Humphrey Playford and John Campbell in 1921 and Thomas Cree and David Burnford in 1935. Jesus therefore have a grand total of 25 Henley wins, although the club has not managed an event win since 1958. JCBC runs two events of note; the first is the Fairbairn Cup Races, named after the famous Jesus Oarsman and Coach who began the event in the 1920s, Steve Fairbairn. In 1929 Fairbairn donated a cup and the races have continued since in their current form, a long distance headrace; this is raced on the Thursday and Friday after the end of Michaelmas term, Thursday being the novice races and Friday being the senior races.
The course has changed over years due to closures for bridge repairs and extreme weather conditions, but in 1990 the start line was made to be Jesus Boathouse Flagpole with the finish at the Little Bridge, some 4.3 km downstream. The Fairbairn Cup title is awarded to the fastest finishing college men's VIII. There are divisions for IVs and novice VIIIs; the race is entered by other local clubs and university crews, notably the Cambridge University Lightweight Rowing Club enters, but recent year have seen entries from the Oxford University Lightweight Rowing Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club itself. JCBC has run the Henley Spare Pairs Race on the day before Henley Royal Regatta; this event runs from the barrier to the regatta finish and is open to spare pairs of registered regatta entries. Cambridge University Combined Boat Clubs University rowing Jesus College Boat Club
Emmanuel Boat Club
Emmanuel Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. The men's 1st VIII has stayed in the first division of the Lent and May Bumps for the last half-century, but fell as low as 21st in the May Bumps in the 1930s, has been as low as 28th in the Lent Bumps towards the end of the 19th century. In the Lent Bumps, Emmanuel men gained the headship in 1930, although they reached 1st position in Lent Bumps 2001, they were not awarded the headship, since the last two days of the races were not completed due to an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom. Emmanuel did bumping Caius on the second day; the women's side of the club have been successful in recent years, achieving the headship of the Lent Bumps 11 times. Emmanuel's 1st women's VIII did not drop out of the top 3 crews at Lent Bumps between 1988 and 2005, nor the top 2 places in the May Bumps between 1994 and 2004. In 2018 Emmanuel's first women and men will start second and seventh on the river as a result of both crews earning their blades in 2017.
It was the second time in the club's history that the first men and women both earned blades in the same year. The first men have been no higher than 7th in May bumps since 2003. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Emmanuel Boat Club
A bumps race is a form of rowing race in which a number of boats chase each other in single file, each crew attempting to catch and "bump" the boat in front without being caught by the boat behind. The form is used in intercollegiate competitions at the University of Cambridge, since 1827, at the University of Oxford since 1815. Bumps racing in fours is the format of inter-house rowing at Eton College and Shrewsbury School, it is suitable where the stretch of water available is long but narrow, precluding side-by-side racing. Bumps racing gives a sharper feel of immediate competition than a head race, where boats are timed over a fixed course. Few rowers worldwide use rivers as narrow as the Cam or the Isis, but bumps races are contested elsewhere; the first attested bumps race, the first attested race between two clubs anywhere in the world, took place in Oxford in 1815. This was between two eights from Jesus College; the fact the racing was conducted in eight oared boats gave rise to the event being known as Eights.
The practice began with the two colleges racing upstream from Iffley Lock to a finishing line just short of Folly Bridge. Both crews began one behind the other in the lock, with each having to push their way out of the lock before being able to commence racing; this created an inevitable gap between boats, with the one behind trying to bump the one in front to claim victory. The boat in front could claim to be "Head of the River"; as the number of crews contesting races increased, races ceased to start in the lock, instead were started from the bank upstream of the lock. This first occurred in 1825 or 1826. Twelve years after bumps racing began in Oxford, Lent Bumps racing commenced at Cambridge University in 1827. At Oxford, an additional bumping regatta, known as Torpids, was begun in 1838; this regatta was for men who had not rowed in Eights, nor in a University crew. Bumps races are raced in a series over several days; the starting order of each day's race is based on the previous day's results.
Each day the boats line up bow-to-stern along the bank of the river, with a set distance between each boat and the next. The starting positions are marked by a rope or chain attached to the bank, the other end of, held by each boat's cox. Boats wait along the bank, may be poled out just in time for the start, to avoid drifting. At the start signal the cox lets go of the rope and the crew starts to row, attempting to catch and bump the boat in front while being chased by the one behind. A bump is made. Alternatively, if possible, an overtaking-bump occurs when the stern of the chasing boat passes the bow of the boat in front; this is rare because it is easier to make contact with a rival boat than it is to overtake it. A bump of this kind only occurs when a boat crashes. Under the current Cambridge rules, to overtake requires the pursuing boat to draw alongside the other boat's bow ball, and at Oxford during Eights Week, once a bump has occurred both crews pull over to the river bank and take no further part in that race.
At Oxford during Torpids a bumping crew pulls over but the bumped crew must continue racing over the entire course and can be bumped by more than one crew per day. As bumps racing takes place on narrow stretches of water, when contact occurs, two or more boats can become tangled up or not clear the river enough, causing the racing line to be blocked; this can be dangerous and the chance of boats getting damaged is high. To avoid this, the cox of the boat being bumped can concede as soon as slight physical contact occurs or once it is inevitable. Nonetheless, collisions involving several boats are common. Crews in Torpids tend to concede bumps early to avoid being entangled with the crew that caught them: should they be unable to continue, other boats may row past, overtake and'bump' the stationary crew. Any crew, bumped starts the next race behind the boat or boats that caught it. A boat which reaches the finish line without either bumping or being bumped is said to have'rowed over' and stays in the same position.
