Mayapan was the political and cultural capital of the Maya in the Yucatán Peninsula during the Late Post-Classic period from the 1220s until the 1440s. Estimates of the city population are 15, 000–17,000 persons, and the site has more than 4000 structures within the city walls. The site has been surveyed and excavated by archeological teams, beginning in 1939, five years of work was done by a team in the 1950s. Since 2000, a collaborative Mexican-United States team has been conducting excavations and recovery at the site, Mayapan is 4.2 square kilometers and has over 4000 structures, most of them residences, packed into this compound within the city walls. Built-up areas extend a half kilometer beyond the city walls in all directions, the stone perimeter wall has twelve gates, including seven major gates with vaulted entrances. The wall is 9.1 km long and is ovate with a pointed northeast corner. The ceremonial center of the site is located in Square Q of the grid in the center of the wider western half of the walled enclosure. The ceremonial center has a tightly packed cluster of temples, colonnaded halls, oratories, shrines, sanctuaries, altars, a. L. Smith, an archeologist with the Carnegie Institute, estimated 10–12,000 people lived within the walled city. According to Dr. Bradley Russells survey outside the city walls, there were numerous additional dwellings and his survey results are posted online at www. mayapanperiphery. net. People living outside of the city engaged in agriculture, animal-raising. Russell also found a colonnaded hall outside the city wall, revealing much is still to be discovered regarding the complexity of this urban landscape, the Temple of Kukulcan, a large pyramid also known as the Castillo, is the main temple in Mayapan. It is located immediately to the east of the Cenote Chen Mul, in form, the Temple of Kukulcan is a radial four-staircase temple with nine terraces, it is generally similar to the Temple of Kukulcan at the earlier site of Chichen Itza. However, the Mayapan temple appears to be an imitation of the one at Chichen Itza. For example, most or all of the roofs in Mayapan have collapsed. Other major temples in the center include three round ones, which are unusual for the Maya area and are also linked to the deity Kukulkan/Quetzalcoatl in his wind god aspect. Unlike Chichen Itza, Mayapan has no ballcourts, the houses are often arranged in small patio groups surrounding small courtyards. Houses were built haphazardly without organized streets, lanes wind among the residences and walls. The residential areas of the site contain many cenotes, perhaps as many as 40, Settlement was the most dense in the southwestern part of the city where cenotes are more numerous
Temple of Kukulcan at Mayapan
A panorama of the Mayapan excavations from the top of the Castle of King Kukulcan.
The Temple Redondo with a Mayan carving in the foreground.
This mural partially survives in the Sala de los Frescos in Mayapán. In it appears a solar disk with the figure of a deity, possibly representing one of the transit of Venus that happened in years 1152 or 1275.