Pembroke College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Pembroke College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Over the last century, crews from Pembroke have held the headship of the men's Lent Bumps on four occasions, the headship of the men's May Bumps ten times; the men's 1st VIII spent their entire history in the 1st division of both events, apart from poor performances in the Lent Bumps 2000 and the May Bumps 2003, the crew is found in the top half of the division. The women's 1st VIII first raced in 1985, have not yet taken the headship of the Lent Bumps, but took the headship of the May Bumps in 1997, 1998, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010. University rowing Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827-1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC - Lent and May Bumps programmes. Pembroke College Boat Club
First and Third Trinity Boat Club
The First and Third Trinity Boat Club is the rowing club of Trinity College in Cambridge, England. The club formally came into existence in 1946 when the First Trinity Boat Club and the Third Trinity Boat Club merged, although the 2 clubs had been rowing together for several years before that date; the first boat club associated with Trinity was formed in 1825 and came to be known as First Trinity in 1833 when the Third Trinity Boat Club was formed. Membership of Third Trinity was confined to Old Etonians and Old Westminsters. Members of Third Trinity were allowed to be members of First or Second Trinity and were; the boat club gives its name to Trinity college's May Ball, the oldest such event in Cambridge and originates from the club's celebrations after the victories in the May Bumps. In the nineteenth century the various Trinity boat clubs were strong and won events in Cambridge, at various regattas around the country, notably the Henley Royal Regatta, contributed rowers to the Cambridge boat for the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.
Indeed, in the 1849 Boat Race, all members of the crew were from Trinity, seven from Third Trinity and two, the cox included, from First Trinity. Boats from the three clubs could be found at, or near, the top of the Bumps and they sometimes combined their resources in races against the rest of the University. In 1876 Second Trinity was disbanded due to insufficient members. However, a legend claims that during the Bumps in that year, the rowers of Trinity's arch-rivals, St John's College, attached a sword to the front of one of their boats such that if they bumped the boat in front, it would be holed and sink; the plan worked in the sense that the Trinity boat did sink, but in the process the sword hit and killed Second Trinity's cox, which of course wasn't intended So the legend claims that this is the reason why Second Trinity Boat Club was dissolved, why St. John's College is no longer allowed a boat club under its own name. Though a wonderful legend, there is no traceable record of a crew from St. John's attaching a sword to their bow, while a St John's College Boat Club was disbanded in 1876, the original boat club at St. John's was the Lady Margaret Boat Club.
However, a somewhat similar incident occurred in 1888, 12 years after the dissolution of Second Trinity, after which bow balls became mandatory. In his History of the First Trinity Boat Club, Walter Rouse Ball notes: " The third day was the occasion of a sad tragedy. Clare bumped Queens', drew into the bank by Grassy. Behind these boats was the Trinity Hall third boat. This, instead of rounding First Post Corner, ran, by some mishap, across the river, the nose of the boat struck number 4 in the Clare boat just over his heart, killing him on the spot; the further races were at once stopped. Since this dreadful incident small india-rubber knobs have been fixed on the bows of all the racing boats"; the more prosaic explanation for 2nd Trinity's demise is that membership was restricted to Theology scholars, which over time proved to be an unreliable source of oarsmen. In the twentieth century the clubs remained competitive and continued to achieve success in various events; the 2nd World War forced the 2 clubs to combine resources and after the war they formally merged in order to remain competitive with the now larger boat clubs of other colleges.
In the same year First and Third won the Visitors' Challenge Cup at the Henley Royal Regatta and the following year won the Ladies' Challenge Plate. They repeated this feat by winning the Ladies Plate again in 1954 and 1967, the last year that a college crew from either Cambridge or Oxford has won the event; the difference in the standard of rowing between Oxbridge colleges and non-University clubs has changed over the twentieth century due to standards within college clubs falling or to the quality of rowing in other clubs improving, but a combination of the two. For example and Third, like all other Oxbridge college crews, now have difficulty achieving a standard of rowing to qualify for events at the Henley Royal Regatta, let alone to win these events. In spite of this, rowing within Cambridge remains popular and the Bumps, the main inter-college event, see well over a thousand students competing around a hundred from Trinity; the Trinity Boat Club, the original rowing club of Trinity College, dates from 1825 and was called First Trinity Boat Club after 1833.
