Fairfax Avenue is a street in the north central area of the city of Los Angeles, California. It runs from La Cienega Boulevard with Culver City at its end to Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood on its northern end. Since World War II, the Fairfax District has been a heavily Jewish neighborhood in Mid-City West, Fairfax High School, on the corner of Fairfax and Melrose Avenue, was known as the alma mater of many entertainment industry personalities. Canters Deli has been a late night hangout in Los Angeles since the 1940s, cBSs Television City is located on the corner of Fairfax and Beverly Boulevard, where thousands camp out to wait for a chance to watch The Price is Right. The former site of Gilmore Stadium, where the minor league baseball team, world-famous recording studio, Cherokee Studios, home to over 250 gold and platinum recorders, is just above Melrose Avenue. The Grove is off 3rd Street and Fairfax, due to the volume of high density attractions, Fairfax is one of the most congested streets in Los Angeles.
Little Ethiopia is further south by Olympic Blvd and north by Pico Boulevard in the Pico-Robertson neighborhood in West Los Angeles, the Petersen Automotive Museum is located on the south corner. Metro Local line 35,37,38 and 175,217, canters CBS Television City Farmers Market Academy Museum of Motion Pictures Petersen Automotive Museum
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects. On April 30,1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed. The original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan. The board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure, in its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission. The commission has the power to delay the demolition of a property for up to one year.
In the commissions first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments, by March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with ever-updated LAHCM List via PDF link, official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Bariscale. Bariscales Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
Miracle Mile, Los Angeles
The Miracle Mile District is bordered by the Fairfax District on the north, Hancock Park on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the south and southwest, and Carthay Circle on the west. The districts boundaries are roughly 3rd Street on the north, Highland Avenue on the east, San Vicente Boulevard on the south, major thoroughfares include Wilshire and Olympic Boulevards, La Brea and Fairfax Avenues, and 6th Street. The districts ZIP codes are 90036 and parts of 90019, in the early 1920s, Wilshire Boulevard west of Western Avenue was an unpaved farm road, extending through dairy farms and bean fields. Developer A. W. Ross saw potential for the area, the Wilson Building had a dirigible mast on top and was home to a number of businesses and professionals relocating from downtown. Rosss insight was that the form and scale of his Wilshire strip should attract and he applied this design both to the street itself and to the buildings lining it. Ross gave Wilshire various firsts, including dedicated left-turn lanes and timed traffic lights and he required merchants to provide automobile parking lots, all to aid traffic flow.
Major retailers such as Desmonds, May Co, Mullen & Bluett, Myer Siegel, and Seibu eventually spread down Wilshire Boulevard from Fairfax to La Brea. Ross ordered that all building facades along Wilshire be engineered so as to be best seen through a windshield and this meant larger, simpler signage and longer buildings in a larger scale. They had to be oriented toward the boulevard and architectural ornamentation and these building forms were driven by practical requirements but contributed to the stylistic language of Art Deco and Streamline Moderne. Rosss moves were unprecedented, a commercial success, and proved historically influential. Ross had invented the car-oriented urban form — what Reyner Banham called the linear downtown model adopted across the United States, the moves contributed to Los Angeless reputation as a city dominated by the car. A sculptural bust of Ross stands at 5800 Wilshire, with the inscription, A. W. Ross, vision to see, wisdom to know, courage to do. As wealth and newcomers poured into the city, Rosss parcel became one of Los Angeless most desirable areas.