As the length of the racing course is limited, large regattas are organised into divisions of 12 to 20 boats. Each division races separately, but they are ranked to achieve an overall order of crews: e.g. the top crew in the second division is considered to be one place behind the last crew in the first division. The first day's starting position is based on the final positions from the previous year, though in the bottom divisions the boats may be placed according to qualifying getting/rowing on races held before the event; this allows boat clubs to introduce new crews. On each day of a bumps regatta the division races are rowed in reverse order, i.e. the lowest division first. A crew finishing at the top of a division race goes on to compete in the next-higher division that day. Alternatively, a crew finishing last in a division must race in the next-lower division the following day; this allows crews to move between divisions. A crew may find. Since (except at Oxford during Torp
The May Bumps are a set of rowing races, held annually on the River Cam in Cambridge. They began in 1887 after separating from the Lent Bumps, the equivalent bumping races held at the end of February or start of March. Prior to the separation there had been a single set of annual bumps dating from its inception in 1827; the races are open to all college boat clubs from the University of Cambridge, the University Medical and Veterinary Schools and Anglia Ruskin Boat Club. The May Bumps is run as a bumps race; the most recent in the series was the May Bumps 2018, which ran from 13 June 2018 until 16 June 2018. The races are run in each containing 17 crews; the number of crews in each bottom division varies yearly depending on new entrants. Each crew contains one coxswain. A total of 154 crews took part in 2014. There are 6 divisions for men's crews and 4 divisions for women's crews; the divisions represent a total race order with Division 1 at the top. The ultimate aim is to try and finish Head of the River, i.e. 1st position in division 1.
At the start, signalled by a cannon, each crew is separated by a distance of about 1½ boat lengths. Once the race has begun, a crew must attempt to catch up with the crew ahead of it and bump it before the crew behind does the same to them. A crew which bumps or is bumped must pull to the side of the river to allow all the other crews to continue racing. If a crew is able to catch and bump the boat which started 3 places in front of it, after the two in front have bumped out, the crew is said to have over-bumped. A crew which neither bumps a crew ahead nor is bumped by a crew behind before crossing the finishing post is said to have rowed over. After the race, any crew which bumps or over-bumps swaps places with the crew that it has bumped for the following day's racing. A crew which rows over stays in the same position. Crews finishing at the top of a division also:at the bottom of the next division, as the sandwich boat, in an attempt to try to move up into the next division; the process is repeated over four days, allowing crews to move up or down several places in the overall order of boats.
The finishing order of one year's May Bumps are used as the starting order of the following year's races. NB. May Bumps were cancelled between 1915 and 1918, in 1940 due to war. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. NB; the Women's May Bumps were rowed in coxed-fours between 1974 and 1989, changing to coxed-eights from 1990 onwards. A new start order was used for the women's 1990 races. Sixteen boats have been head of the river. NB. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. CCAT, Christ's, Clare Hall, Corpus Christi, Girton, Hughes Hall, King's, Peterhouse, Robinson, St. Catharine's, Sidney Sussex, St Edmund's, Addenbrooke's and the Veterinary School are the regular entrants never to have finished Head of the River for either the men's or women's events. Four boat'awards' are informally/formally recognised by the individual college boat clubs that take part in the Cambridge May Bumps, these accolades are awarded as follows: Blades - The accolade of earning'blades' is given to crews that bump up on every day of the May bumps.
Crews that achieve blades are given the opportunity to purchase decoratory oars from their college boat club, to serve as a reminder of their contribution to the clubs success. For most college rowers, who do not attempt to become University Blues rowers, earning blades is the highest rowing related achievement that can be obtained. Obtaining blades is a rare occurrence. Crews who obtain blades are photographed and recorded on the walls of the college boathouse to serve as a longer term reminder of their success, to inspire future generations of college rowers. In the occasion that a crew earns blades, they earn the right to row back to their college boathouse on the last day of the calendar with their college flag raised high. Super-Blades - In the event that a crew bumps and/or overbumps on the river 4 times they are said to have earned'super-blades'; this is a higher distinction that standard'Blades' but is of course rarer due to the circumstantial nature of the award, the ability of the super-bladed crew, required.
Technical Blades - In the case that a crew does not bump up on each day of rowing, but does manage to bump up net 4 places in the overall standings over the course of the week, with no bumping down, i.e.'making up' for any row overs with an overbump they are said to have qualified for'Technical Blades'. Technical bladed rowers are afforded the same opportunity to obtain a ceremonial blade as those crews that obtain regular blades. Spoons - This'award' is obtained by crews that bump down on every day of the May bumps calendar; the awarding of spoons is an informal occasion by the crew captain this captain will buy a wooden spoon for each crew member as a reminder that "at least they tried". The Pegasus Cup is a Cambrid
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Downing College Boat Club
Downing College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Downing College, Cambridge. Downing men have not been below the top 9 boats for over 3 decades, on occasion being the only boat club with a second boat in the first division, ahead of other college first boats. Downing men and women have rowed internationally, winning World Rowing Championship medals, Olympic medals. Despite the college admitting undergraduates in 1821, Downing's boat club did not form until 1863, with their first race being in the spring of 1864; the men's 1st VIII did not feature in the 1st division of the Lent and May Bumps until the 1960s. The club first became Head of the Mays in 1982, a position it lost in 1983 and regained in 1984; the head crew was coached by Downing alumnus Graeme Hall, the stroke of the Cambridge crew which won The Boat Race 1969, coached the British Men's VIII to win the silver medal in Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics. Downing women formed in 1981 and held their first headship of the Lent Bumps from 2004–2005, regaining it in 2011, attained their first headship of the May Bumps in 2011.
They retained both headships in 2012. The club has now held 15 headships in total, including a double-headship in 1996. In 2018, the first indoor rowing training tank in the East of England was built in the Club's boathouse. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Downing College Boat Club