It was open to all members of the College. In 1946, the club amalgamated with the other remaining boat club of the College, Third Trinity Boat Club, to form First and Third Trinity Boat Club, in this form continues to compete today; the Club was successful throughout its history, but in the 19th century. Its early history is well covered by Walter Rouse Ball's 1908 book, A History of The First Trinity Boat Club, available online in its entirety. Of particular note is that in 1839 First Trinity won the Grand Challenge Cup in the first Henley Regatta; the crew rowed in a boat named the Black Prince, the bow section of, still owned by the First and Third Trinity Boat Club but, on loan to the River & Rowing Museum in Henley. They defeated the other three entries, who were Wadham College Oxford, Brasenose College Oxford and the Oxford Etonian Club. First and Third Trinity Boat Club still names its higher quality men's eight-oared boats as'Black Prince'; as new boats are purchased, older boats are demoted to lower boat use and are referred to as'Black Prince II','Black Prince III' and
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Emmanuel Boat Club
Emmanuel Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. The men's 1st VIII has stayed in the first division of the Lent and May Bumps for the last half-century, but fell as low as 21st in the May Bumps in the 1930s, has been as low as 28th in the Lent Bumps towards the end of the 19th century. In the Lent Bumps, Emmanuel men gained the headship in 1930, although they reached 1st position in Lent Bumps 2001, they were not awarded the headship, since the last two days of the races were not completed due to an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the United Kingdom. Emmanuel did bumping Caius on the second day; the women's side of the club have been successful in recent years, achieving the headship of the Lent Bumps 11 times. Emmanuel's 1st women's VIII did not drop out of the top 3 crews at Lent Bumps between 1988 and 2005, nor the top 2 places in the May Bumps between 1994 and 2004. In 2018 Emmanuel's first women and men will start second and seventh on the river as a result of both crews earning their blades in 2017.
It was the second time in the club's history that the first men and women both earned blades in the same year. The first men have been no higher than 7th in May bumps since 2003. CUCBC/ Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Emmanuel Boat Club
Caius Boat Club
Caius Boat Club is the boat club for members of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. The Club has rowed on the River Cam since 1827, like the other college boat clubs its aim is to gain and hold the headship of the Lent Bumps and May Bumps, now held in eight-oared boats, separately for men and women; the club had a golden era from 1998 to 2007, finding itself in the top echelons of college rowing on both the men's and women's sides. From the May Bumps 1998 until the May Bumps 2007 Caius took 15 of these by the men. In 2000 they became the first college to take a double headship on both the men's and women's side in the May Bumps. From its inception in 1827 as "Caius Wherry Club" the club has been active on the river, became properly established by the construction of its own boat house; the Club saw some prominence in its early years, holding the headship in 1840, 1841 and 1844, but this was followed by a long drought. In 1987 The Men lost it the following year. During the golden era from 1998 to 2007, Caius took 5 consecutive Lent Headships and so claim to have earned the right to erect a clock tower on their boathouse, a popular myth on the River Cam, that may be made reality when the plans for the college's new boathouse are approved.
After another brief period in the doldrums, the Men's crew of 2010/2011 achieved the unlikely feat of remaining unbeaten on the river Cam in eights for an entire year. This run saw them bump up 4 times to the headship of the Lent Bumps and up 2 times to the headship of the May Bumps, they represented the Cambridge Colleges against Christ Church, Oxford in a collegiate varsity race at the Henley Boat Races, becoming the only Cambridge men's crew to be successful against their dark blue opponents that year. The men's crew continue to be successful, retaining both the Lents and Mays Headship in 2012 and maintained their winning streak in side by side racing by beating Pembroke College, Oxford at the Henley Boat Races. During the May bumps of 1998, the top 3 men's crews and the top 3 women's crews all secured the awarding of Blades by bumping up on each of the 4 days with the men's 1st VIII finishing Head of the River. This'clean sweep' of the top 6 boats being awarded their "Blades" has not happened or since.