Acclaimed as Americas Champs-Élysées, this stretch of Wilshire near the La Brea Tar Pits was named Miracle Mile for its rise to prominence. An Art Deco style bank at 5209 Wilshire was built in 1929 and it was designed by the architecture firm of Morgan, Walls & Clements, which designed the Wiltern Theatre, the El Capitan Theatre, and other notable buildings in Los Angeles. Note, According to historian David Leighton, of the Arizona Daily Star newspaper the Miracle Mile in Tucson, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Petersen Automotive Museum, A+D Museum and Folk Art Museum, George C. Page Museum, and La Brea Tar Pits pavilions, among others, the Miracle Mile District is one of the citys more densely populated areas, but is considerably more affluent than other high-density neighborhoods like Westlake and Koreatown. As a result, traffic congestion in the district is high even by the standards of Los Angeles, the ban was implemented despite the fact that methane deposits abound in most of Los Angeles
Million Dollar Theater
The Million Dollar Theatre at 307 S. Broadway in downtown Los Angeles is one of the first movie palaces built in the United States. It is the northernmost of the collection of movie palaces in the Broadway Theater District. The Million Dollar was the first movie house built by entrepreneur Sid Grauman, the auditorium architect was William L. Woollett, and the designer of the twelve-story tower was Los Angeles architect Albert C. For many years the building housed the headquarters of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. In the 1940s the theater was the second run house of the famous Orpheum Circuit, acts such as the Nat King Cole Trio, and Joe Liggins and The Honey Drippers performed on its stage. In 1949 the Million Dollar was taken over by Frank Fouce, the Million Dollar Theater became the mecca of Spanish language, in particular Mexican, entertainment in the United States. It was the first venue where the late Mexican film star Antonio Aguilar worked with his horses on stage.
This is where it is said he conceived the idea for his large arena rodeo productions, in the late 1950s and early 1960s the theaters owner, Frank Fouce, went on to found Spanish International Communications Corp. named after his Spanish International Theater Company. This company comprised the first group of Spanish language and UHF television stations in the United States, the Million Dollar Theatre and the Fouce Family were pioneers in the unheard of Spanish entertainment industry. For their efforts, Frank Fouce was awarded El Aguila Azteca, Mexicos highest civilian award, the theater and Frank Fouce were honored by the Mexican actors union ANDA for their contributions to the Mexican film and entertainment industry. In addition to its very successful productions, the theater was the most prominent Spanish language cinema in the United States. Every major Mexican motion picture premiered at the Million Dollar, which was the most well known Spanish motion picture theater. During this golden heyday the large lines of people waiting to attend the Million Dollar would wrap around the block, in February 2008, the theater re-opened, once again showing live Spanish theatre.
It continues to draw crowds, and there are plans to begin screening major motion picture premieres. The exterior of the theater appeared prominently in the fiction film Blade Runner. The interior of the theater appeared prominently in the film The Artist, the exterior of the theater appeared in Johnny Gills music video Fairweather Friend The theatre was featured in the videogame Grand Theft Auto V as the Ten Cent Theatre. The theater was featured in Michael Connellys Harry Bosch Novel The Overlook as the site of a secret FBI unit, and the site of a climactic shootout
Los Angeles Conservancy
The Los Angeles Conservancy is a historic preservation organization in Los Angeles, California. It works to document and revitalize historic buildings, the Conservancy is the largest membership based historic preservation organization in the country. The group was formed in 1978 to preserve Los Angeles Central Library, the organization has over 7000 members and 400 volunteers. The executive director since 1992 has been Linda Dishman, some of the Conservancys biggest success stories have included Bullocks Wilshire, the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, the Wiltern Theater and the oldest operating McDonalds in Downey, CA. In 2006, the L. A. Conservancy won the American Planning Associations Daniel Burnham award, LA Conservancy Official Website Modern Committee
Los Angeles City Hall
It is located in the Civic Center district of downtown Los Angeles in the city block bounded by Main, Temple and Spring streets. The building was designed by John Parkinson, John C, martin, Sr. and was completed in 1928. Dedication ceremonies were held on April 26,1928.2 earthquake, the concrete in its tower was made with sand from each of Californias 58 counties and water from its 21 historical missions. City Halls distinctive tower was based on the shape of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, an image of City Hall has been on Los Angeles Police Department badges since 1940. City Hall has a deck, free to the public. The peak of the pyramid at the top of the building is a beacon named in honor of Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh. Circa 1939, there was an art gallery, in Room 351 on the third floor, the building was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1976. Prior to the completion of the current structure, the L. A, the Mayor of Los Angeles has an office in room 300 of this building and every Tuesday and Friday at 10, 00am, the Los Angeles City Council meets in its chambers.