The men's first boat lost the Mays headship in 2016 to Maggie, the Lents in 2017 to Maggie. The women's first boat is second in Mays and thirteenth in Lents. Caius Boat Club has a strong tradition of encouraging its athletes to trial for the university boat clubs. In 2014 there were Caians in both the men and women's Blue Boat, the CUWBC Lightweight boat and the men's lightweight spare pair. Caius Boat Club has received planning permission for a new boathouse to be built on the site of the original; this project is estimated to cost £3 million, is due to be completed in 2016. Josh West, Olympic silver medalist Alison Mowbray, Olympic silver medalist There exists a club for members who have left the college called Gonville Boat Club. Although GBC is a recreational club, it enters regattas and sometimes races the current CBC 1st men's VIII. In 2008 a GBC crew took to the water with a total of 28 Cambridge headships between them. CUCBC at Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Caius Boat Club
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
The May Bumps are a set of rowing races, held annually on the River Cam in Cambridge. They began in 1887 after separating from the Lent Bumps, the equivalent bumping races held at the end of February or start of March. Prior to the separation there had been a single set of annual bumps dating from its inception in 1827; the races are open to all college boat clubs from the University of Cambridge, the University Medical and Veterinary Schools and Anglia Ruskin Boat Club. The May Bumps is run as a bumps race; the most recent in the series was the May Bumps 2018, which ran from 13 June 2018 until 16 June 2018. The races are run in each containing 17 crews; the number of crews in each bottom division varies yearly depending on new entrants. Each crew contains one coxswain. A total of 154 crews took part in 2014. There are 6 divisions for men's crews and 4 divisions for women's crews; the divisions represent a total race order with Division 1 at the top. The ultimate aim is to try and finish Head of the River, i.e. 1st position in division 1.
At the start, signalled by a cannon, each crew is separated by a distance of about 1½ boat lengths. Once the race has begun, a crew must attempt to catch up with the crew ahead of it and bump it before the crew behind does the same to them. A crew which bumps or is bumped must pull to the side of the river to allow all the other crews to continue racing. If a crew is able to catch and bump the boat which started 3 places in front of it, after the two in front have bumped out, the crew is said to have over-bumped. A crew which neither bumps a crew ahead nor is bumped by a crew behind before crossing the finishing post is said to have rowed over. After the race, any crew which bumps or over-bumps swaps places with the crew that it has bumped for the following day's racing. A crew which rows over stays in the same position. Crews finishing at the top of a division also:at the bottom of the next division, as the sandwich boat, in an attempt to try to move up into the next division; the process is repeated over four days, allowing crews to move up or down several places in the overall order of boats.
The finishing order of one year's May Bumps are used as the starting order of the following year's races. NB. May Bumps were cancelled between 1915 and 1918, in 1940 due to war. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. NB; the Women's May Bumps were rowed in coxed-fours between 1974 and 1989, changing to coxed-eights from 1990 onwards. A new start order was used for the women's 1990 races. Sixteen boats have been head of the river. NB. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. CCAT, Christ's, Clare Hall, Corpus Christi, Girton, Hughes Hall, King's, Peterhouse, Robinson, St. Catharine's, Sidney Sussex, St Edmund's, Addenbrooke's and the Veterinary School are the regular entrants never to have finished Head of the River for either the men's or women's events. Four boat'awards' are informally/formally recognised by the individual college boat clubs that take part in the Cambridge May Bumps, these accolades are awarded as follows: Blades - The accolade of earning'blades' is given to crews that bump up on every day of the May bumps.
Crews that achieve blades are given the opportunity to purchase decoratory oars from their college boat club, to serve as a reminder of their contribution to the clubs success. For most college rowers, who do not attempt to become University Blues rowers, earning blades is the highest rowing related achievement that can be obtained. Obtaining blades is a rare occurrence. Crews who obtain blades are photographed and recorded on the walls of the college boathouse to serve as a longer term reminder of their success, to inspire future generations of college rowers. In the occasion that a crew earns blades, they earn the right to row back to their college boathouse on the last day of the calendar with their college flag raised high. Super-Blades - In the event that a crew bumps and/or overbumps on the river 4 times they are said to have earned'super-blades'; this is a higher distinction that standard'Blades' but is of course rarer due to the circumstantial nature of the award, the ability of the super-bladed crew, required.
Technical Blades - In the case that a crew does not bump up on each day of rowing, but does manage to bump up net 4 places in the overall standings over the course of the week, with no bumping down, i.e.'making up' for any row overs with an overbump they are said to have qualified for'Technical Blades'. Technical bladed rowers are afforded the same opportunity to obtain a ceremonial blade as those crews that obtain regular blades. Spoons - This'award' is obtained by crews that bump down on every day of the May bumps calendar; the awarding of spoons is an informal occasion by the crew captain this captain will buy a wooden spoon for each crew member as a reminder that "at least they tried". The Pegasus Cup is a Cambrid