City Hall and the adjacent federal and county buildings are served by the Civic Center station on the LA Metro Red Line, an observation level is open to the public on the 27th floor. The Mayor Tom Bradley Room, as this large space is named, is used for ceremonies. At the time the TV program was broadcast, the shows Daily Planet building was frequently confused with the similarly designed Pennsylvania Power & Light Building in Allentown, the exact design of this building is used as the Newstime magazine headquarters in the Superman comic books. Alias, A CIA black ops unit is located behind a door at Civic Station. Dragnet, The building appears as itself in the TV series, the first episode of Dragnet Season 1, Episode 1, The Human Bomb, Original Air Date,16 December 1951, was filmed at Los Angeles City Hall. Joe Fridays famous badge number 714 that was displayed under the credits, perry Mason, The City Hall building appears in the view from Perrys office window. This has led viewers of the show to speculate where the office would have been located in downtown Los Angeles. L. A.
Confidential, The police in the 1997 neo-noir film operate out of the City hall, tower of Terror, In this 1997 made-for-TV movie, the main characters love interest works at a fictional newspaper, The Los Angeles Banner. The newspapers logo is based on the top of the city hall, adam-12, During the seventh season opening credits montage, City Hall is shown directly at the end, as the building that officers Reed and Malloy drive away from. It is shown on the embossed badges numbered 744 and 2430, the 2003 Dragnet series used the L. A
Albert C. Martin Sr.
Albert Carey Martin was an American architect and engineer. He founded the firm of Albert C. Martin & Associates, now known as A. C. Martin Partners. Martin is credited with developing a system of reinforced concrete construction, born in LaSalle, Martin received his Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Illinois and began his career as a draftsman at Brown-Ketcham Iron Works in Indianapolis, Indiana. He worked in his career in steel and iron for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1904, Martin moved to Los Angeles, where he worked as a superintendent for Carl Leonardt & Company. He next went to work as an engineer for Alfred Rosenheim, Martin formed his own firm, Albert C. Martin & Associates, in 1906. His firm went on to one of the most prominent architectural firms in Los Angeles. On October 16,1907, he and Carolyn E. Borchard were married in Oxnard and they had six children, including architect Albert C. Martin, Jr. who went into business with his father, and J. Edward Martin, Martins notable buildings include, Thomas Higgins Building — Completed in 1911 at 2nd and Main Streets, the 10-story Higgins Building was built by copper tycoon Thomas Higgins.
Early tenants included Clarence Darrow, General Petroleum Corporation and the office of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles. St. Alphonsus Catholic Church — Martin designed this church in Fresno. Million Dollar Theater — While the auditorium was designed by William L. Woollett, the building long housed the original headquarters of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, at 307 South Broadway. St. Vincents Catholic Church — Located in the West Adams district, St. Monica Catholic Church — Built in Santa Monica from 1925 to 1926, this church was featured in the 1944 film classic Going My Way with Bing Crosby. It is the parish of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. The parish hall, built in 1998, was designed by Frank Gehry, Los Angeles City Hall — Martin was one of three prominent local architects, along with John Parkinson and John C. Austin, hired to design what has become the most recognized building in Los Angeles, the selection of an architect for the city hall led to fierce competition among the citys leading architects.
The City Council selected the firm of Curlett and Beelman, but the Board of Public Works opted instead to hire a trio of the top architects in Martin, Parkinson. Controversy continued when the architects turned in drawings for 28-story tower to house a government that could adequately fit into the first four floors
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
Streamline Moderne, or Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. Its architectural style emphasized curving forms, long lines. The first streamline buildings evolved from the work of New Objectivity artists, a movement connected to the German Werkbund, as the Great Depression of the 1930s progressed, Americans saw a new aspect of Art Deco—i. e. Cylindrical forms and long horizontal windowing may be influenced by constructivism, as a result, an array of designers quickly ultra-modernized and streamlined the designs of everyday objects. Manufacturers of clocks, telephones, furniture, the style was the first to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. In the first-class dining room of the SS Normandie, fitted out 1933–35, twelve pillars of Lalique glass. The Streamline Moderne was both a reaction to Art Deco and a reflection of austere economic times, Sharp angles were replaced with simple, exotic woods and stone were replaced with cement and glass.
Art Deco and Streamline Moderne were not necessarily opposites, the Sterling Streamliner Diners were diners designed like streamlined trains. Although Streamline Moderne houses are less common than streamline commercial buildings, the Lydecker House in Los Angeles, built by Howard Lydecker, is an example of Streamline Moderne design in residential architecture. In tract development, elements of the style were used as a variation in postwar row housing in San Franciscos Sunset District. The style was applied to such as electric clocks, sewing machines, small radio receivers. Their manufacturing processes exploited developments in science including aluminium and bakelite. Compared to Europe, the United States in the 1930s had a focus on design as a means to increase sales of consumer products. Streamlining was associated with prosperity and an exciting future and this hope resonated with the American middle class, the major market for consumer products. A wide range of goods from refrigerators to pencil sharpeners was produced in streamlined designs, streamlining became a widespread design practice for automobiles, railroad cars and other vehicles in the 1930s.
Streamline style can be contrasted with functionalism, which was a design style in Europe at the same time. One reason for the designs in functionalism was to lower the production costs of the items. Streamlining and functionalism represent two different schools in modernistic industrial design, but both reflecting the intended consumer
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits, LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States. It attracts nearly a million visitors annually and it holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features film and concert series, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a similar to Lincoln Center. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million, at the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles. When the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, in the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new partially roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museums four buildings. The museums Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001, Nouvel, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind.
However, the project stalled after the museum failed to secure funding. In 2004 LACMAs Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008, the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Pianos plan to unify LACMAs sprawling, the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985
Wilshire Boulevard is one of the principal east-west arterial roads in Los Angeles, California. This road was used by Spanish explorers and settlers, calling it El Camino Viejo. The route that ultimately became Wilshire crossed the original pueblo of Los Angeles and five of the original Spanish land grants, Wilshire was pieced together from various streets over several decades. It began in the 1870s as Nevada Avenue in Santa Monica and Orange were renamed as parts of Wilshire. The boulevard was named for Henry Gaylord Wilshire, an Ohio native who made and lost fortunes in real estate, the road first appeared on a map under its present name in 1895. A historic apartment building on the corner of Wilshire Blvd. and S. Kenmore Ave. the Gaylord, aon Center, at one point Los Angeles largest tower, is at 707 Wilshire Boulevard in downtown Los Angeles. The Wilshire Boulevard home of J. Paul Getty was used as the filmset for the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard, one particularly famous stretch of the boulevard between Fairfax and Highland Avenues is known as the Miracle Mile.
Many of Los Angeles largest museums are located there, the area just to the east of that, between Highland Avenue and Wilton Place, is referred to as the Park Mile. Between Westwood and Holmby Hills, several tall glitzy condominium buildings overlook this part of Wilshire and this section is known as the Wilshire Corridor and Condo Canyon. The Wilshire Corridor, located next to Century City, is one of Los Angeles busiest districts, the Fox and MGM studios are located in a series of skyscrapers, along with many historic Los Angeles hotels. Wilshire Blvd is the street of Los Angeles Koreatown. Koreatown and Mid Wilshire are among Los Angeless densest districts, the construction of the future Purple Line Extension Section 1 commenced in November 2014. The phase two and three of the Purple Line, when completed, will extend to Westwood/VA Hospital. Phase four to Santa Monica Beach are still in the planning stages, Metro Local Line 20, Metro Rapid Line 720, and Santa Monica Transit Line 2 operate along Wilshire Boulevard.
Due to the ridership of line 720, 60-foot NABI articulated buses are used on this route. All of the boulevard is at least four lanes in width, the widest portion is in the business district of central Westwood, where mobs of pedestrians crossing Wilshire at Westwood Boulevard must traverse ten lanes. According to a 1991 study by the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the boulevards widest portion is in Westwood and Holmby Hills, where it expands to six, and briefly, eight lanes. The sections of Wilshire Boulevard in the city of Los Angeles are notorious for their giant potholes, Wilshire Boulevard formerly ended at the MacArthur Park lake, but in 1934 a berm was built for it to cross and link up with the existing Orange Street into downtown Los Angeles